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Journal ArticleDOI

Energy absorption characteristics of aluminium alloy AA7XXX and AA6061 tubes subjected to static and dynamic axial load

14 Mar 2014-International Journal of Crashworthiness (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 19, Iss: 2, pp 139-152
TL;DR: In this paper, compression behavior and energy absorption of aluminium alloy AA7005 and AA7003 tubes were investigated both experimentally and numerically using LS-DYNA software.
Abstract: In this paper, compression behaviour and energy absorption of aluminium alloy AA7005 and AA7003 tubes were investigated both experimentally and numerically. LS-DYNA software was used for the static and dynamic simulations of AA7005, AA7003, AA6061 and high strength steel (DP800) tubes of equal dimensions. True stress–plastic strain curves at different strain rates from the literature were used in the dynamic simulations of AA7003 and DP800 tubes. Dynamic simulations were done with drop velocity from 7 to 15 m/s to understand the inertia and strain rate effects on energy absorption. The peak loads and energy absorption values between experimental compression results and numeral simulation are found to be in good agreement. The simulation results show the energy absorption characteristics of AA7XXX tubes are better than that of AA6061 and DP800 tubes based on specific energy.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effects of thickness-gradient patterns on energy absorption characteristics of aluminium-based circular tubes under axial impact loading were investigated, and the simulation results showed that the FGT tubes have superior crashworthiness performance than that of their traditional uniform thickness counterparts.
Abstract: The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of thickness-gradient patterns on energy absorption characteristics of aluminium-based circular tubes under axial impact loading. Functionally graded thickness (FGT) enables to obtain variable stiffness throughout the length of a structure; thus, it provides more efficient control of the crashworthiness parameters when compared with traditionally designed uniform thickness (UT) counterparts. In order to investigate the crash behaviour of FGT tubes, different thickness-gradient patterns are introduced to the axial direction of the tubes and then impact with a fixed rigid wall is simulated by using the nonlinear explicit finite element (FE) method. To show the efficiency of FGT tubes, crashworthiness performance of the FGT tubes are compared with their UT counterparts at the same weight. The effects of thickness range and aspect ratio of the tubes on their crash behaviours are also investigated. The simulation results show that the FGT tubes have superior crashworthiness performance than that of their UT counterparts and the crashworthiness parameters of the FGT tubes can be controlled and improved with the appropriate selection of geometric parameters of the tubes.

67 citations


Cites result from "Energy absorption characteristics o..."

  • ...These results are in good agreement with the previous works [3,39]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a tailor-made technique for crashworthiness design by performing a combination of two or more energy absorption techniques to fulfill the crashworthy designer requirements, which is adapted to have the ability of implementation by different structural configurations.
Abstract: State-of-the-art studies of the energy absorption systems reveal various techniques for enhancing the crashworthiness of a structure, and each technique has its benefits and drawbacks. For crashworthy designers, it is a challenge to design an efficient energy absorbing system which fulfills its requirements in terms of crashworthiness. Therefore, this paper proposes tailor-made technique for crashworthiness design by performing a combination of two or more energy absorption techniques to fulfill the crashworthy designer requirements. The tailor-made technique is adapted to have the ability of implementation by different structural configurations; thus, tubular square tubes configuration has been utilized as an example. Tailor-made technique implementation is validated experimentally and numerically under quasi-static and axial impact loading, afterwards, its merits are discussed through conducting a comparative study. Results show that the novel tailor-made technique provides the designers the flexibility in designing of the protected structure. Furthermore, tailor-made technique improves the crashworthiness of the energy absorbing system in terms of crushing performance and energy absorption capacity. Moreover, it leads to energy absorbing systems applicable to a wide range of impact velocities through generating low reaction force under low impact velocity and logical crushing force under high impact velocity.

39 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2017
TL;DR: The proposed optimization approach is based on finite element analyses for construction of sample design space and verification, artificial neural networks for predicting objective functions values, and genetic algorithms for generating design parameters alternatives and determining optimal combination of them.
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to develop a multiple objective optimization procedure for crashworthiness optimization of circular tubes having functionally graded thickness. The proposed optimizat...

31 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of mechanical discontinuities on the crashworthiness performance of aluminum profiles was analyzed using the commercial finite element software Abaqus, and it was found that the implementation of discontinuity increases crashworthiness of the aluminum profiles.

31 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a 3D-multi-cell design was proposed to enhance energy absorption capability of multi-cell thin-walled tubes by performing a new arrangement of the internal webs and dividing them into multilayers with different angles of orientation.
Abstract: Multi-cell thin-walled structures have recently gained attentions in aerospace and automotive industries for their excellent energy absorption capacity with lightweight. This paper introduces a novel 3D-multi-cell design to enhance energy absorption capability of multi-cell thin-walled tubes by performing a new arrangement of the internal webs and dividing them into multilayers with different angles of orientation. A comparative study of energy-absorbing performance of single-cell, conventional multi-cell and the proposed three-dimensional multi-cell (3D-multi-cell) of thin-walled circular tubes under axial impact loading is carried out using the non-linear finite element code ANSYS-WORKBENCH/LS-DYNA. The numerical results show that the 3D-multi-cell configuration can achieve a significant improvement in the energy absorption per unit mass (SEA) up to 40%, the crush force efficiency (CFE) up to 42.5%, and the energy absorption effectiveness factor (ψ) up to 30.7% in comparison with those of circul...

24 citations


Cites background from "Energy absorption characteristics o..."

  • ...In case of impact loading, considering the dynamic factor range [28], the theoretical dynamic mean crushing force for model C-DCC ranges from 22....

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  • ...State-of-the-art studies reveal that the strain rate effect of aluminum alloy exhibits only slight sensitivity to the strain rate [28]....

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  • ...In case of impact loading, taking the dynamic factor range of aluminum alloys under different strain rates into consideration [28], the dynamic impact factor of aluminum alloys for velocity 10 m/s comes out to be from 1....

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References
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BookDOI
03 Nov 2003
TL;DR: Lu et al. as mentioned in this paper focused on the way in which structures and materials can be designed to absorb kinetic energy in a controllable and predictable manner, and synthesized the most recent developments and latest research to form a detailed and comprehensive treatment of the subject.
Abstract: Description: The prediction of damage to structures caused by accidental collision – whether to automobiles, offshore installations or simply the packaging around an electrical appliance – is a crucial factor in their design. This important new study focuses on the way in which structures and materials can be designed to absorb kinetic energy in a controllable and predictable manner. An investigation into energy absorption requires an understanding of materials engineering, structural mechanics, the theory of plasticity and impact dynamics. Whilst a great deal of research has been undertaken on various aspects of these subjects, this knowledge is diffuse and widely scattered. Based on their extensive research and experience in the field, Guoxing Lu and Tongxi Yu have synthesised the most recent developments and latest research to form a detailed and comprehensive treatment of the subject.

1,002 citations


"Energy absorption characteristics o..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...These material constants from the work done by Symonds (1965) are used in the present research to include the effect of strain rate in the dynamic simulation of AA6061 T6 tube [22]....

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  • ...and failure involves large deformation, strain hardening effects and various interactions between different deformation modes such as bending and stretching [22]....

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  • ...7 10(6) and q 1⁄4 4 from the work done by Symonds (1965) are used in the present research to include the effect of strain rate in the dynamic simulation of AA6061 T6 tube [22]....

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Journal ArticleDOI

994 citations


"Energy absorption characteristics o..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Later, Wierzbicki and Abramowicz provided theoretical solutions to predict the non-symmetric or diamond deformations [30]....

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  • ...Mild steel [24] and dual phase steel [30] exhibit higher material strain rate sensitivity compared to aluminium alloys [17]....

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Journal ArticleDOI

883 citations


"Energy absorption characteristics o..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Similar observations were noted by Galib....

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  • ...Galib did work on AA6060 T5 tubes using experiments and simulations [2]....

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  • ...Similar observations were noted by Galib [3]....

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  • ...Alexander was the first to develop the theoretical analysis for the axisymmetric crushing of a thin-walled cylindrical tube based on the energy dissipation by plastic bending of the three hinges and circumferential stretching of the materials in between the hinges [3]....

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  • ...Based on the studies by Galib, variation of 6% is observed between their simulation and dynamic test results....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a series of over 120 axial crushing tests were conducted on circular and square steel tubes loaded either statically or dynamically, and approximate theoretical predictions for static and dynamic progressive buckling were developed.

800 citations


"Energy absorption characteristics o..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...The length of the plastic hinge during buckling is computed using the formula of [1],...

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  • ...Abramowicz and Jones [1] established modified versions of theoretical predictions of Alexander and Wierzbicki based on series of axial crushing tests on steel and aluminium tubes and included correction factor for the effective crushing distance....

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  • ...Abramowicz and Jones [1] developed the following Equation (5) for axisymmetric folds in 1986....

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  • ...Abramowicz and Jones [1] established modified versions of theoretical predictions of Alexander and Wierzbicki based on series of axial crushing tests on...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the common shapes of collapsible energy absorbers and different modes of deformation of the most common ones are reviewed, such as axial crushing, lateral indentation, lateral flattening, inversion and splitting, while noncollapsible systems such as lead extrusions or tube expansions are considered to be beyond the scope of this review.
Abstract: This paper reviews the common shapes of collapsible energy absorbers and the different modes of deformation of the most common ones. Common shapes include circular tubes, square tubes, frusta, struts, honeycombs, and sandwich plates. Common modes of deformation for circular tubes include axial crushing, lateral indentation, lateral flattening, inversion and splitting. Non-collapsible systems, such as lead extrusions or tube expansions, are considered to be beyond the scope of this review.

590 citations


"Energy absorption characteristics o..." refers result in this paper

  • ...This gives very good correlation with experimental results [4],...

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