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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/10640266.2019.1642036

Emotion regulation and emotional eating in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa

04 Mar 2021-Eating Disorders (Eat Disord)-Vol. 29, Iss: 2, pp 1-17
Abstract: Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) show emotion regulation deficits. While individuals with BN use binge eating to regulate negative affect, individuals with restricting-type AN may use self-starvation for this purpose. The current study examined the emotion regulatory function of over- and undereating in response to different emotional states in women with restrictive AN (n = 54), BN (n = 47), and women without eating disorders (n = 68). Participants completed self-report measures assessing the use of emotion regulation strategies and emotional eating. Both patient groups reported using more dysfunctional and less functional emotion regulation strategies than controls. The BN group reported eating more than usual in response to negative emotions but less than usual in response to positive emotions. In contrast, the AN group reported eating more than usual in response to positive emotions and less than usual in response to negative emotions. More dysfunctional emotion regulation related to eating less in response to negative emotions in the AN group. Less functional emotion regulation related to eating less when being happy in the BN group. The current study highlights the need to differentiate between different eating outcomes and different emotional states when examining emotion effects on food intake.

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Topics: Emotional eating (76%), Binge eating (65%), Bulimia nervosa (64%) ... read more
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.APPET.2020.105038
01 Mar 2021-Appetite
Abstract: Disordered eating includes core eating disorder symptoms present in diverse populations. The extant literature has focused on associations between negative emotional eating and disordered eating to the exclusion of positive emotional eating. Emotion regulation may help explain relationships between emotional eating and disordered eating. Emotion regulation difficulties was examined as a moderator of relationships between negative and positive emotional eating and disordered eating including dietary restraint, eating, weight, and shape concerns, and global scores of disordered eating, a general index of disordered eating. A cross-sectional study was employed using a university student population in the United States. Participants completed surveys assessing negative (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire; Emotional Appetite Questionnaire) and positive (Emotional Appetite Questionnaire) emotional eating, emotion regulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale), and disordered eating (Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire). Moderation analyses were calculated with emotion regulation difficulties as the moderator of relationships between negative and positive emotional eating and disordered eating. Across two separate measures of negative emotional eating, higher negative emotional eating was associated with higher weight concerns and global scores of disordered eating when emotion regulation difficulties was average and increased (+1 SD above average). Higher positive emotional eating was associated with lower dietary restraint and global scores of disordered eating when emotion regulation difficulties was decreased (-1 SD below average). Emotion regulation difficulties strengthened relationships between negative, not positive, emotional eating and disordered eating. Research and clinical implications for the contribution of emotional eating and emotion regulation on disordered eating were discussed.

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Topics: Emotional eating (86%), Disordered eating (86%)

12 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FNBEH.2020.00091
Abstract: In today’s society, obesity rates are rising as food intake is no longer only a response to physiological hunger signals that ensure survival. Eating can represent a reward, a response to boredom, or stress reduction and emotion regulation. While most people decrease food intake in response to stress or negative emotions, some do the opposite. Yet, it is unclear who shows emotional overeating under which circumstances. Emotion regulation theories describe emotional overeating as a learned strategy to down-regulate negative emotions. Cognitive theories, by contrast, attribute emotional overeating to perceived diet breaches in individuals who chronically attempt to diet. After consuming ‘forbidden foods’, they eat more than individuals who do not restrict their food intake. This laboratory study investigated emotional overeating by exposing individuals to a personalized emotion induction while showing images of palatable foods. Outcome variables indexed cue reactivity to food images through picture ratings (valence, desire to eat), facial expressions (electromyography of the corrugator supercilii muscle), and brain reactivity by detecting event-related potentials (ERPs) by means of electroencephalography (EEG). The influence of emotion condition (negative, neutral) and individual differences (self-reported trait emotional and restrained eating) on outcome variables was assessed. Valence ratings and appetitive reactions of the corrugator muscle to food pictures showed a relative increase in the negative condition for individuals with higher emotional eating scores, with the opposite pattern in lower scores. Desire to eat ratings showed a similar pattern in individuals who showed a strong response to the emotion induction manipulation, indicative of a dose-response relationship. Although no differences between conditions were found for ratings or corrugator activity with restrained eating as a predictor, an ERP at P300 showed increased activation when viewing food compared to objects in the negative condition. Findings support emotion regulation theories: Emotional eaters showed an appetitive reaction in rating patterns and corrugator activity. EEG findings (increased P300) suggest a motivated attention towards food in restrained eaters, which supports cognitive theories. However, this did not translate to other variables, which might demonstrate successful restraint. Future studies may follow up on these findings by investigating eating disorders with emotion regulation difficulties.

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Topics: Emotional eating (66%), Overeating (59%), Eating disorders (54%) ... read more

12 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S40337-020-00291-7
Abstract: Orthorexia nervosa (ON) is characterised by an unhealthy obsession with healthy eating and while it is not recognised as an eating disorder (or any disorder), current research is exploring similarities and differences with such disorders. The literature has shown that individuals with eating disorders have difficulties identifying and describing emotions (known as alexithymia) as well as regulating them. However no research to date has looked at whether people with orthorexic tendencies also suffer from difficulties with emotions. In this paper, we refer to people with orthorexic tendencies but do not assume that their healthy eating is at a pathological level needing clinical attention. The current study examined this by asking 196 healthy adults with an interest in healthy eating to complete four questionnaires to measure ON (ORTO-15 – reduced to ORTO-7CS), eating psychopathology (EAT-26), alexithymia (TAS-20) and emotion dysregulation (DERS-16). We found that difficulties identifying and regulating emotions was associated with symptoms of ON, similar to what is found in other eating disorders. We suggest that ON behaviours may be used as a coping strategy in order to feel in control in these participants who have poor emotion regulation abilities. Our results show that individuals with ON tendencies may share similar difficulties with emotions compared to other eating disorders. While important, our results are limited by the way we measured ON behaviours and we recommend that further research replicate our findings once a better and more specific tool is developed and validated to screen for ON characteristics more accurately.

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Topics: Eating disorders (64%), Orthorexia nervosa (63%), Alexithymia (59%)

11 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1017/S0029665120007004
13 May 2020-
Abstract: Emotional eating has traditionally been defined as (over)eating in response to negative emotions. Such overeating can impact general health because of excess energy intake and mental health, due to the risks of developing binge eating. Yet, there is still significant controversy on the validity of the emotional eating concept and several theories compete in explaining its mechanisms. The present paper examines the emotional eating construct by reviewing and integrating recent evidence from psychometric, experimental and naturalistic research. Several psychometric questionnaires are available and some suggest that emotions differ fundamentally in how they affect eating (i.e. overeating, undereating). However, the general validity of such questionnaires in predicting actual food intake in experimental studies is questioned and other eating styles such as restrained eating seem to be better predictors of increased food intake under negative emotions. Also, naturalistic studies, involving the repeated assessment of momentary emotions and eating behaviour in daily life, are split between studies supporting and studies contradicting emotional eating in healthy individuals. Individuals with clinical forms of overeating (i.e. binge eating) consistently show positive relationships between negative emotions and eating in daily life. We will conclude with a summary of the controversies around the emotional eating construct and provide recommendations for future research and treatment development.

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Topics: Emotional eating (86%), Binge eating (80%), Overeating (66%)

7 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.APPET.2020.104659
12 Mar 2020-Appetite
Abstract: Individuals who struggle with binge eating often report a history of trauma and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), but there is still a paucity of studies on the relationship between PTSS (as opposed to trauma exposure) and binge eating specifically. The current study aimed to contribute to a small body of literature surrounding the link between PTSS and binge eating. Binge eating may be a behavioral coping mechanism against negative affect; however, it has been proposed that additional psychological mechanisms (e.g. emotion regulation difficulties and emotional eating) may explain the link between PTSS and binge eating. It was hypothesized that increased PTSS severity would predict greater emotion regulation difficulties, leading to greater emotional eating, and ultimately predict more severe binge eating in a trauma-exposed sample. Cross-sectional data were collected from 360 U.S. based MTurk workers (i.e. convenience sample) who reported trauma-exposure. Demographic and relevant covariates were included in the hypothesized serial mediation model and the results suggest a significant effect of PTSS severity on binge eating problems through emotion regulation difficulties and emotional eating. When both mediators were included in the model, the direct effect of PTSS on binge eating severity was no longer significant; thus, the association between PTSS and binge eating was partly explained by emotion regulation difficulties and emotional eating. This study expands the understanding of the mechanisms underlying PTSS and binge eating and provides support for complementing therapy approaches for PTSS with methods that target emotion regulation and acceptance.

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Topics: Binge eating (76%), Emotional eating (74%)

6 Citations


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39 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/014662167700100306
Lenore Sawyer Radloff1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The CES-D scale is a short self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptomatology in the general population. The items of the scale are symptoms associated with depression which have been used in previously validated longer scales. The new scale was tested in household interview surveys and in psychiatric settings. It was found to have very high internal consistency and adequate test- retest repeatability. Validity was established by pat terns of correlations with other self-report measures, by correlations with clinical ratings of depression, and by relationships with other variables which support its construct validity. Reliability, validity, and factor structure were similar across a wide variety of demographic characteristics in the general population samples tested. The scale should be a useful tool for epidemiologic studies of de pression.

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44,791 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348
James J. Gross1, Oliver P. John2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Five studies tested two general hypotheses: Individuals differ in their use of emotion regulation strategies such as reappraisal and suppression, and these individual differences have implications for affect, well-being, and social relationships. Study 1 presents new measures of the habitual use of reappraisal and suppression. Study 2 examines convergent and discriminant validity. Study 3 shows that reappraisers experience and express greater positive emotion and lesser negative emotion, whereas suppressors experience and express lesser positive emotion, yet experience greater negative emotion. Study 4 indicates that using reappraisal is associated with better interpersonal functioning, whereas using suppression is associated with worse interpersonal functioning. Study 5 shows that using reappraisal is related positively to well-being, whereas using suppression is related negatively.

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6,910 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1540-5834.1994.TB01276.X
Ross A. Thompson1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Contemporary interest in emotion regulation promises to advance important new views of emotional development as well as offering applications to developmental psychopathology, but these potential contributions are contingent on developmentalists' attention to some basic definitional issues. This essay offers a perspective on these issues by considering how emotion regulation should be defined, the various components of the management of emotion, how emotion regulation strategies fit into the dynamics of social interaction, and how individual differences in emotion regulation should be conceptualized and measured. In the end, it seems clear that emotion regulation is a conceptual rubric for a remarkable range of developmental processes, each of which may have its own catalysts and control processes. Likewise, individual differences in emotion regulation skills likely have multifaceted origins and are also related in complex ways to the person's emotional goals and the immediate demands of the situation. Assessment approaches that focus on the dynamics of emotion are well suited to elucidating these complex developmental and individual differences. In sum, a challenging research agenda awaits those who enter this promising field of study.

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Topics: Interpersonal emotion regulation (74%), Emotion work (67%), Affective science (63%) ... read more

2,680 Citations


Open access
James J. Gross1, Ross A. Thompson2Institutions (2)
01 Jan 2007-

2,662 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1098/RSTB.2004.1512
Barbara L. Fredrickson1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The broaden-and-build theory describes the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment and love. A key proposition is that these positive emotions broaden an individual's momentary thought-action repertoire: joy sparks the urge to play, interest sparks the urge to explore, contentment sparks the urge to savour and integrate, and love sparks a recurring cycle of each of these urges within safe, close relationships. The broadened mindsets arising from these positive emotions are contrasted to the narrowed mindsets sparked by many negative emotions (i.e. specific action tendencies, such as attack or flee). A second key proposition concerns the consequences of these broadened mindsets: by broadening an individual's momentary thought-action repertoire--whether through play, exploration or similar activities--positive emotions promote discovery of novel and creative actions, ideas and social bonds, which in turn build that individual's personal resources; ranging from physical and intellectual resources, to social and psychological resources. Importantly, these resources function as reserves that can be drawn on later to improve the odds of successful coping and survival. This chapter reviews the latest empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory and draws out implications the theory holds for optimizing health and well-being.

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Topics: Broaden-and-build (60%), Well-being (51%), Contentment (51%)

1,830 Citations


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No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
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