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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3064073

Enabling Large Intelligent Surfaces With Compressive Sensing and Deep Learning

04 Mar 2021-IEEE Access (IEEE)-Vol. 9, pp 44304-44321
Abstract: Employing large intelligent surfaces (LISs) is a promising solution for improving the coverage and rate of future wireless systems. These surfaces comprise massive numbers of nearly-passive elements that interact with the incident signals, for example by reflecting them, in a smart way that improves the wireless system performance. Prior work focused on the design of the LIS reflection matrices assuming full channel knowledge. Estimating these channels at the LIS, however, is a key challenging problem. With the massive number of LIS elements, channel estimation or reflection beam training will be associated with (i) huge training overhead if all the LIS elements are passive (not connected to a baseband) or with (ii) prohibitive hardware complexity and power consumption if all the elements are connected to the baseband through a fully-digital or hybrid analog/digital architecture. This paper proposes efficient solutions for these problems by leveraging tools from compressive sensing and deep learning. First, a novel LIS architecture based on sparse channel sensors is proposed. In this architecture, all the LIS elements are passive except for a few elements that are active (connected to the baseband). We then develop two solutions that design the LIS reflection matrices with negligible training overhead. In the first approach, we leverage compressive sensing tools to construct the channels at all the LIS elements from the channels seen only at the active elements. In the second approach, we develop a deep-learning based solution where the LIS learns how to interact with the incident signal given the channels at the active elements, which represent the state of the environment and transmitter/receiver locations. We show that the achievable rates of the proposed solutions approach the upper bound, which assumes perfect channel knowledge, with negligible training overhead and with only a few active elements, making them promising for future LIS systems.

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Topics: Communication channel (52%), Overhead (computing) (52%), Baseband (51%)
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271 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/JSAC.2020.3007211
Abstract: Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) are an emerging transmission technology for application to wireless communications. RISs can be realized in different ways, which include (i) large arrays of inexpensive antennas that are usually spaced half of the wavelength apart; and (ii) metamaterial-based planar or conformal large surfaces whose scattering elements have sizes and inter-distances much smaller than the wavelength. Compared with other transmission technologies, e.g., phased arrays, multi-antenna transmitters, and relays, RISs require the largest number of scattering elements, but each of them needs to be backed by the fewest and least costly components. Also, no power amplifiers are usually needed. For these reasons, RISs constitute a promising software-defined architecture that can be realized at reduced cost, size, weight, and power (C-SWaP design), and are regarded as an enabling technology for realizing the emerging concept of smart radio environments (SREs). In this paper, we (i) introduce the emerging research field of RIS-empowered SREs; (ii) overview the most suitable applications of RISs in wireless networks; (iii) present an electromagnetic-based communication-theoretic framework for analyzing and optimizing metamaterial-based RISs; (iv) provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of research; and (v) discuss the most important research issues to tackle. Owing to the interdisciplinary essence of RIS-empowered SREs, finally, we put forth the need of reconciling and reuniting C. E. Shannon’s mathematical theory of communication with G. Green’s and J. C. Maxwell’s mathematical theories of electromagnetism for appropriately modeling, analyzing, optimizing, and deploying future wireless networks empowered by RISs.

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521 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Qingqing Wu1, Rui Zhang1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Although the fifth-generation (5G) technologies will significantly improve the spectrum and energy efficiency of today's wireless communication networks, their high complexity and hardware cost as well as increasingly more energy consumption are still crucial issues to be solved. Furthermore, despite that such technologies are generally capable of adapting to the space and time varying wireless environment, the signal propagation over it is essentially random and largely uncontrollable. Recently, intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) has been proposed as a revolutionizing solution to address this open issue, by smartly reconfiguring the wireless propagation environment with the use of massive low-cost, passive, reflective elements integrated on a planar surface. Specifically, different elements of an IRS can independently reflect the incident signal by controlling its amplitude and/or phase and thereby collaboratively achieve fine-grained three-dimensional (3D) passive beamforming for signal enhancement or cancellation. In this article, we provide an overview of the IRS technology, including its main applications in wireless communication, competitive advantages over existing technologies, hardware architecture as well as the corresponding new signal model. We focus on the key challenges in designing and implementing the new IRS-aided hybrid (with both active and passive components) wireless network, as compared to the traditional network comprising active components only. Furthermore, numerical results are provided to show the potential for significant performance enhancement with the use of IRS in typical wireless network scenarios.

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Topics: Wireless network (63%), Wireless (54%), Hardware architecture (53%) ... show more

474 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TWC.2020.2990766
Cunhua Pan1, Hong Ren1, Kezhi Wang2, Wei Xu3  +3 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRSs) constitute a disruptive wireless communication technique capable of creating a controllable propagation environment. In this paper, we propose to invoke an IRS at the cell boundary of multiple cells to assist the downlink transmission to cell-edge users, whilst mitigating the inter-cell interference, which is a crucial issue in multicell communication systems. We aim for maximizing the weighted sum rate (WSR) of all users through jointly optimizing the active precoding matrices at the base stations (BSs) and the phase shifts at the IRS subject to each BS’s power constraint and unit modulus constraint. Both the BSs and the users are equipped with multiple antennas, which enhances the spectral efficiency by exploiting the spatial multiplexing gain. Due to the non-convexity of the problem, we first reformulate it into an equivalent one, which is solved by using the block coordinate descent (BCD) algorithm, where the precoding matrices and phase shifts are alternately optimized. The optimal precoding matrices can be obtained in closed form, when fixing the phase shifts. A pair of efficient algorithms are proposed for solving the phase shift optimization problem, namely the Majorization-Minimization (MM) Algorithm and the Complex Circle Manifold (CCM) Method. Both algorithms are guaranteed to converge to at least locally optimal solutions. We also extend the proposed algorithms to the more general multiple-IRS and network MIMO scenarios. Finally, our simulation results confirm the advantages of introducing IRSs in enhancing the cell-edge user performance.

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Topics: Precoding (58%), MIMO (56%), Communications system (52%) ... show more

391 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/JSAC.2020.3000802
Cunhua Pan1, Hong Ren1, Kezhi Wang2, Maged Elkashlan1  +3 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: An intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) is invoked for enhancing the energy harvesting performance of a simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) aided system. Specifically, an IRS-assisted SWIPT system is considered, where a multi-antenna aided base station (BS) communicates with several multi-antenna assisted information receivers (IRs), while guaranteeing the energy harvesting requirement of the energy receivers (ERs). To maximize the weighted sum rate (WSR) of IRs, the transmit precoding (TPC) matrices of the BS and passive phase shift matrix of the IRS should be jointly optimized. To tackle this challenging optimization problem, we first adopt the classic block coordinate descent (BCD) algorithm for decoupling the original optimization problem into several subproblems and alternately optimize the TPC matrices and the phase shift matrix. For each subproblem, we provide a low-complexity iterative algorithm, which is guaranteed to converge to the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) point of each subproblem. The BCD algorithm is rigorously proved to converge to the KKT point of the original problem. We also conceive a feasibility checking method to study its feasibility. Our extensive simulation results confirm that employing IRSs in SWIPT beneficially enhances the system performance and the proposed BCD algorithm converges rapidly, which is appealing for practical applications.

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Topics: Precoding (53%), Optimization problem (51%), Coordinate descent (51%) ... show more

306 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TWC.2020.3024887
Wankai Tang1, Ming Zheng Chen1, Xiangyu Chen1, Jun Yan Dai1  +6 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) comprised of tunable unit cells have recently drawn significant attention due to their superior capability in manipulating electromagnetic waves. In particular, RIS-assisted wireless communications have the great potential to achieve significant performance improvement and coverage enhancement in a cost-effective and energy-efficient manner, by properly programming the reflection coefficients of the unit cells of RISs. In this article, free-space path loss models for RIS-assisted wireless communications are developed for different scenarios by studying the physics and electromagnetic nature of RISs. The proposed models, which are first validated through extensive simulation results, reveal the relationships between the free-space path loss of RIS-assisted wireless communications and the distances from the transmitter/receiver to the RIS, the size of the RIS, the near-field/far-field effects of the RIS, and the radiation patterns of antennas and unit cells. In addition, three fabricated RISs (metasurfaces) are utilized to further corroborate the theoretical findings through experimental measurements conducted in a microwave anechoic chamber. The measurement results match well with the modeling results, thus validating the proposed free-space path loss models for RISs, which may pave the way for further theoretical studies and practical applications in this field.

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Topics: Path loss (56%), Wireless (52%), Transmitter (50%)

275 Citations


References
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45 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.5555/70405.70408
01 Jul 1989-Neural Networks

9,800 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TIT.2004.834793
Joel A. Tropp1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This article presents new results on using a greedy algorithm, orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), to solve the sparse approximation problem over redundant dictionaries. It provides a sufficient condition under which both OMP and Donoho's basis pursuit (BP) paradigm can recover the optimal representation of an exactly sparse signal. It leverages this theory to show that both OMP and BP succeed for every sparse input signal from a wide class of dictionaries. These quasi-incoherent dictionaries offer a natural generalization of incoherent dictionaries, and the cumulative coherence function is introduced to quantify the level of incoherence. This analysis unifies all the recent results on BP and extends them to OMP. Furthermore, the paper develops a sufficient condition under which OMP can identify atoms from an optimal approximation of a nonsparse signal. From there, it argues that OMP is an approximation algorithm for the sparse problem over a quasi-incoherent dictionary. That is, for every input signal, OMP calculates a sparse approximant whose error is only a small factor worse than the minimal error that can be attained with the same number of terms.

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Topics: Sparse approximation (64%), Matching pursuit (57%), Basis pursuit (54%) ... show more

3,636 Citations


Open accessBook
Li Deng1, Dong Yu1Institutions (1)
12 Jun 2014-
Abstract: This monograph provides an overview of general deep learning methodology and its applications to a variety of signal and information processing tasks. The application areas are chosen with the following three criteria in mind: (1) expertise or knowledge of the authors; (2) the application areas that have already been transformed by the successful use of deep learning technology, such as speech recognition and computer vision; and (3) the application areas that have the potential to be impacted significantly by deep learning and that have been experiencing research growth, including natural language and text processing, information retrieval, and multimodal information processing empowered by multi-task deep learning.

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Topics: Unsupervised learning (56%), Multi-task learning (55%), Deep learning (54%) ... show more

2,247 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/49.761034
R.H. Walden1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are ubiquitous, critical components of software radio and other signal processing systems. This paper surveys the state-of-the-art of ADCs, including experimental converters and commercially available parts. The distribution of resolution versus sampling rate provides insight into ADC performance limitations. At sampling rates below 2 million samples per second (Gs/s), resolution appears to be limited by thermal noise. At sampling rates ranging from /spl sim/2 Ms/s to /spl sim/4 giga samples per second (Gs/s), resolution falls off by /spl sim/1 bit for every doubling of the sampling rate. This behavior may be attributed to uncertainty in the sampling instant due to aperture jitter. For ADCs operating at multi-Gs/s rates, the speed of the device technology is also a limiting factor due to comparator ambiguity. Many ADC architectures and integrated circuit technologies have been proposed and implemented to push back these limits. The trend toward single-chip ADCs brings lower power dissipation. However, technological progress as measured by the product of the ADC resolution (bits) times the sampling rate is slow. Average improvement is only /spl sim/1.5 bits for any given sampling frequency over the last six-eight years.

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2,052 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/JSTSP.2014.2334278
Abstract: Millimeter wave (mmWave) cellular systems will enable gigabit-per-second data rates thanks to the large bandwidth available at mmWave frequencies. To realize sufficient link margin, mmWave systems will employ directional beamforming with large antenna arrays at both the transmitter and receiver. Due to the high cost and power consumption of gigasample mixed-signal devices, mmWave precoding will likely be divided among the analog and digital domains. The large number of antennas and the presence of analog beamforming requires the development of mmWave-specific channel estimation and precoding algorithms. This paper develops an adaptive algorithm to estimate the mmWave channel parameters that exploits the poor scattering nature of the channel. To enable the efficient operation of this algorithm, a novel hierarchical multi-resolution codebook is designed to construct training beamforming vectors with different beamwidths. For single-path channels, an upper bound on the estimation error probability using the proposed algorithm is derived, and some insights into the efficient allocation of the training power among the adaptive stages of the algorithm are obtained. The adaptive channel estimation algorithm is then extended to the multi-path case relying on the sparse nature of the channel. Using the estimated channel, this paper proposes a new hybrid analog/digital precoding algorithm that overcomes the hardware constraints on the analog-only beamforming, and approaches the performance of digital solutions. Simulation results show that the proposed low-complexity channel estimation algorithm achieves comparable precoding gains compared to exhaustive channel training algorithms. The results illustrate that the proposed channel estimation and precoding algorithms can approach the coverage probability achieved by perfect channel knowledge even in the presence of interference.

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Topics: Precoding (71%), Zero-forcing precoding (67%), Communication channel (56%) ... show more

1,916 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
2021125
2020116
201930