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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Energy efficient multihop selection with PEGASIS routing protocol for wireless sensor networks

01 Dec 2014-pp 1-5
TL;DR: The proposed method which uses the advantage of SNR for multi hopping and power efficient gathering in sensor information systems (PEGASIS) routing protocol in order to increase the life time of the network.
Abstract: Recent achievements in wireless sensor networks have enabled the use of tiny and inexpensive sensors with the ability of sensing large information and propagating over large distances But the most important concern with wireless sensor network is, the node sensing range is very small, Low storage and limited energy resources So to overcome this type of problem efficient energy planning should be made Clustering is one of the technologies that can utilize the node energy effectively So that the network life time can be extended The proposed method which uses the advantage of SNR for multi hopping and power efficient gathering in sensor information systems (PEGASIS) routing protocol in order to increase the life time of the network The analysis shows that the proposed method has extended the network life time and were compared with the previously introduced methods based on different parameters
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: To successfully form anchor-node triangles, a low-cost technique to determine the number of virtual anchor nodes or virtual nodes together with their positions is proposed and the proposed algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art fuzzy-based localization techniques for WC algorithms.
Abstract: Due to their low cost, various range-free localization techniques are widely applied to estimate device locations in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), especially where other communication signals, such as those from a global positioning system, are absent. Among range-free techniques, the centroid algorithm has gained popularity because of its simplicity and low computational cost, rendering it suitable for power-sensitive sensor nodes or nodes. WSN topologies are unpredictable because sensor nodes are often deployed at arbitrary locations, making it difficult for sufficient numbers of known (anchor) nodes to cover all unknown nodes. Consequently, both centroid algorithm and its enhanced versions [e.g., weighted centroid (WC) algorithms] yield relatively high localization inaccuracy. In this paper, to successfully form anchor-node triangles, we propose a low-cost technique to determine the number of virtual anchor nodes or virtual nodes together with their positions. Specifically, we develop and provide proof for accurate approximate unknown node sides. We also improve localization accuracy by adding virtual nodes that collaborate with physical anchor nodes to provide the necessary coverage of the unknown nodes. We address estimations of unknown node locations by applying a fuzzy-based centroid localization method to prioritize anchor nodes by assigning different fine-tuned weighted factors. The results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art fuzzy-based localization techniques for WC algorithms.

38 citations


Cites background from "Energy efficient multihop selection..."

  • ...Again, several routing techniques for WSNs are available, as described in [32]–[34]; therefore, communication metrics are not reflected in our evaluation....

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  • ..., power-efficient gathering in sensor information systems [32], low energy adaptive clus-...

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Posted Content
TL;DR: A fuzzy clustering algorithm (FCA) which aims to prolong the lifetime of wireless sensor networks by adjusting the cluster-head radius considering the residual energy and the distance to the base station parameters of the sensor nodes.
Abstract: In order to gather information more efficiently, wireless sensor networks are partitioned into clusters. The most of the proposed clustering algorithms do not consider the location of the base station. This situation causes hot spots problem in multi-hop wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a fuzzy clustering algorithm (FCA) which aims to prolong the lifetime of wireless sensor networks. FCA adjusts the cluster-head radius considering the residual energy and the distance to the base station parameters of the sensor nodes. This helps decreasing the intra-cluster work of the sensor nodes which are closer to the base station or have lower battery level. We utilize fuzzy logic for handling the uncertainties in cluster-head radius estimation. We compare our algorithm with LEACH according to first node dies, half of the nodes alive and energy-efficiency metrics. Our simulation results show that FCA performs better than other algorithms in most of the cases. Therefore, our proposed algorithm is a stable and energy-efficient clustering algorithm.

9 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2019
TL;DR: There is a need for an algorithm which can be a modification made to the existing protocols and achieve improvement in terms of network lifetime, energy consumption, and time taken to route the data through the sensor nodes.
Abstract: Automation in the field of agriculture is essential for its development. In this digital era, we can make use of various technologies to enhance the agricultural process. One such technology is network technology. Now, precision agriculture being the emerging concept in this field, a network of sensors can be deployed in order to study the environmental parameters such as temperature, soil moisture content, nitrogen level, type of crop. Therefore, the internetworking of wireless devices is very important in order to manage and modernize agricultural practices. The restriction faced in this process is the efficient use of energy. Since the wireless sensors are battery-powered devices and it is not feasible in terms of cost and automation for a human being to keep changing batteries every now and then while deploying several sensors in a field. In order to tackle this situation, our goal is to come up with a routing protocol that tries to maintain network lifetime. Many protocols have been introduced to solve this problem but not very efficient when it comes to reducing the energy consumption of sensors. Therefore, there is a need for an algorithm which can be a modification made to the existing protocols and achieve improvement in terms of network lifetime, energy consumption, and time taken to route the data through the sensor nodes.

8 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
31 Jul 2016
TL;DR: Hierarchical routing in wireless sensor networks includes tree based routing, cluster based routing), chain based protocol, and grid based routing and also compares the hierarchical routing techniques.
Abstract: This paper describes the concept of routing in wireless sensor networks. Routing algorithm provides reliable path from source to destination. Energy efficiency is main constraint in Wireless Sensor Networks. For improving life time and energy consumption various routing algorithms have been proposed. In this paper describe the hierarchical routing techniques. Hierarchical routing includes tree based routing, cluster based routing, chain based protocol, and grid based routing. And also compare the hierarchical routing techniques.

6 citations


Cites background from "Energy efficient multihop selection..."

  • ...When Cluster head formed near the base station it consumes less memory [6]....

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Book ChapterDOI
08 Sep 2020
TL;DR: In the proposed research, cross-layer chain leader selection, along with the static sink mobility, improves load balancing as compared to existing protocols and reduces idle listening and improves network lifetime.
Abstract: In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), minimal consumption of energy and enhancements of network lifetime are crucial issues to address. To maximize network lifetime, a multi-chain-based cross-layer scheduling protocol is implemented, which is called as cross-layer PEGASIS (CL-PEGASIS) protocol. In the proposed research, cross-layer chain leader selection, along with the static sink mobility, improves load balancing as compared to existing protocols. Also, cross-layer schedule reduces idle listening and improves network lifetime. The simulation is carried out using MATLAB, and it is observed that CL-PEGASIS is efficient than existing popular routing protocols of WSN. The simulation results show that CL-PEGASIS accomplishes maximum network lifetime, good stability, and better average energy consumption, as compared to existing routing protocols.

5 citations

References
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
04 Jan 2000
TL;DR: The Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) as mentioned in this paper is a clustering-based protocol that utilizes randomized rotation of local cluster based station (cluster-heads) to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensors in the network.
Abstract: Wireless distributed microsensor systems will enable the reliable monitoring of a variety of environments for both civil and military applications. In this paper, we look at communication protocols, which can have significant impact on the overall energy dissipation of these networks. Based on our findings that the conventional protocols of direct transmission, minimum-transmission-energy, multi-hop routing, and static clustering may not be optimal for sensor networks, we propose LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy), a clustering-based protocol that utilizes randomized rotation of local cluster based station (cluster-heads) to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensors in the network. LEACH uses localized coordination to enable scalability and robustness for dynamic networks, and incorporates data fusion into the routing protocol to reduce the amount of information that must be transmitted to the base station. Simulations show the LEACH can achieve as much as a factor of 8 reduction in energy dissipation compared with conventional outing protocols. In addition, LEACH is able to distribute energy dissipation evenly throughout the sensors, doubling the useful system lifetime for the networks we simulated.

12,497 citations

01 Jan 2000
TL;DR: LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy), a clustering-based protocol that utilizes randomized rotation of local cluster based station (cluster-heads) to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensors in the network, is proposed.
Abstract: Wireless distributed microsensor systems will enable the reliable monitoring of a variety of environments for both civil and military applications. In this paper, we look at communication protocols, which can have signicant impact on the overall energy dissipation of these networks. Based on our ndings that the conventional protocols of direct transmission, minimum-transmission-energy, multihop routing, and static clustering may not be optimal for sensor networks, we propose LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy), a clustering-based protocol that utilizes randomized rotation of local cluster base stations (cluster-heads) to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensors in the network. LEACH uses localized coordination to enable scalability and robustness for dynamic networks, and incorporates data fusion into the routing protocol to reduce the amount of information that must be transmitted to the base station. Simulations show that LEACH can achieve as much as a factor of 8 reduction in energy dissipation compared with conventional routing protocols. In addition, LEACH is able to distribute energy dissipation evenly throughout the sensors, doubling the useful system lifetime for the networks we simulated.

11,412 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...LEACH [5] is the first proposed technique in which the network scenario is having base station out of the network....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
09 Mar 2002
TL;DR: PEGASIS (power-efficient gathering in sensor information systems), a near optimal chain-based protocol that is an improvement over LEACH, is proposed, where each node communicates only with a close neighbor and takes turns transmitting to the base station, thus reducing the amount of energy spent per round.
Abstract: Sensor webs consisting of nodes with limited battery power and wireless communications are deployed to collect useful information from the field. Gathering sensed information in an energy efficient manner is critical to operate the sensor network for a long period of time. In W. Heinzelman et al. (Proc. Hawaii Conf. on System Sci., 2000), a data collection problem is defined where, in a round of communication, each sensor node has a packet to be sent to the distant base station. If each node transmits its sensed data directly to the base station then it will deplete its power quickly. The LEACH protocol presented by W. Heinzelman et al. is an elegant solution where clusters are formed to fuse data before transmitting to the base station. By randomizing the cluster heads chosen to transmit to the base station, LEACH achieves a factor of 8 improvement compared to direct transmissions, as measured in terms of when nodes die. In this paper, we propose PEGASIS (power-efficient gathering in sensor information systems), a near optimal chain-based protocol that is an improvement over LEACH. In PEGASIS, each node communicates only with a close neighbor and takes turns transmitting to the base station, thus reducing the amount of energy spent per round. Simulation results show that PEGASIS performs better than LEACH by about 100 to 300% when 1%, 20%, 50%, and 100% of nodes die for different network sizes and topologies.

3,731 citations


"Energy efficient multihop selection..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...PEGASIS [6], [7] is also an energy optimization technique and gives better performance than LEACH....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper describes a self-organizing, multihop, mobile radio network which relies on a code-division access scheme for multimedia support that provides an efficient, stable infrastructure for the integration of different types of traffic in a dynamic radio network.
Abstract: This paper describes a self-organizing, multihop, mobile radio network which relies on a code-division access scheme for multimedia support. In the proposed network architecture, nodes are organized into nonoverlapping clusters. The clusters are independently controlled, and are dynamically reconfigured as the nodes move. This network architecture has three main advantages. First, it provides spatial reuse of the bandwidth due to node clustering. Second, bandwidth can be shared or reserved in a controlled fashion in each cluster. Finally, the cluster algorithm is robust in the face of topological changes caused by node motion, node failure, and node insertion/removal. Simulation shows that this architecture provides an efficient, stable infrastructure for the integration of different types of traffic in a dynamic radio network.

1,695 citations


"Energy efficient multihop selection..." refers background in this paper

  • ...There are many other similar clustering protocols like adaptive power aware clustering [9], clustering based on degree or lowest identifier heuristics[10], spanning tree based clustering [11]....

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Book
01 May 2004
TL;DR: This paper presents a meta-modelling framework that automates and automates the very labor-intensive and therefore time-heavy and expensive process of manually cataloging and cataloging sensor networks.
Abstract: Ch 1 Intro. Ch 2 Canonical Problem: Localization and Tracking Ch 3 Networking Sensor Networks Ch 4 Synchronization and Localization Ch 5 Sensor Tasking and Control Ch 6 Sensor Network Database Ch 7 Sensor Network Platforms and Tools Ch 8 Application and Future Direction

1,216 citations


"Energy efficient multihop selection..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...In the proposed method we incorporated two promising protocols, Hybrid SNR based dynamic clustering with PEGASIS routing protocol....

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  • ...That was overcome by using intermediate node which acts as a barrier between the NCH that were out of range and CH using SNR [16] values....

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  • ...Keywords— cluster head, network life time, PEGASIS, SNR, Wireless sensor network....

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  • ...• Multi hopping based on SNR. • Data forwarding using PEGASIS routing protocol....

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