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Journal ArticleDOI

Enamel susceptibility to red wine staining after 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching

01 May 2008-Journal of Applied Oral Science (USP)-Vol. 16, Iss: 3, pp 201-204

TL;DR: Results suggested that wine staining susceptibility was increased by bleaching treatments, and the amount of wine pigments uptake by enamel submitted toBleaching treatments was statistically higher than that of control group, independently of the evaluation time.

AbstractConcern has been expressed regarding the staining of enamel surface by different beverages after bleaching. This study investigated the influence of 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents on enamel surface stained with wine after whitening treatments. Flat and polished bovine enamel surfaces were submitted to two commercially available 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents or kept in 100% humidity, as a control group (n = 10). Specimens of all groups were immersed in red wine for 48 h at 37°C, immediately, 24 h or 1 week after treatments. All specimens were ground into powder and prepared for the spectrophotometric analysis. Data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance and Fisher's PLSD test at 5% significance level. The amount of wine pigments uptake by enamel submitted to bleaching treatments was statistically higher than that of control group, independently of the evaluation time. Results suggested that wine staining susceptibility was increased by bleaching treatments.

Topics: Enamel paint (58%), Wine (53%), Hydrogen peroxide (52%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Three-electrode plasma jet system consisting of a perforated dielectric tube with two outer and one floating inner electrodes was developed and employed for tooth bleaching. Lowered gas breakdown voltage and increased discharge current were achieved by using the floating inner electrode. Optical emission spectra analysis showed that the rotational temperature of the second positive nitrogen bands was ≈290 K and vibrational temperature was ≈2 500 K, which means this plasma is in highly non-quilibrium state and nonthermal. The presence of excited He, N2, N and O in the plasma plume was revealed. The plasma jet was used in combination with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to remove stains from extracted teeth stained by either coffee or red wine. Combining the plasma jet and H2O2 improved the bleaching efficacy by a factor of 3.1 (coffee) and 3.7 (red wine) compared with using H2O2 alone.

147 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The NAPP has a greater capability for effective tooth bleaching than conventional light sources with a low concentration of HP without causing thermal damage and can become a major technique for in-office bleaching in the near future.
Abstract: Light-activated tooth bleaching with a high hydrogen peroxide (HP; H2O2) concentration has risks and the actual role of the light source is doubtful. The use of conventional light might result in an increase in the temperature and cause thermal damage to the health of the tooth tissue. Objective This study investigated the efficacy of tooth bleaching using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NAPP) with 15% carbamide peroxide (CP; CH6N2O3) including 5.4% HP, as compared with conventional light sources. Material and Methods Forty human teeth were randomly divided into four groups: Group I (CP+NAPP), Group II (CP+plasma arc lamp; PAC), Group III (CP+diode laser), and Group IV (CP alone). Color changes (∆E) of the tooth and tooth surface temperatures were measured. Data were evaluated by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Tukey's tests. Results Group I showed the highest bleaching efficacy, with a ∆E value of 1.92-, 2.61 and 2.97-fold greater than those of Groups II, III and IV, respectively (P<0.05). The tooth surface temperature was maintained around 37°C in Group I, but it reached 43°C in Groups II and III. Conclusions The NAPP has a greater capability for effective tooth bleaching than conventional light sources with a low concentration of HP without causing thermal damage. Tooth bleaching using NAPP can become a major technique for in-office bleaching in the near future.

63 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The application of nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma to intracoronal bleaching could be a novel and efficient therapy in the bleaching of haemorrhagically stained teeth.
Abstract: Student’s t-test to determine the significant differences. Results The temperature of all teeth was maintained at approximately 37 � C during plasma bleaching. The plasma treatment with 30% HP resulted in significantly higher bleaching efficacy compared to 30% HP alone in discoloured teeth (P < 0.05). The average DE values of group 1 and group 2 were 9.24 (0.37) and 4.47 (1.62), respectively, at 30 min. Conclusions The application of nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma to intracoronal bleaching could be a novel and efficient therapy in the bleaching of haemorrhagically stained teeth.

52 citations


Cites background from "Enamel susceptibility to red wine s..."

  • ...HP is highly effective at removing chromgens deposited on enamel and dentine of teeth (Berger et al. 2008)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Exposure to coffee during bleaching treatment does not seem to affect the degree of bleaching and tooth sensitivity, and effective bleaching was observed for both groups after three weeks, without statistical difference.
Abstract: Clinical Relevance Coffee consumption during bleaching did not affect the effectiveness of dental bleaching.

50 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Bleached enamel was susceptible to red-wine staining at both 30 and 150 min after bleaching procedures, whereas coffee did not interfere with the bleaching process.
Abstract: Objective: This study aimed to investigate bleached enamel susceptibility to coffee and red-wine staining at different time periods after bleaching. Background data: Although hydrogen peroxide is effective for dental bleaching, little is known regarding color stability immediately after bleaching. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four standardized bovine enamel slabs were obtained and assigned to the following treatments (n = 9): (CO) control: sound enamel surface submitted only to bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP); (C30’) enamel submitted to HP and coffee immersion at 30 min after bleaching; (C150’) enamel submitted to HP and coffee immersion at 150 min after bleaching; (W30’) enamel submitted to HP and red-wine immersion at 30 min after bleaching; and (W150’) enamel submitted to HP and red-wine immersion at 150 min after bleaching. The color of treated enamel was determined by means of photoreflectance spectroscopy at baseline (T0) and after the described treatments (Tf), and data were stat...

44 citations


Cites background from "Enamel susceptibility to red wine s..."

  • ...Conversely, dental professionals should advise their patients with regard to consuming acidic and colored food and beverages immediately after bleaching.(17,24) Because enamel was susceptible to red-wine staining at 30 and 150 min after bleaching in vitro, further experiments in situ and clinical protocols should be performed to evaluate the different periods after bleaching, to suggest a precise elapsed time to prevent enamel pigmentation....

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  • ...Enamel demineralization with loss of calcium and phosphorus, promoted by bleaching, could increase enamel porosity, and consequently, provide a more-susceptible surface for staining.(8,14,17) Although it has been suggested that bleached enamel is more susceptible to staining, because of the effects of the hydrogen peroxide itself, associated with the inherent rough enamel surface, little information is available regarding the time after bleaching that is necessary to avoid restaining of the enamel surface....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The bond strengths of the self-etching systems, LBII and MBII, had significantly lower bond strengths to intact enamel than the bonding systems OS and SB using phosphoric acid etching, and FE-SEM revealed that the etching pattern of self- fetching primers was not deep enough to obtain good penetration of bonding resin when applied to intactEnamel surfaces.
Abstract: Objectives : The aim of this study was to evaluate the bonding of four commercially available adhesive systems to ground and intact enamel surfaces. Methods : Extracted human teeth were used to measure the microtensile bond strength to enamel and a field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to observe the bonded interface and the effect of the surface conditioning of each material. Intact buccal enamel surfaces were cleansed with tooth paste using a rotary dental brush, and the ground enamel surfaces were prepared by reducing approximately 0.5 mm from the buccal enamel surfaces using a high-speed diamond bur. One-Step (OS, Bisco), Single Bond (SB, 3M), Clearfil Liner Bond II (LBII, Kuraray), and Tokuso Mac Bond II (MBII, Tokuso) were evaluated for their ability to bond to enamel. Results : There was no significant difference in bond strengths between the materials when they were applied to ground enamel surfaces ( p >0.05). However, the bond strengths of the self-etching systems, LBII and MBII, had significantly lower bond strengths to intact enamel than the bonding systems OS and SB using phosphoric acid etching ( p Conclusions : Phosphoric acid etching produced good resin adhesion to ground and intact enamel. The self-etching/self-priming systems also produced good adhesion to ground enamel, but had lower bond strengths to intact enamel.

325 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is hypothesized that the peroxide-containing bleaching agents affect the organic phase of enamel, and inner oxidative effects are more likely to occur in the subsurface enamel where more organic material is present and oxidation is capable of altering the outer enamel and the surface.
Abstract: Objectives : The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of three peroxide-containing bleaching agents, Opalescence, Nite White and a 30% hydrogen peroxide solution, on enamel surfaces using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Methods : Fifteen non-carious human incisors (ten maxillary and five mandibular, extracted for periodontal reasons) were used. The teeth were divided randomly into three groups of five, according to the bleaching agents. The labial surface of each tooth was imaged by AFM before and after treatment. Each bleaching agent was applied for a total of 28 h (in individual 4 h treatments). The specimens were examined only after 28 h of treatment. Results : On comparing the AFM images of untreated and treated enamel, surface alterations were observed after 28 h of treatment with Opalescence, Nite White and 30% hydrogen peroxide solution. Several grooves present in the enamel surface of untreated teeth became deeper after the bleaching procedure. The depths of the grooves increased in each case. The increase in the depth of grooves was more pronounced in the case of the 30% H 2 O 2 solution. Conclusion : Home-use bleaching agents are capable of causing enamel surface alterations. It is hypothesized that the peroxide-containing bleaching agents affect the organic phase of enamel. Peroxides can affect not only the surface but also the inner structure of enamel. As a result of its low molecular weight, hydrogen peroxide can penetrate into the enamel. Thus, inner oxidative effects are more likely to occur in the subsurface enamel where more organic material is present and oxidation is capable of altering the outer enamel and the surface.

292 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that bleaching materials may adversely affect the dental hard tissues and should be used with caution.
Abstract: The effect of commonly used bleaching materials on the dental hard tissues was tested in extracted human premolars. In each tooth, the apical two-thirds of the root was removed, and the remaining tooth stump was cut longitudinally into two equal segments. The segments were cleaned, dried, and divided into six experimental groups. Each group was treated with one of the following bleaching materials: 30% hydrogen peroxide (HP), 10% carbamide peroxide (CP), sodium perborate (SP), Nu-Smile (NS), Opalescence (Op), and DentlBright (DB). Treatment consisted of immersing the specimens in the respective test material followed by incubation at 37°C for 7 days. The levels of calcium, phosphorus, sulfur, and potassium were measured in the enamel, dentin, and cementum. In the enamel, a significant reduction in the calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio was found following treatment with HP. In the dentin, a significant reduction in Ca/P ratio was found following treatment with HP, CP, DB, and Op. In the cementum, a significant reduction in the Ca/P ratio was found following treatment with HP, CP, NS, and Op. Changes in sulfur and potassium levels also occurred, but were usually not statistically significant. Significant reduction in sulfur levels occurred only in the cementum following treatment with CP and SP. Sulfur levels increased significantly following treatment with NS. Significant reduction in potassium levels occurred only in the dentin following treatment with CP. It is concluded that bleaching materials may adversely affect the dental hard tissues and should be used with caution.

279 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It was concluded that bleaching agents can alter the microhardness, roughness and morphology of dental enamel surface.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness, microhardness and morphology of human enamel exposed to six bleaching agents (at baseline and post-treatment). Human dental enamel samples were obtained from human third molars and randomly divided into seven groups (n = 11): control, Whiteness Perfect--10% carbamide peroxide (10% CP), Colgate Platinum--10% CP, Day White 2Z--7.5% hydrogen peroxide (7.5% HP), Whiteness Super--3% CP, Opalescence Quick--35% CP and Whiteness HP--35% HP. Bleaching agents were applied according to manufacturers' instructions. The control group remained not treated and stored in artificial saliva. Microhardness testing was performed with a Knoop indentor and surface roughness was analyzed with a profilometer. Morphologic observations were carried out with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results were statistically analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (5%), and revealed a significant decrease in microhardness values and a significant increase in surface roughness post-bleaching. Changes in enamel morphology after bleaching were observed under SEM. It was concluded that bleaching agents can alter the microhardness, roughness and morphology of dental enamel surface.

224 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The apparent fracture toughness of enamel was reduced by about 30% after bleaching for a period of 12 hours with no significant change in surface hardness.
Abstract: The application of home-bleaching procedures as a means of lightening multiple teeth has become increasingly popular. Very few studies, however, have determined the effect of this treatment upon dental hard tissues. This in vitro study evaluated the effects of a 10% carbamide peroxide gel on the apparent fracture toughness, hardness, and abrasion characteristics of human enamel. The apparent fracture toughness of enamel was reduced by about 30% after bleaching for a period of 12 hours with no significant change in surface hardness. Enamel treated with the bleaching gels also exhibited a small but significant decrease in abrasion resistance. This behavior was most likely due to an alteration of the organic matrix of enamel under the chemical action of hydrogen peroxide. Further investigation of the clinical significance of this process is needed.

215 citations