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Journal ArticleDOI

Enamel susceptibility to red wine staining after 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching

TL;DR: Results suggested that wine staining susceptibility was increased by bleaching treatments, and the amount of wine pigments uptake by enamel submitted toBleaching treatments was statistically higher than that of control group, independently of the evaluation time.
Abstract: Concern has been expressed regarding the staining of enamel surface by different beverages after bleaching. This study investigated the influence of 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents on enamel surface stained with wine after whitening treatments. Flat and polished bovine enamel surfaces were submitted to two commercially available 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents or kept in 100% humidity, as a control group (n = 10). Specimens of all groups were immersed in red wine for 48 h at 37°C, immediately, 24 h or 1 week after treatments. All specimens were ground into powder and prepared for the spectrophotometric analysis. Data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance and Fisher's PLSD test at 5% significance level. The amount of wine pigments uptake by enamel submitted to bleaching treatments was statistically higher than that of control group, independently of the evaluation time. Results suggested that wine staining susceptibility was increased by bleaching treatments.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A three-electrode plasma jet system consisting of a perforated dielectric tube with two outer and one floating inner electrodes was developed and employed for tooth bleaching as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Three-electrode plasma jet system consisting of a perforated dielectric tube with two outer and one floating inner electrodes was developed and employed for tooth bleaching. Lowered gas breakdown voltage and increased discharge current were achieved by using the floating inner electrode. Optical emission spectra analysis showed that the rotational temperature of the second positive nitrogen bands was ≈290 K and vibrational temperature was ≈2 500 K, which means this plasma is in highly non-quilibrium state and nonthermal. The presence of excited He, N2, N and O in the plasma plume was revealed. The plasma jet was used in combination with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to remove stains from extracted teeth stained by either coffee or red wine. Combining the plasma jet and H2O2 improved the bleaching efficacy by a factor of 3.1 (coffee) and 3.7 (red wine) compared with using H2O2 alone.

164 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The NAPP has a greater capability for effective tooth bleaching than conventional light sources with a low concentration of HP without causing thermal damage and can become a major technique for in-office bleaching in the near future.
Abstract: Light-activated tooth bleaching with a high hydrogen peroxide (HP; H2O2) concentration has risks and the actual role of the light source is doubtful. The use of conventional light might result in an increase in the temperature and cause thermal damage to the health of the tooth tissue. Objective This study investigated the efficacy of tooth bleaching using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NAPP) with 15% carbamide peroxide (CP; CH6N2O3) including 5.4% HP, as compared with conventional light sources. Material and Methods Forty human teeth were randomly divided into four groups: Group I (CP+NAPP), Group II (CP+plasma arc lamp; PAC), Group III (CP+diode laser), and Group IV (CP alone). Color changes (∆E) of the tooth and tooth surface temperatures were measured. Data were evaluated by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Tukey's tests. Results Group I showed the highest bleaching efficacy, with a ∆E value of 1.92-, 2.61 and 2.97-fold greater than those of Groups II, III and IV, respectively (P<0.05). The tooth surface temperature was maintained around 37°C in Group I, but it reached 43°C in Groups II and III. Conclusions The NAPP has a greater capability for effective tooth bleaching than conventional light sources with a low concentration of HP without causing thermal damage. Tooth bleaching using NAPP can become a major technique for in-office bleaching in the near future.

69 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The application of nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma to intracoronal bleaching could be a novel and efficient therapy in the bleaching of haemorrhagically stained teeth.
Abstract: Student’s t-test to determine the significant differences. Results The temperature of all teeth was maintained at approximately 37 � C during plasma bleaching. The plasma treatment with 30% HP resulted in significantly higher bleaching efficacy compared to 30% HP alone in discoloured teeth (P < 0.05). The average DE values of group 1 and group 2 were 9.24 (0.37) and 4.47 (1.62), respectively, at 30 min. Conclusions The application of nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma to intracoronal bleaching could be a novel and efficient therapy in the bleaching of haemorrhagically stained teeth.

62 citations


Cites background from "Enamel susceptibility to red wine s..."

  • ...HP is highly effective at removing chromgens deposited on enamel and dentine of teeth (Berger et al. 2008)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Exposure to coffee during bleaching treatment does not seem to affect the degree of bleaching and tooth sensitivity, and effective bleaching was observed for both groups after three weeks, without statistical difference.
Abstract: Clinical Relevance Coffee consumption during bleaching did not affect the effectiveness of dental bleaching.

55 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Bleached enamel was susceptible to red-wine staining at both 30 and 150 min after bleaching procedures, whereas coffee did not interfere with the bleaching process.
Abstract: Objective: This study aimed to investigate bleached enamel susceptibility to coffee and red-wine staining at different time periods after bleaching. Background data: Although hydrogen peroxide is effective for dental bleaching, little is known regarding color stability immediately after bleaching. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four standardized bovine enamel slabs were obtained and assigned to the following treatments (n = 9): (CO) control: sound enamel surface submitted only to bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP); (C30’) enamel submitted to HP and coffee immersion at 30 min after bleaching; (C150’) enamel submitted to HP and coffee immersion at 150 min after bleaching; (W30’) enamel submitted to HP and red-wine immersion at 30 min after bleaching; and (W150’) enamel submitted to HP and red-wine immersion at 150 min after bleaching. The color of treated enamel was determined by means of photoreflectance spectroscopy at baseline (T0) and after the described treatments (Tf), and data were stat...

51 citations


Cites background from "Enamel susceptibility to red wine s..."

  • ...Conversely, dental professionals should advise their patients with regard to consuming acidic and colored food and beverages immediately after bleaching.(17,24) Because enamel was susceptible to red-wine staining at 30 and 150 min after bleaching in vitro, further experiments in situ and clinical protocols should be performed to evaluate the different periods after bleaching, to suggest a precise elapsed time to prevent enamel pigmentation....

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  • ...Enamel demineralization with loss of calcium and phosphorus, promoted by bleaching, could increase enamel porosity, and consequently, provide a more-susceptible surface for staining.(8,14,17) Although it has been suggested that bleached enamel is more susceptible to staining, because of the effects of the hydrogen peroxide itself, associated with the inherent rough enamel surface, little information is available regarding the time after bleaching that is necessary to avoid restaining of the enamel surface....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The bond strengths of the self-etching systems, LBII and MBII, had significantly lower bond strengths to intact enamel than the bonding systems OS and SB using phosphoric acid etching, and FE-SEM revealed that the etching pattern of self- fetching primers was not deep enough to obtain good penetration of bonding resin when applied to intactEnamel surfaces.

327 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is hypothesized that the peroxide-containing bleaching agents affect the organic phase of enamel, and inner oxidative effects are more likely to occur in the subsurface enamel where more organic material is present and oxidation is capable of altering the outer enamel and the surface.

312 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that bleaching materials may adversely affect the dental hard tissues and should be used with caution.

294 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It was concluded that bleaching agents can alter the microhardness, roughness and morphology of dental enamel surface.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness, microhardness and morphology of human enamel exposed to six bleaching agents (at baseline and post-treatment). Human dental enamel samples were obtained from human third molars and randomly divided into seven groups (n = 11): control, Whiteness Perfect--10% carbamide peroxide (10% CP), Colgate Platinum--10% CP, Day White 2Z--7.5% hydrogen peroxide (7.5% HP), Whiteness Super--3% CP, Opalescence Quick--35% CP and Whiteness HP--35% HP. Bleaching agents were applied according to manufacturers' instructions. The control group remained not treated and stored in artificial saliva. Microhardness testing was performed with a Knoop indentor and surface roughness was analyzed with a profilometer. Morphologic observations were carried out with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results were statistically analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (5%), and revealed a significant decrease in microhardness values and a significant increase in surface roughness post-bleaching. Changes in enamel morphology after bleaching were observed under SEM. It was concluded that bleaching agents can alter the microhardness, roughness and morphology of dental enamel surface.

236 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The apparent fracture toughness of enamel was reduced by about 30% after bleaching for a period of 12 hours with no significant change in surface hardness.
Abstract: The application of home-bleaching procedures as a means of lightening multiple teeth has become increasingly popular. Very few studies, however, have determined the effect of this treatment upon dental hard tissues. This in vitro study evaluated the effects of a 10% carbamide peroxide gel on the apparent fracture toughness, hardness, and abrasion characteristics of human enamel. The apparent fracture toughness of enamel was reduced by about 30% after bleaching for a period of 12 hours with no significant change in surface hardness. Enamel treated with the bleaching gels also exhibited a small but significant decrease in abrasion resistance. This behavior was most likely due to an alteration of the organic matrix of enamel under the chemical action of hydrogen peroxide. Further investigation of the clinical significance of this process is needed.

222 citations