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Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/WIOPT.2005.21

Energy saving dynamic source routing for ad hoc wireless networks

04 Apr 2005-pp 305-310
Abstract: In this paper, energy saving dynamic source routing (ESDSR) protocol is introduced to maximize the life-span of a mobile ad hoc network (MANET). Many theoretical studies show that energy consumption in MANET can be significantly reduced using energy-aware routing protocols compared to fixed-power minimum-hop routing protocols. Two approaches are broadly suggested for energy-aware routing protocols - transmission power control approach and load sharing approach. ESDSR integrates the advantages of those two approaches. In ESDSR, the routing decision is based on a load balancing approach. Once a routing decision is made, link by link transmit power adjustment per packet is done based on a transmit power control approach. We modified dynamic source routing (DSR) protocol to make it energy aware by a network simulator (network simulator-2 of University of California). The simulation results show that the proposed ESDSR can save energy up to 40% per packet and it can send 20 % more packets to destinations by spending the same battery power in compare to DSR.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TNET.2007.911432
Qun Zhao1, Mohan Gurusamy1Institutions (1)
Abstract: In this paper, we consider the connected target coverage (CTC) problem with the objective of maximizing the network lifetime by scheduling sensors into multiple sets, each of which can maintain both target coverage and connectivity among all the active sensors and the sink. We model the CTC problem as a maximum cover tree (MCT) problem and prove that the MCT problem is NP-Complete. We determine an upper bound on the network lifetime for the MCT problem and then develop a (1+w)H(M circ) approximation algorithm to solve it, where w is an arbitrarily small number, H(M circ)=1 lesilesM circ(1/i) and M circ is the maximum number of targets in the sensing area of any sensor. As the protocol cost of the approximation algorithm may be high in practice, we develop a faster heuristic algorithm based on the approximation algorithm called Communication Weighted Greedy Cover (CWGC) algorithm and present a distributed implementation of the heuristic algorithm. We study the performance of the approximation algorithm and CWGC algorithm by comparing them with the lifetime upper bound and other basic algorithms that consider the coverage and connectivity problems independently. Simulation results show that the approximation algorithm and CWGC algorithm perform much better than others in terms of the network lifetime and the performance improvement can be up to 45% than the best-known basic algorithm. The lifetime obtained by our algorithms is close to the upper bound. Compared with the approximation algorithm, the CWGC algorithm can achieve a similar performance in terms of the network lifetime with a lower protocol cost.

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202 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11235-013-9766-2
Getsy S. Sara1, D. Sridharan1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The Mobile Wireless Sensor Network (MWSN) is an emerging technology with significant applications. The MWSN allows the sensor nodes to move freely and they are able to communicate with each other without the need for a fixed infrastructure. These networks are capable of out-performing static wireless sensor networks as they tend to increase the network lifetime, reduce the power consumption, provide more channel capacity and perform better targeting. Usually routing process in a mobile network is very complex and it becomes even more complicated in MWSN as the sensor nodes are low power, cost effective mobile devices with minimum resources. Recent research works have led to the design of many efficient routing protocols for MWSN but still there are many unresolved problems like retaining the network connectivity, reducing the energy cost, maintaining adequate sensing coverage etc. This paper addresses the various issues in routing and presents the state of the art routing protocols in MWSN. The routing protocols are categorized based on their network structure, state of information, energy efficiency and mobility. The classification presented here summarizes the main features of many published proposals in the literature for efficient routing in MWSN and also gives an insight into the enhancements that can be done to improve the existing routing protocols.

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Topics: Link-state routing protocol (67%), Static routing (67%), Mobile wireless sensor network (66%) ...read more

98 Citations


Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) are multi-hop wireless networks in which all nodes cooperatively maintain network connectivity. In such a multi-hop wireless network, every node may be required to perform routing in order to achieve end-to-end communication among nodes. These networks are energy constrained as most ad hoc mobile nodes today operate with limited battery power. Hence, it is important to minimize the energy consumption of the entire network in order to maximize the lifetime of ad hoc networks. In this paper, a mechanism involving the integration of load balancing approach and transmission power control approach is introduced to maximize the life-span of MANETs. The mechanism is applied on Ad hoc On-demand Vector (AODV) protocol to make it as energy aware AODV (EA_AODV). The simulation is carried out using GloMoSim2.03 simulator. The results show that the proposed mechanism reduces the average required transmission energy per packet compared to the standard AODV. Keywords—energy aware routing, load balance, Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, MANETs ,on demand routing,transmission power control.

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Topics: On Demand Routing (57%)

29 Citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ICN.2008.78
13 Apr 2008-
Abstract: The application of mobile ad hoc networks to cattle monitoring has the potential to increase the profitability of cattle production and positively impact the everyday live of farm personnel. The main research challenges are identifying and refining realistic requirements for a MANET routing protocol and designing such protocol. In this paper we report on the field experiments we performed in order to address this. Our approach builds on energy efficient MANETs to provide continuous monitoring of multidimensional parameters of animal mobility including temporal and spatial walking intensity and feed intake in order to detect oestrus, pregnancy, animal diseases and reduced efficiency of pastures. We support remote and in-situ, specific and range queries and notifications about newly detected events. Our extensive set of emulations show that we achieve lower and more balanced energy consumption while preserving the delays for increasing number of nodes within the user expected boundaries.

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Topics: Routing protocol (52%), Wireless ad hoc network (52%), Mobile ad hoc network (52%) ...read more

27 Citations


References
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Open access
01 Jul 2003-
Abstract: The Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol is intended for use by mobile nodes in an ad hoc network. It offers quick adaptation to dynamic link conditions, low processing and memory overhead, low network utilization, and determines unicast routes to destinations within the ad hoc network. It uses destination sequence numbers to ensure loop freedom at all times (even in the face of anomalous delivery of routing control messages), avoiding problems (such as "counting to infinity") associated with classical distance vector protocols.

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11,293 Citations



Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1145/288235.288286
25 Oct 1998-
Abstract: b this paper we present a case for using new power-aware metn.cs for determining routes in wireless ad hoc networks. We present five ~erent metriw based on battery power consumption at nodw. We show that using th=e metrics in a shortest-cost routing algorithm reduces the cost/packet of routing packets by 5-30% over shortwt-hop routing (this cost reduction is on top of a 40-70% reduction in energy consumption obtained by using PAMAS, our MAC layer prtocol). Furthermore, using these new metrics ensures that the mean time to node failure is increased si~cantly. An interesting property of using shortest-cost routing is that packet delays do not increase. Fintiy, we note that our new metrim can be used in most tradition routing protocols for ad hoc networks.

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1,879 Citations




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