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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3064066

Energy Harvesting Techniques for Internet of Things (IoT)

04 Mar 2021-IEEE Access (IEEE)-Vol. 9, pp 39530-39549
Abstract: The rapid growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) has accelerated strong interests in the development of low-power wireless sensors. Today, wireless sensors are integrated within IoT systems to gather information in a reliable and practical manner to monitor processes and control activities in areas such as transportation, energy, civil infrastructure, smart buildings, environment monitoring, healthcare, defense, manufacturing, and production. The long-term and self-sustainable operation of these IoT devices must be considered early on when they are designed and implemented. Traditionally, wireless sensors have often been powered by batteries, which, despite allowing low overall system costs, can negatively impact the lifespan and the performance of the entire network they are used in. Energy Harvesting (EH) technology is a promising environment-friendly solution that extends the lifetime of these sensors, and, in some cases completely replaces the use of battery power. In addition, energy harvesting offers economic and practical advantages through the optimal use of energy, and the provisioning of lower network maintenance costs. We review recent advances in energy harvesting techniques for IoT. We demonstrate two energy harvesting techniques using case studies. Finally, we discuss some future research challenges that must be addressed to enable the large-scale deployment of energy harvesting solutions for IoT environments.

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7 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AEUE.2021.153909
Abstract: This paper presents the combination of energy harvesting (EH) at the wireless sensor and cooperative communications for low-power wide-area (LPWA) systems. Firstly, the Internet of Things sensor harvests the energy from the power beacon with multiple transmit antennas via radio frequency signals and then uses the harvested energy to transmit signals to multiple gateways with multiple receive antennas. Then, the cooperative communications is applied at the server based on the gateway outputs. By mathematical analysis, we derive the exact closed-form expressions of outage probabilities (OPs), throughput, and symbol error probabilities (SEPs) of the EH-LPWA system over Nakagami- m fading channel in the cases without and with cooperative communications. Our expressions can be considered as the first results applying EH for LPWA systems with mathematical analysis. Then, we obtain the optimal value of the time switching ratio that minimizes the OPs and SEPs and maximizes the throughput of the considered EH-LPWA system. Numerical results have clarified that, the distances, path loss exponent, and data transmission rate have a strong impact on the OPs, throughput, and SEPs. Particularly, using a half of transmission blocks for EH can maximize the system performance. Moreover, when the number of transmit antennas at power beacon is equal to the number of receive antennas at gateways, the system performance can be improved significantly. Finally, the accuracy of the obtained expressions is demonstrated via Monte-Carlo simulations.

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Topics: Fading (54%), Throughput (business) (53%), Wireless (52%) ... show more

3 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: The next wave of wireless technologies is proliferating in connecting things among themselves as well as to humans. In the era of the Internet of things (IoT), billions of sensors, machines, vehicles, drones, and robots will be connected, making the world around us smarter. The IoT will encompass devices that must wirelessly communicate a diverse set of data gathered from the environment for myriad new applications. The ultimate goal is to extract insights from this data and develop solutions that improve quality of life and generate new revenue. Providing large-scale, long-lasting, reliable, and near real-time connectivity is the major challenge in enabling a smart connected world. This paper provides a comprehensive survey on existing and emerging communication solutions for serving IoT applications in the context of cellular, wide-area, as well as non-terrestrial networks. Specifically, wireless technology enhancements for providing IoT access in fifth-generation (5G) and beyond cellular networks, and communication networks over the unlicensed spectrum are presented. Aligned with the main key performance indicators of 5G and beyond 5G networks, we investigate solutions and standards that enable energy efficiency, reliability, low latency, and scalability (connection density) of current and future IoT networks. The solutions include grant-free access and channel coding for short-packet communications, non-orthogonal multiple access, and on-device intelligence. Further, a vision of new paradigm shifts in communication networks in the 2030s is provided, and the integration of the associated new technologies like artificial intelligence, non-terrestrial networks, and new spectra is elaborated. Finally, future research directions toward beyond 5G IoT networks are pointed out.

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Topics: Spectrum management (51%), 5G (50%)

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.COMNET.2021.108433
09 Nov 2021-Computer Networks
Abstract: Rapid advancement in ICT is promoting us into an era of unprecedented prosperity & countless possibilities. However, there is one gloomy side of the ICT technology that contributes toward the inflation of carbon footprint. Research from 2020, estimates the ICT sector, carbon emission, to be 1,100 million tons. The future generation networks and IoT will further escalate this figure, as these would overburden the core ICT pillars i.e. Data Centers (DC's), and Mobile networks (NT). This in turn will inflate the ICT power consumption and leads to more carbon emission. Thus researchers and industries are continuously putting efforts to transform ICT into Green ICT. Apart from this, there is one bright side of ICT i.e. “Green BY ICT” that helps other industries to abate their carbon emission using smart IoT applications. However, the smart IoT devices/sensors/actuators used for this are mostly battery-operated. To reduce the battery waste, efforts are also being made to either prolong their battery life or to make them self-powered or battery-free. This survey discusses both aspects of ICT i.e. Green of ICT and Green by ICT. Firstly, the recent approaches for the Greening of ICT include techniques for Green-DC, Green-NT are discussed. Post discussing this, the paper also confers the energy harvesting solutions & energy-efficient techniques for the greening of user device/senor. In continuation of this, 5G green physical layer solution, Narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT) that prolongs battery life is also discussed, including its enhancement from release 13 to release 16, recent techniques to further optimize the NB-IoT performance, and future research challenges. Apart from this the recent advancement related to renewable energy solutions for Green ICT is also discussed. Overall this survey concludes that ICT's own environmental impact must be evaded, to utilize the ICT's tremendous potential.

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Topics: Green computing (58%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/ELECTRONICS10172097
29 Aug 2021-Electronics
Abstract: This work presents an ultra-low-power CMOS supercapacitor storage unit suitable for a plethora of low-power autonomous applications. The proposed unit exploits the unregulated voltage output of harvesting circuits (i.e., DC-DC converters) and redirects the power to the storage elements and the working loads. Being able to adapt to the input energy conditions and the connected loads’ supply demands offers extended survival to the system with the self-startup operation and voltage regulation. A low-complexity control unit is implemented which is composed of power switches, comparators and logic gates and is able to supervise two supercapacitors, a small and a larger one, as well as a backup battery. Two separate power outputs are offered for external load connection which can be controlled by a separate unit (e.g., microcontroller). Furthermore, user-controlled parameters such as charging and discharging supercapacitor voltage thresholds, provide increased versatility to the system. The storage unit was designed and fabricated in a 0.18 um standard CMOS process and operates with ultra-low current consumption of 432 nA at 2.3 V. The experimental results validate the proper operation of the overall structure.

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Topics: Control unit (58%), Voltage regulation (57%), Backup battery (56%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3934/MBE.2021207
Mingwei Wang1, Kaisheng Shi1, Wang Zhao1, Rui Yan1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Radio frequency energy harvesting (EH) technology can harvest the electromagnetic energy in the surrounding environment, and reduce the dependence of the communication devices on battery or power grid as power source, which is a very promising means of energy substitution and acquisition scheme. The random characteristics of wireless channel fading and possible co-channel interference (CCI) have great influence on EH efficiency and wireless communication performance with more complicated theoretical analysis. In this paper, the exact closed-form expressions of effective throughput of "harvest-store-use" and "harvest-use" multi-slot EH schemes with Rayleigh channel fading and CCI are derived theoretically. The simulation results show that in Rayleigh fading channels with CCI, CCI is beneficial to energy harvesting of EH device, but it will deteriorate the reception of required signals by information receiving device. Although there are obvious differences in working mechanism, working conditions and communication performance between the "harvest-store-use" scheme and the "harvest-use" scheme, the optimal time slot should be selected to balance the transmission probability and delay, minimize the interference of CCI to the desired signal, and improve the energy conversion efficiency of the energy harvester.

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Topics: Co-channel interference (60%), Fading (58%), Rayleigh fading (56%) ... show more

References
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134 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S1389-1286(01)00302-4
15 Mar 2002-Computer Networks
Abstract: This paper describes the concept of sensor networks which has been made viable by the convergence of micro-electro-mechanical systems technology, wireless communications and digital electronics. First, the sensing tasks and the potential sensor networks applications are explored, and a review of factors influencing the design of sensor networks is provided. Then, the communication architecture for sensor networks is outlined, and the algorithms and protocols developed for each layer in the literature are explored. Open research issues for the realization of sensor networks are also discussed.

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17,354 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.COMNET.2008.04.002
01 Aug 2008-Computer Networks
Abstract: A wireless sensor network (WSN) has important applications such as remote environmental monitoring and target tracking. This has been enabled by the availability, particularly in recent years, of sensors that are smaller, cheaper, and intelligent. These sensors are equipped with wireless interfaces with which they can communicate with one another to form a network. The design of a WSN depends significantly on the application, and it must consider factors such as the environment, the application's design objectives, cost, hardware, and system constraints. The goal of our survey is to present a comprehensive review of the recent literature since the publication of [I.F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, E. Cayirci, A survey on sensor networks, IEEE Communications Magazine, 2002]. Following a top-down approach, we give an overview of several new applications and then review the literature on various aspects of WSNs. We classify the problems into three different categories: (1) internal platform and underlying operating system, (2) communication protocol stack, and (3) network services, provisioning, and deployment. We review the major development in these three categories and outline new challenges.

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5,311 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/SURV.2011.060710.00094
Abstract: Sensor networks with battery-powered nodes can seldom simultaneously meet the design goals of lifetime, cost, sensing reliability and sensing and transmission coverage. Energy-harvesting, converting ambient energy to electrical energy, has emerged as an alternative to power sensor nodes. By exploiting recharge opportunities and tuning performance parameters based on current and expected energy levels, energy harvesting sensor nodes have the potential to address the conflicting design goals of lifetime and performance. This paper surveys various aspects of energy harvesting sensor systems- architecture, energy sources and storage technologies and examples of harvesting-based nodes and applications. The study also discusses the implications of recharge opportunities on sensor node operation and design of sensor network solutions.

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1,659 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/JPROC.2008.927494
Paul D. Mitcheson1, Eric M. Yeatman1, G.K. Rao1, Andrew S. Holmes1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
03 Sep 2008-
Abstract: Energy harvesting generators are attractive as inexhaustible replacements for batteries in low-power wireless electronic devices and have received increasing research interest in recent years. Ambient motion is one of the main sources of energy for harvesting, and a wide range of motion-powered energy harvesters have been proposed or demonstrated, particularly at the microscale. This paper reviews the principles and state-of-art in motion-driven miniature energy harvesters and discusses trends, suitable applications, and possible future developments.

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1,641 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/NN501732Z
Junwen Zhong1, Yan Zhang2, Yan Zhang3, Qize Zhong1  +5 moreInstitutions (4)
30 Apr 2014-ACS Nano
Abstract: Smart garments for monitoring physiological and biomechanical signals of the human body are key sensors for personalized healthcare. However, they typically require bulky battery packs or have to be plugged into an electric plug in order to operate. Thus, a smart shirt that can extract energy from human body motions to run body-worn healthcare sensors is particularly desirable. Here, we demonstrated a metal-free fiber-based generator (FBG) via a simple, cost-effective method by using commodity cotton threads, a polytetrafluoroethylene aqueous suspension, and carbon nanotubes as source materials. The FBGs can convert biomechanical motions/vibration energy into electricity utilizing the electrostatic effect with an average output power density of ∼0.1 μW/cm2 and have been identified as an effective building element for a power shirt to trigger a wireless body temperature sensor system. Furthermore, the FBG was demonstrated as a self-powered active sensor to quantitatively detect human motion.

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443 Citations


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