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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PNPBP.2020.110096

Endocannabinoid system in psychotic and mood disorders, a review of human studies.

02 Mar 2021-Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry (Elsevier)-Vol. 106, pp 110096
Abstract: Despite widespread evidence of endocannabinoid system involvement in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, our understanding remains rudimentary. Here we review studies of the endocannabinoid system in humans with psychotic and mood disorders. Postmortem, peripheral, cerebrospinal fluid and in vivo imaging studies provide evidence for the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in psychotic and mood disorders. Psychotic disorders and major depressive disorder exhibit alterations of brain cannabinoid CB1 receptors and peripheral blood endocannabinoids. Further, these changes may be sensitive to treatment status, disease state, and symptom severity. Evidence from psychotic disorder extend to endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes in the brain and periphery, whereas these lines of evidence remain poorly developed in mood disorders. A paucity of studies examining this system in bipolar disorder represents a notable gap in the literature. Despite a growing body of productive work in this field of research, there is a clear need for investigation beyond the CB1 receptor in order to more fully elucidate the role of the endocannabinoid system in psychotic and mood disorders.

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Topics: Mood disorders (61%), Bipolar disorder (55%), Schizophrenia (54%) ... show more
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PHRS.2021.105729
Gerwyn Morris1, Ken Walder1, Stefan Kloiber2, Stefan Kloiber3  +9 moreInstitutions (6)
Abstract: The endocannabinoid system (ECS) comprises two cognate endocannabinoid receptors referred to as CB1R and CB2R. ECS dysregulation is apparent in neurodegenerative/neuro-psychiatric disorders including but not limited to schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and potentially bipolar disorder. The aim of this paper is to review mechanisms whereby both receptors may interact with neuro-immune and neuro-oxidative pathways, which play a pathophysiological role in these disorders. CB1R is located in the presynaptic terminals of GABAergic, glutamatergic, cholinergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons where it regulates the retrograde suppression of neurotransmission. CB1R plays a key role in long-term depression, and, to a lesser extent, long-term potentiation, thereby modulating synaptic transmission and mediating learning and memory. Optimal CB1R activity plays an essential neuroprotective role by providing a defense against the development of glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, which is achieved, at least in part, by impeding AMPA-mediated increase in intracellular calcium overload and oxidative stress. Moreover, CB1R activity enables optimal neuron-glial communication and the function of the neurovascular unit. CB2R receptors are detected in peripheral immune cells and also in central nervous system regions including the striatum, basal ganglia, frontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala as well as the ventral tegmental area. CB2R upregulation inhibits the presynaptic release of glutamate in several brain regions. CB2R activation also decreases neuroinflammation partly by mediating the transition from a predominantly neurotoxic "M1" microglial phenotype to a more neuroprotective "M2" phenotype. CB1R and CB2R are thus novel drug targets for the treatment of neuro-immune and neuro-oxidative disorders including schizophrenia and affective disorders.

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Topics: Neuroprotection (59%), Long-term depression (58%), Endocannabinoid system (57%) ... show more

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/JPP/RGAB067
Abstract: Objectives The exposure of neurons to an excessive excitatory stimulation induces the alteration of the normal neuronal function. Mood disorders are among the first signs of alterations in the central nervous system function. Magnolia officinalis bark extract has been extensively used in the traditional medicine systems of several countries, showing several pharmacological activities. Honokiol, the main constituent of M. officinalis, is a GABA modulator and a CB1 agonist, which is deeply investigated for its role in modulating mood disorders. Methods Thus, we evaluated the possible neuroprotective effect of a standardized M. officinalis bark extract (MOE), enriched in honokiol, and its effect on animal mood behavioural tests and in an in vitro model of excitotoxicity. Key findings MOE showed neuroprotective effect using SH-SY5Y cells, by normalizing brain-derived neurotrophic factor release. Then, we tested the effect of MOE in different behavioural tests evaluating anxiety and depression and we observed a selective anxiolytic-like effect. Finally, we confirmed the involvement of CB1 in the final effect of MOE by the co-administration of the CB1 antagonist, AM251. Conclusion These results suggest that MOE could be considered an effective and safe anxiolytic candidate with neuroprotective activity.

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Topics: Magnolia officinalis (61%), Honokiol (55%), Anxiolytic (51%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.NEULET.2021.136064
Abstract: Owing to its psychotropic effects, Cannabis has been stigmatized by its recreational use leading to a dramatic decline in the experimentations about its medical use in the twentieth century. The medical properties of the plant - known since ancient times - have received increased attention over recent years; yet, the research on its potential application in the field of psychiatry is still nascent. In this connection, the non-psychotropic cannabidiol (CBD) has emerged as a phytocannabinoid compound with promising antipsychotic effects. In addition, advances in our understanding of the endocannabinoid system, along with accumulating evidence implicating this system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, have stimulated research by the pharmaceutical industry to explore whether alteration of this system can be of medical benefit. This review examines the current state of evidence regarding the clinical potential of cannabinoid-based drugs as a treatment for schizophrenia, while discussing various limitations with the therapeutic approaches considered so far. In the second part, the author highlights the most promising strategies, as well as the most interesting directions one could follow, in the emerging field of cannabinoid therapies for schizophrenia.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PNPBP.2021.110305
Erik B. Oleson1, Jibran Y. Khokhar2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Cannabinoids from the cannabis plant were one of the earliest psychoactive phytochemicals harnessed by humanity for their medicinal properties and remain one of the most frequently used and misused classes of chemicals in the world. Despite our long-standing history with cannabinoids, much more is said than is known regarding how these molecules influence the brain and behavior. We are in a rapidly evolving discovery phase regarding the neuroscience of cannabinoids. This period of insight began in the mid-1990s when it was discovered that phytocannabinoids (e.g., delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) act on G protein-coupled receptors (i.e., CB1/CB2) in the brain to produce their psychoactive effects. Shortly thereafter, it was discovered that endogenous ligands (i.e., endocannabinoids) exist for these receptor targets and, that they are synthetized on demand under a variety of physiological conditions. Thus, we can now study how phytochemicals, endogenous ligands, and synthetic/metabolic enzymes of the endocannabinoid system influence the brain and behavior by activating known receptor targets. Our increased ability to study cannabinoid interactions with the brain and behavior coincides with an increase in international interest in utilizing cannabinoids as a medicine. At the same time, the potency of, and administration routes by which cannabinoids are used is rapidly changing. And, these trends in cannabinoid misuse are producing lasting neural adaptations that have implications for mental health. In this special edition, we will summarize our recent period of discovery regarding how: 1) phytocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoids and endocannabinoids act on the brain to produce behavioral effects; 2) cannabinoids can be harnessed to produce pharmacotherapeutic utility in the field of medicine; and 3) use of increasingly more cannabinoid variants through unique routes of administration alter the brain and behavior, especially when used in critical developmental periods like pregnancy and adolescence.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1115740
14 Oct 2005-Science
Abstract: The presence and function of CB2 receptors in central nervous system (CNS) neurons are controversial. We report the expression of CB2 receptor messenger RNA and protein localization on brainstem neurons. These functional CB2 receptors in the brainstem were activated by a CB2 receptor agonist, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and by elevated endogenous levels of endocannabinoids, which also act at CB1 receptors. CB2 receptors represent an alternative site of action of endocannabinoids that opens the possibility of nonpsychotropic therapeutic interventions using enhanced endocannabinoid levels in localized brain areas.

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Topics: Long-term depression (63%), Class C GPCR (63%), Immune receptor (62%) ... show more

1,375 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1124/PR.110.003004
Abstract: There are at least two types of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). Ligands activating these G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) include the phytocannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, numerous synthetic compounds, and endogenous compounds known as endocannabinoids. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists have also been developed. Some of these ligands activate or block one type of cannabinoid receptor more potently than the other type. This review summarizes current data indicating the extent to which cannabinoid receptor ligands undergo orthosteric or allosteric interactions with non-CB1, non-CB2 established GPCRs, deorphanized receptors such as GPR55, ligand-gated ion channels, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, and other ion channels or peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors. From these data, it is clear that some ligands that interact similarly with CB1 and/or CB2 receptors are likely to display significantly different pharmacological profiles. The review also lists some criteria that any novel “CB3” cannabinoid receptor or channel should fulfil and concludes that these criteria are not currently met by any non-CB1, non-CB2 pharmacological receptor or channel. However, it does identify certain pharmacological targets that should be investigated further as potential CB3 receptors or channels. These include TRP vanilloid 1, which possibly functions as an ionotropic cannabinoid receptor under physiological and/or pathological conditions, and some deorphanized GPCRs. Also discussed are 1) the ability of CB1 receptors to form heteromeric complexes with certain other GPCRs, 2) phylogenetic relationships that exist between CB1/CB2 receptors and other GPCRs, 3) evidence for the existence of several as-yet-uncharacterized non-CB1, non-CB2 cannabinoid receptors; and 4) current cannabinoid receptor nomenclature.

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1,269 Citations


Book ChapterDOI: 10.1007/3-540-26573-2_1
Roger G. Pertwee1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Mammalian tissues express at least two types of cannabinoid receptor, CB1 and CB2, both G protein coupled. CB1 receptors are expressed predominantly at nerve terminals where they mediate inhibition of transmitter release. CB2 receptors

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Topics: Cannabinoid (59%), Cannabinoid receptor type 2 (58%), Cannabinoid receptor (57%) ... show more

552 Citations


Book ChapterDOI: 10.1007/3-540-26573-2_10
Ken Mackie1Institutions (1)
Abstract: CB1 cannabinoid receptors appear to mediate most, if not all of the psychoactive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and related compounds. This G protein-coupled receptor has a characteristic distribution in the nervous system: It is particularly enriched in cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, basal ganglia outflow tracts, and cerebellum—a distribution that corresponds to the most prominent behavioral effects of cannabis. In addition, this distribution helps to predict neurological and psychological maladies for which manipulation of the endocannabinoid system might be beneficial. CB1 receptors are primarily expressed on neurons, where most of the receptors are found on axons and synaptic terminals, emphasizing the important role of this receptor in modulating neurotransmission at specific synapses. While our knowledge of CB1 localization in the nervous system has advanced tremendously over the past 15 years, there is still more to learn. Particularly pressing is the need for (1) detailed anatomical studies of brain regions important in the therapeutic actions of drugs that modify the endocannabinoid system and (2) the determination of the localization of the enzymes that synthesize, degrade, and transport the endocannabinoids.

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515 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/SJ.BJP.0706406
Roger G. Pertwee1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Research into the pharmacology of individual cannabinoids that began in the 1940s, several decades after the presence of a cannabinoid was first detected in cannabis, is concisely reviewed. Also described is how this pharmacological research led to the discovery of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors and of endogenous ligands for these receptors, to the development of CB1- and CB2-selective agonists and antagonists and to the realization that the endogenous cannabinoid systemhas significant roles in both health and disease, and that drugs which mimic, augment or block the actions of endogenously released cannabinoids must have important therapeutic applications. Some goals for future research are identified. British Journal of Pharmacology (2006) 147, S163–S171. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706406

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Topics: Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists (70%), Cannabinoid Receptor Modulators (66%), Cannabinoid (59%) ... show more

511 Citations


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