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Engineering software-based motivation: A persona-based approach

01 Jun 2016-pp 1-12

TL;DR: This paper proposes the use of personas as an intermediate step which increases efficiency in the engineering process for both engineers and users and presents guidelines and challenges related to using persona-based engineering methods for software-based motivation.
Abstract: Software-based motivation refers to the use of technology to enhance the engagement and efficiency of people in performing tasks and following a certain behaviour. Instances of such paradigm include gamification, persuasive technology and entertainment computing. Despite its potential, an ad-hoc introduction of software-based motivation to a business environment may lead to detrimental effects such as creating pressure and tension, and also reducing quality and authenticity. Hence, we advocate the need for a systematic engineering process to develop software solutions for motivation requirements. One of the challenges is in the high diversity in users' perception and acceptance of motivation strategies and their software-based incarnations. In this paper, we propose the use of personas as an intermediate step which increases efficiency in the engineering process for both engineers and users. We conduct an empirical research and identify elements which describe people with regard to their perception and preferences towards software-based motivational techniques and create a set of exemplary personas to aid the engineering process. We also present guidelines and challenges related to using persona-based engineering methods for software-based motivation.

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Engineering Software-based Motivation: a
Persona-based Approach
Alimohammad Shahri
, Mahmood Hosseini
, Malik Almaliki
, Keith Phalp
, Jacqui Taylor
, Raian Ali
Faculty of Science and Technology
Bournemouth University, UK
{ashahri, mhosseini, kphalp, jtaylor, rali}@bournemouth.ac.uk
College of Science and Computer Engineering
Taibah University, KSA
mrmalki@taibahu.edu.sa
Abstract—Software-based motivation refers to the use of tech-
nology to enhance the engagement and efficiency of people in
performing tasks and following a certain behaviour. Instances
of such paradigm include gamification, persuasive technology
and entertainment computing. Despite its potential, an ad-
hoc introduction of software-based motivation to a business
environment may lead to detrimental effects such as creating
pressure and tension, and also reducing quality and authenticity.
Hence, we advocate the need for a systematic engineering process
to develop software solutions for motivation requirements. One
of the challenges is in the high diversity in users’ perception
and acceptance of motivation strategies and their software-based
incarnations. In this paper, we propose the use of personas as an
intermediate step which increases efficiency in the engineering
process for both engineers and users. We conduct an empirical
research and identify elements which describe people with regard
to their perception and preferences towards software-based
motivational techniques and create a set of exemplary personas
to aid the engineering process. We also present guidelines and
challenges related to using persona-based engineering methods
for software-based motivation.
Index Terms—Software-based motivation, Gamification, Per-
suasive Technology, Personas, User Centred Design, Social Adap-
tation
I. INTRODUCTION
Motivation is a well established topic in psychology and
other disciplines such as business management, education, and
health care. Despite having a vast amount of definitions in the
literature [1], a widely accepted definition of motivation is
the “psychological processes that cause the arousal, direction,
and persistence of behaviour” [2]. In addition, a motive can
be described as the substance that can increase the will of a
person to perform a particular behaviour [3]. With the recent
advances in computer technology, software-based motivation
[4] has seen a rapid growth, with the intention of changing
the behaviour of its users [5]. Changing humans’ behaviour
is in the interest of various disciplines, e.g., psychology
[6], business management [7], education [8], and healthcare
[9]. There are several strategies towards designing software-
based motivation and trying to model behavioural change
and persuasion in a technological context, such as Fogg’s
persuasive strategies [10]. New advances in computing have
enabled software-based solutions for business information
systems (BIS) to increase motivation in a business setting.
These techniques aim to persuade their users to change their
behaviour towards a desired one through persuasion, social
influence, and rewarding, but not coercion [10].
Despite several instances of successful implementations of
such software-based motivation being present in the literature
[11], we argue that introducing software-based motivation to
a BIS needs extra care. An ad-hoc introduction of software-
based motivation to a BIS may fail to achieve the desired goals
of its design, and also be detrimental. It is argued that ad-hoc
design of software-based motivation can menace social and
mental well-being of its users [12], [13].
One of the important factors in the success of software-
based motivation is related to people’s perception of the
motives introduced to them. An engineering approach would
need to cater for such diverse perceptions so that a healthy
application of software-based motivation is achieved. This
can help achieving a software-based motivation closer to its
users’ preferences which may lead to a better fulfilment of
one business goal of the BIS, that is increasing motivation.
An increase in motivation can increase the quality, increase
the productivity, and also enhance the social and mental well-
being of people within the workplace.
Despite the importance of involving people in the design
process for successful software-based motivation solutions,
this involvement has its own implications and costs which stem
mainly from the high diversity in users’ preferences of such
a highly personal requirement. People can differ from each
other in five aspects of their personality [14]. This means that
a high number of distinct personalities and their preferences
on motivational elements of software-based motivation can
exist. Thus, it is hard to design a software-based motivation
setting that can satisfy every single personality and preference.
Therefore, we advocate the use of personas [15] in order
to create a starting point in the design of software-based
motivation and also decrease its costs. There are several uses
of personas in software engineering, such as using personas in
acquiring user feedback [16]. Mainly, using personas can help
software engineers to avoid a cold start in user modelling and
preferences elicitation.
Although the use of personas seems to be a promising
method in identifying possible preferred settings of software-
based motivation, creating personas is a challenging task and

there is no one-size-fits-all method for this purpose [17]. A
pragmatic solution is based on eliciting users’ perceptions and
requirements with regard to a particular domain or design
facet, e.g., motivation, and utilising such data in creating
meaningful and actionable segments of users and representing
them through fictional characters, i.e. personas [18].
In this paper, we conduct an empirical research and propose
a set of constituents that can aid structuring and shaping
users’ preferences on software-based motivation and creating
personas for that domain. Users’ social and mental well-
being within their workplace is a main driver of our study.
These constituents help software designers to identify clus-
ters and segments of their actual users with most similar
preferences. This, consequently, will help the development
of distinctive personas for each of the identified clusters and
segments. Personas help to reduce the open space of possible
personalities and attitudes and the cost of catering for their
needs, requirements, and preferences [19]. It is noteworthy
that personas are highly context-dependent and each user pop-
ulation and business may lead to a distinctive set of personas.
Therefore, we propose a set of challenges when designing and
employing personas in software design, including the selection
of a representative user sample, elicitation of their preferences,
identification of their clusters, creation of suitable motives for
each persona and setting up the evolution plan for motives.
The rest of the paper is structured as follows. Section II
describes the methodology we followed in identifying the
aspects of software-based motivation that have impact on
social and mental well-being of users within their workplace.
In Section III, we provide information about personas, how
they are created, how they should be customised in order to be
used for software-based motivation, and present our developed
personas. In Section IV, we discuss how personas can be used
to help designers to align a motivation configuration with a
given persona. In Section V, we discuss the challenges soft-
ware designers may encounter during persona development.
We conclude our paper in Section VI.
II. METHODOLOGY
In order to identify aspects of software-based motivation
that can influence social and mental well-being of the users
within workplaces, this research has conducted empirical
studies. Initially, an expert study consisting of interviews
and a survey was performed to elicit experts views on best
practice advices on the design of software-based motivation.
Six experts were interviewed and 40 experts have participated
in the survey. Next was a qualitative study based on the results
of the previous stage in order to clarify the findings with
12 managers and employees. Third phase focused on users’
preferences and their opinions on the identified aspects of
software-based motivation. In this phase, 10 employees were
interviewed. Lastly, 10 psychologists were asked for their
opinions on the resulted personas. All the interviews were
recorded and transcribed. In the following, we describe each
phase in more details.
Following an extensive literature review, interviews and
survey studies with experts in persuasive technology and gam-
ification were used to elaborate on different views over best
practice advices for the design of software-based motivation.
The interviews followed a semi-structured approach and the
survey study was designed as open ended in order to allow
experts to add additional insights that were not thought of
prior to the studies. Table I illustrates the characteristics
of the participants and Table II provides the distribution of
them regarding their country of origin and area of expertise.
Participation in this phase was by invitation only to ensure
collected answers were from actual experts in the domain.
The full list of interview and survey questions are available
via https://goo.gl/7xGtgT.
TABLE I: Characteristics of the Participants
Years of Experience Level of Practical Experience
Min 1 Expert 7 18%
Max 10 High 18 45%
Mean 3.12 Medium 14 35%
Median 3 Low 1 3%
Mode 3 None 0 0%
Next phase of this study was aimed at clarifying the findings
of the previous phase from the perspective of the users. Twelve
people familiar with computers and software-based motivation
with industrial experience were invited to participate in this
phase of the study. To keep the opinions diverse, seven
employees and ve managers were interviewed. Participants
were all familiar with software-based motivation and used
computers as a main medium for their jobs. Diversity in age,
gender and work domain was also ensured, including nine
males and three females, and their age ranged from 30 to 58
years old. The full list of interview questions can be found on
https://goo.gl/QlQ0Cz.
For the next stage, considering the identified aspects of
software-based motivation that can affect the perception of
users regarding their social and mental well-being within
workplace, 10 people were invited to take part in interviews.
The participants’ age ranged from 24 to 37 years old, consist-
ing of 4 females and 6 males with a balanced academic and
industrial experience. The interviews were aimed at eliciting
users’ preferences and priorities on different settings that
software-based motivation could offer. Participants provided
their priorities and opinions about various settings of software-
based motivation. Moreover, they provided actions they may
take where applicable, e.g., decreasing the quality of their
work to just receive points. The results of this phase of
the study, along with the rest of the findings, helped us in
shaping the persona constituents necessary for structuring and
developing personas. Furthermore, six different personas were
created and used in the next phase of the study. The full list of
interview questions can be found on https://goo.gl/QxvOye.
Finally, we have asked psychologists for their opinions re-
garding the created personas. This stage was focused on iden-
tifying if the created personas seemed realistic to them with
regards to software-based motivation and users’ preferences
related to social and mental well-being within workplace. All
personas and the persona constituents were explained in details
for the psychologists. They have been given one week to study
and reflect their opinions. Their feedback was used to analyse
and enhance the persona constituents and the created personas.

TABLE II: Distribution of Participants
Participants per Country Participants per Area of Expertise
UK 11 Switzerland 2 Education 11 Exertion Interfaces 1
USA 6 China 1 Psychology 7 General 1
Netherlands 6 Italy 1 Enterprise 4 HCI 1
France 3 Japan 1 Tourism 4 Marketing 1
Germany 3 Taiwan 1 Linguistics 3 Modelling and Theory 1
Portugal 2 Norway 1 Game Design 2 Sociology 1
Spain 2 Software Ergonomics 2 Software Engineering 1
III. PERSONAS
The result of this study suggests that people have di-
verse requirements, preferences, and perceptions about various
approaches that software-based motivation uses in order to
motivate them with regards to their social and mental well-
being within workplaces. As mentioned earlier, it is not
feasible to design a software-based motivation that satisfies the
requirements of all users. However, we propose the adoption
of developing personas in the design phase of software-based
motivation in order to tackle this challenge by reducing the
number of user types to an actionable amount. The concept
of persona is rooted in marketing [15] and is used as an
interactive design tool to model users’ requirements in the
process of software development [20], [21].
As a user centred design (UCD) approach, Cooper [15]
advocates the use of personas in shifting the focus of the
design towards the end-users of the software system and their
requirements. Cooper defines personas as fictional characters
that each can describe different types of users and their
requirements through ethnographic and empirical analysis of
the actual end-users of the software system. Also, Idoughi et.
al [22] mentioned that personas try to model the user and point
out their important characteristics, goals, and requirements. In
order to give life to the fictional personas, usually they are
assigned names, age, gender, photos, and jobs.
A. Why Personas
Developing personas should aid software designers to con-
sider the requirements of the actual users in the design process
[20] and this can help achieving a software system that is
closer to the requirements, needs, and preferences of the final
end-users. There are several benefits to the use of personas as
discussed in [23], [24], [19], [25]:
Instead of abstract user information, software engineers
will relate to personas easier as they are given life
Software engineers and software designers can commu-
nicate with each other in a fast and effective manner
through the use of personas
Personas will make the design closer to the actual end-
users’ requirements, rather than what is convenient for
the stakeholders
Personas will enable designers to view the system from
the lens of other users, and not just themselves
By creating a subset of users, designers will be able to
focus more on satisfying the requirements of each user
type
Fig. 1: Involvement of Personas in Software Engineering [25]
Personas can aid the validation of the software by review-
ing the needs and requirements of personas against the
behaviour of the software system
Personas can inspire the designers in the design process
(see Fig. 1)
These benefits resemble the potential benefits of developing
and using personas in the design process of software-based
motivation as a solution to tackle the challenge of satisfying
the requirements of end users. Personas can help software
designers and software engineers by creating a channel of
communication between the actual users and the designers.
This can help achieving a software-based motivation that is
more acceptable by users from the social and mental well-
being aspects.
B. Creating Personas
Using personas in the design of software-based motivation
can be a helpful way of having a closer design to the actual
requirements of its users. However, developing a representative
set of personas is a challenging task on its own and there is no
one-size-fits-all solution for creating personas [17]. As Mulder
and Yaar [17] state, the most traditional approach for designing
personas follows the following steps (as illustrated in Fig. 2):
Qualitative research: This refers to various types of
studies, such as interviewing with end users, usually
between 10 to 20 people, usability testing which involves
observing users behaviour, or field studies, that is observ-
ing users in their native environment which has the benefit
of asking about users goals and attitudes in a real-world
case.
Segmentation: Creating groups of users based on the
gathered data from the qualitative research is performed
mainly with the goal of finding patterns in users be-
haviours or requirements and assign them to a similar

Fig. 2: Persona Creation Approach [17]
group. Typically, each group has a different attitude, goal,
and/or behaviour in comparison with other groups.
Creating personas: Each segmented type of users can be
transformed into a persona by giving life to them. This is
performed by supplying them with names, age, gender,
picture, and scenarios.
One way to develop a representative set of personas is to
elicit qualitative and quantitative data about the users and turn
them into understandable fictional characters that can help
designing a certain product [18]. There are several factors that
define how personas should be designed [17]:
Methods used and expenses they need (Money, time,
resources), in order to elicit the information,
how the created personas will be used, and
final users of personas and their requirements
C. Personas for Software-based motivation
In order to perform the qualitative phase of developing
personas, it should be known which aspects and properties
of software-based motivation can affect the social and mental
well-being of its users. By further analysing our findings in
[12] and an additional user study, we come up with the con-
stituents which are important for the users from the perspective
of their social and mental well-being in their workplace.
In the following we describe the constituents and illustrate
them in Fig. 3. In this section, we provide users’ views
on various properties on software-based motivation and their
social and mental well-being within workplaces. We structure
our discussion on these properties using Fogg’s persuasive
model [10]. Furthermore, we use this model as a baseline for
the identification of personas constituents which will aid us in
the development of personas with regards to social and mental
well-being of the users, as illustrated in Fig. 3.
1) Persuasive Tools and Social and Mental Well-being:
Here, we describe how persuasive tools can affect social and
mental well-being of the users of software-based motivation.
Tunnelling and reduction: An instance of tunnelling and
reduction in software-based motivation techniques is goal
setting. It means that users are given pre-defined and step-
by-step instructions to perform certain tasks. It enables users
to monitor their progress by collecting information regarding
the progress of each step. Users have shown various opinions
towards tunnelling. Some users liked the idea and stated
that it will ease their job. They found it helpful to have
decisions already made for them. However, some found this
feature of tunnelling and reduction to be restrictive and stated
that “it will make me work like a robot”. These users were
interested in having the freedom to choose how to perform
their tasks instead. Moreover, some others showed interest in
having the steps towards achieving the goals, if given the
freedom in defining the steps. Users had various opinions
on the monitoring aspect of this mechanism. This was of
interest of some users as this would inform them in case their
task is dependent on another. Some others were worried their
managers using this as a leverage to make them to work more.
Tunnelling and reduction requires information related to the
performance of its users. Users found this aspect to have an
impact on their perception regarding software-based motiva-
tion being a source of pressure or stress. A main concern was
the frequency of updating. Some users wanted to know about
their progress status, reflected by points, instantly. They found
it stressful to wait for a period of time to figure out how
many points they have achieved. Some others preferred longer
intervals, from one day interval to weekly updates. “It will kill
the joy if I get the points instantly, I want to feel accomplished
when I am done with my task”. Others also mentioned that
they preferred to have the element of surprise, and receiving
all the achievements at the end of the week would provide
them with such element and give them more motivation.
Tailoring and suggestion: A common example of tailoring
and suggestion is the feedback provided to the users. Feedback
is generally an analysis on the performance of users in a
period of time. Feedback can be generated algorithmically,
by means of computer or can be created for individuals by
means of managers or people with the authority. Users had
different opinions on this feature of software-based motivation
with regards to their social and mental well-being within
their workplace. Some preferred human generated feedback
over computer generated one. They believed that a computer
cannot understand and take into account circumstances in
humans’ life. Therefore, users thought this could be a source
of pressure as they cannot describe to a computer the source
and cause of problems. On the other hand, some preferred a
computer generated feedback as an algorithm cannot have bias.
This assures them of a fair feedback. Otherwise, they worry
if “managers have [subjectively] favoured another employee
over them”. Another aspect being important for users is the
frequency of receiving feedbacks. Various frequencies were of
interest of users. Some found more frequent feedback to be
useful and helpful, stating “if I am doing wrong, I prefer to
know it soon so I have time to fix it”. Some others found less
frequent feedbacks to be useful and less stressful.
Conditioning: This refers to introducing incentives and
punishments for the users. Incentives could be virtual goods
such as badges that software-based motivation gives to users
or could be tangible rewards such as gift cards. Moreover, a
negative reinforcement could be in place to prevent unwanted
behaviours. Despite being motivating, having a negative rein-
forcement by itself is a source of pressure and stress. However,
positive reinforcement can be demotivating or even a source

Persona
Constituents
Collaboration
Nature of Users
Collaborative
Competitive
Goal Setting
Control Over
Settings
Opt-out
Possibility
Privacy
Self Only
Managers
Everyone
Performance
and Feedback
Frequency
Generation Type
Incentives
Quality Based
Availability
Value
Chance of Winning
Conditioning
Tailoring and Suggestion
Surveillance and Monitoring
Tunnelling and Reduction
Fig. 3: Persona Constituents
of issue if not aligned with the preferences of users.
As such, the rewarding strategy was of importance for users.
An aspect of the reward that concerned all users was the
relativity of the reward with the effort needed to achieve it.
Some preferred to have higher chance of winning, even if it
means reducing the value of the reward. They did not find a
big prize appealing as they found it hard to achieve. It was
mentioned by some users that “same people are going to win
the prize anyway, what is the point of even trying”. On the
other hand, some users stated that it is not fair for the first
place winner to receive a reward the same or similar to the
20th place. They preferred to have a reward with high value
available. “I want to receive a reward that reflects my efforts”.
Surveillance and self-monitoring: Software-based motiva-
tion collects various forms of performance data. It is consid-
ered as surveillance in Fogg’s model when managers, peers, or
others within the workplace have access to all, or part of the
collected data. It is also considered as self-monitoring when
the users themselves use the performance data to track their
progress or achievements.
People had different perceptions of such feature and some
of them said that they would quit and will not tolerate such
characteristics in their workplace. As a part of performance
evaluation and appraisals, managers have access to perfor-
mance information of employees in classical working envi-
ronments. However, in contrast with periodic reviews, some
found it a source of stress if software-based motivation could
provide managers with real-time information. Users found
various aspects of software-based motivation as a monitoring
mechanism to be influential in their preference regarding their
social and mental well-being within their working environ-
ment. A proportion of users found it motivating to compete
with other peers and have access to each other’s information
as a result. Some others preferred an inner-group competition
and wanted the information to be available to peers from same
departments. Some others preferred to have information avail-
able to themselves and managers only. Moreover, a proportion
of users had no issue if only their general information was
available to others, i.e., their strengths and skill points.
2) Personas Constituents: In this subsection, we provide
our findings of constituents that are important and need to be
taken into account in the process of creating personas.
Collaboration nature of the users: This is a contextual
constituent that needs to be considered prior to the design
of software-based motivation and personas. It refers to the
preferences of users on whether to compete or collaborate
towards achieving certain goals. In our study, some users
showed interest in a strategy that promotes competition and
individualism. It was stated that, “I am a competitive person,
I seek competition”, for these users, a collaborative strategy
would be a source of pressure as they showed concerns
about situations where they have to “pull others weights”
and do others’ job for being able to stand out in the crowd.
On the other hand, a proportion of users showed interest
in collaborating with others to achieve their goals. “I don’t
like to compete with others in my work, it will definitely
increase the tension in the environment”. Some other users
were interested in a strategy that promotes both collaboration
and competition. “I don’t like to compete with everyone in
my working environment, but I will enjoy a friendly inner-
group competition”. Finally, to some users, having a short-
time competition, for instance, a competition in the training
course was interesting, however, a long-term competition in
the workplace could be “too much of tension”.
Incentives: Software-based motivation can provide tangible
and intangible incentives and rewards in order to motivate
its users. From the perspective of users, there were several
important aspects that may influence their motivation and
perception. Users were concerned about the relativity of the
reward with the efforts needed to achieve it and the possibility
of winning the reward. Some expressed that a reward low in
value will not motivate them to put their best efforts to achieve
it, stating that “if I am the first in the list, I want to win big,
I don’t want a small prize for being the best in the work”.
On the other hand, some expressed that they preferred to have
rewards lower in value, but higher in number to have a higher
chance of winning. A big prize is motivating, but after a
while, I will just give up. A certain number of people are
going to win anyway all the time. I think it is better to have a
higher chance of winning, however, the prize should still mean
something to me for the effort I need to put”. It was mentioned
that providing a combination of high, medium, and low value
incentives for the users could be an appealing solution as it
can cover the preferences of all users from this aspect.

Citations
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Book ChapterDOI
Javed Ali Khan1, Lin Liu1, Lijie Wen1, Raian Ali2Institutions (2)
18 Mar 2019-
TL;DR: A survey of the literature on crowd-based requirements engineering research helps to understand the current research achievements, the areas of concentration, and how requirements related activities can be enhanced by crowd intelligence.
Abstract: Software systems are the joint creative products of multiple stakeholders, including both designers and users, based on their perception, knowledge and personal preferences of the application context. The rapid rise in the use of Internet, mobile and social media applications make it even more possible to provide channels to link a large pool of highly diversified and physically distributed designers and end users, the crowd. Converging the knowledge of designers and end users in requirements engineering process is essential for the success of software systems. In this paper, we report the findings of a survey of the literature on crowd-based requirements engineering research. It helps us understand the current research achievements, the areas of concentration, and how requirements related activities can be enhanced by crowd intelligence. Based on the survey, we propose a general research map and suggest the possible future roles of crowd intelligence in requirements engineering.

28 citations


Cites background from "Engineering software-based motivati..."

  • ...In fact, a one-size-fits all style for motivation would not work and personalization and cultural-awareness are needed [95, 96]....

    [...]


Dissertation
29 Jun 2018-
TL;DR: This thesis proposes a method that supports the ability to adapt the scope and functionalities of an online peer group platform to fit various peer groups styles and dynamics with the aim of maintaining the validity and quality over the behaviour awareness and change programme.
Abstract: Digital Addiction (DA) denotes a problematic relation with the technology described by being compulsive, obsessive, impulsive and hasty. Recent research identified cases where digital usage shows symptoms of the clinical criteria of behavioural addiction. Peer groups approach is one of the strategies to combat addictive behaviours. It can provide a motivational and learning environment, and ambivalence reduction through sharing, counselling and mutual helping. Hosting peer groups online as a domain-specific social networking service can empower behaviour awareness and change communication including the case of combatting DA. Unlike other behaviours and their change mechanisms, DA as a problematic behaviour, and online peer group share the same space and operational modality. This can empower the online behaviour monitoring and the interaction towards combatting DA in a real-time and transparent style. However, building online peer groups platforms and customizing their functional and interactive features to fit the needs and characteristics of a specific group is a complex process. Also, this requires a careful theoretical understanding of these systems unique variables and attributes which include interactivity, anonymity, equity, profiling, presence and transparency. An ad-hoc design of such persuasive information systems may not only fail to achieve the desired outcomes but may cause significant harm, e.g. lowering self-esteem and counterproductive upward and downward comparisons, etc. As such, the goal of this thesis is to devise a method towards a better-managed design of this technology so that we increase its chance to combat DA. To achieve this goal, the thesis first takes an exploratory approach through several empirical studies including qualitative meta-analysis, qualitative user studies and observational investigations. The findings indicate that the design process of such systems should actively involve end-users to accommodate their needs and expectations and that the design shall have a customizable ecology. The findings were used to propose a method that supports the ability to adapt the scope and functionalities of an online peer group platform to fit various peer groups styles and dynamics with the aim of maintaining the validity and quality over the behaviour awareness and change programme. The method proposed in this thesis involves different roles (people with DA, counsellors, software designers), and has a participatory nature which is a natural fit to the spirit and remit of peer groups. The primary contribution of this thesis is twofold: i) a reference model for designing interactive online peer groups platforms to combat DA, ii) a method inspired by participatory design paradigm to customise the interaction environment for different groups. The method is evaluated in terms of its ease of use, comprehensiveness, appropriateness, and usefulness through a design case study. The results show the potential and applicability of the method in providing an enhanced design process for online peer group platforms to regulate DA in comparison to general purposes development methods which do not cater for the nuances and peculiarities of this particular user group, i.e. people with DA, and the peer group environment. A set of heuristics and guidelines are also derived. One notable recommendation is the recommendation to use the approach when dealing with moderate DA cases in ways that do not interfere with the decision- making about DA, but rather provide tools and platforms to facilitate taking those decisions effectively and in an informed style.

16 citations


Cites background or methods from "Engineering software-based motivati..."

  • ...SbM is another engineering framework which was proposed by Shahri et al. (2016) to look into the design of Digital Motivation (DM) technology within work environments....

    [...]

  • ...…based on i) the Personas Page | 47 approach to group people based on their characteristics, ii) feedback elicitation, e.g. (Almaliki et al. 2015, Shahri et al. 2016), to adapt the system and ensure meeting the motivational requirements, maximise the level of acceptance and minimise side effects…...

    [...]


Book ChapterDOI
04 Apr 2017-
TL;DR: The proposed strategies are meant to inform developers and management on how to design, set-up and introduce Digital Motivation to a business environment, maximize its efficiency and minimize its side-effects on teamwork.
Abstract: Digital Motivation in business refers to the use of technology in order to facilitate a change of attitude, perception and behaviour with regards to adopting policies, achieving goals and executing tasks. It is a broad term to indicate existing and emerging paradigms such as Gamification, Persuasive Technology, Serious Games and Entertainment Computing. Our previous research indicated risks when applying Digital Motivation. One of these main risks is the impact it can have on the interpersonal relationships between colleagues and their individual and collective performance. It may lead to a feeling of unfairness and trigger negative group processes (such as social loafing and unofficial clustering) and adverse work ethics. In this paper, we propose a set of strategies to minimize such risks and then consolidate these strategies through an empirical study involving managers, practitioners and users. The strategies are then analysed for their goal, stage and purpose of use to add further guidance. The strategies and their classification are meant to inform developers and management on how to design, set-up and introduce Digital Motivation to a business environment, maximize its efficiency and minimize its side-effects on teamwork.

14 citations


Cites background or methods from "Engineering software-based motivati..."

  • ...This research builds on our previous studies conducted in [15, 20, 21], which include interviews and open-ended surveys with experts, managers, and end-users in the domain of DM....

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  • ...In this paper, we build on our previous results presented in [15, 20, 21] and identify strategies that DM development and management can adopt to introduce DM into the workplace with the aim of minimizing the risks it may introduce into teamwork....

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  • ...In [21], we developed various personas and argued that individual differences need to be catered for DM design and customization to maximize its acceptance and efficiency and also avoid the side-effects discussed in [15]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Majid Altuwairiqi1, Nan Jiang1, Raian Ali1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: Five behavioural archetypes are developed, characterising how social media users differ in their problematic attachments to them, to facilitate effective ideation, creativity, and communication during the design process and helping the elicitation and customisation of the variability in the requirements and design of behaviour change tools for combatting problematic usage of social media.
Abstract: Today, social media play an important role in people’s daily lives. Many people use social media to satisfy their personal and social needs, such as enhancing self-image, acquiring self-esteem, and gaining popularity. However, when social media are used obsessively and excessively, behavioural addiction symptoms can occur, leading to negative impacts on one’s life, which is defined as a problematic attachment to social media. Research suggests that tools can be provided to assist the change of problematic attachment behaviour, but it remains unclear how such tools should be designed and personalised to meet individual needs and profiles. This study makes the first attempt to tackle this problem by developing five behavioural archetypes, characterising how social media users differ in their problematic attachments to them. The archetypes are meant to facilitate effective ideation, creativity, and communication during the design process and helping the elicitation and customisation of the variability in the requirements and design of behaviour change tools for combatting problematic usage of social media. This was achieved by using a four-phase qualitative study where the diary study method was considered at the initial stage, and also the refinement and confirmation stage, to enhance ecological validity.

11 citations


Cites background from "Engineering software-based motivati..."

  • ...Thus, the design of social media needs to consider the differences that users may have in their characteristics based on different configurations of software-based intervention, to facilitate the social welfare of users [95]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A novel modelling language is proposed which enables capturing digital motivation as an integral part of the organisational and social structure of a business, captured via goal models, and how modelling of motivational techniques at this level, the goal level, enables a more powerful analysis that informs the introduction, design and management of digital motivation.
Abstract: Digital motivation refers to the use of software-based solutions to change, enhance, or maintain people’s attitude and behaviour towards specific tasks, policies, and regulations. Gamification, persuasive technology, and entertainment computing are example strands of such a paradigm. Digital motivation has unique properties which necessitate careful consideration of its analysis design methods. This stems from the strong human factor involvement, and if it is not implemented effectively, it can result in digital motivation being perceived negatively or leading to reduced motivation. The emerging literature on the topic includes approaches for creating digital motivation solutions. However, their primary focus is on specifying its operation, for example, the design of feedback, rewards and levels. In this paper, we propose a novel modelling language which enables capturing digital motivation as an integral part of the organisational and social structure of a business, captured via goal models. We also demonstrate how modelling of motivational techniques at this level, the goal level, enables a more powerful analysis that informs the introduction, design and management of digital motivation. Finally, we evaluate the language and its analysis using different perspectives and quality measures and report the results.

8 citations


Cites background or methods from "Engineering software-based motivati..."

  • ...As we recognise the individual differences and the fact that an organisational role is not enough to describe a person, we introduced the concept of personas in [45] where we elicit the elements which differentiate people in their preferences and issue with DM in the business environment....

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  • ...They are built using five different aspects: incentives, performance and feedback, privacy, goal setting, and collaboration nature [45]....

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  • ...Also, we discovered from our findings in [45, 46] that staff pay much attention to privacy and the performance information being captured about them when the DM systems and managers want to decide the reward....

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  • ...In DMML underpinning research, we have provided a set of personals and personality identifiers concerning people acceptance of DM [45]....

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References
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Oliver P. John1, Sanjay SrivastavaInstitutions (1)
01 Jan 1999-
Abstract: 2 Taxonomy is always a contentious issue because the world does not come to us in neat little packages (S. Personality has been conceptualized from a variety of theoretical perspectives, and at various levels of Each of these levels has made unique contributions to our understanding of individual differences in behavior and experience. However, the number of personality traits, and scales designed to measure them, escalated without an end in sight (Goldberg, 1971). Researchers, as well as practitioners in the field of personality assessment, were faced with a bewildering array of personality scales from which to choose, with little guidance and no overall rationale at hand. What made matters worse was that scales with the same name often measure concepts that are not the same, and scales with different names often measure concepts that are quite similar. Although diversity and scientific pluralism are useful, the systematic accumulation of findings and the communication among researchers became difficult amidst the Babel of concepts and scales. Many personality researchers had hoped that they might devise the structure that would transform the Babel into a community speaking a common language. However, such an integration was not to be achieved by any one researcher or by any one theoretical perspective. As Allport once put it, " each assessor has his own pet units and uses a pet battery of diagnostic devices " (1958, p. 258). What personality psychology needed was a descriptive model, or taxonomy, of its subject matter. One of the central goals of scientific taxonomies is the definition of overarching domains within which large numbers of specific instances can be understood in a simplified way. Thus, in personality psychology, a taxonomy would permit researchers to study specified domains of personality characteristics, rather than examining separately the thousands of particular attributes that make human beings individual and unique. Moreover, a generally accepted taxonomy would greatly facilitate the accumulation and communication of empirical findings by offering a standard vocabulary, or nomenclature. After decades of research, the field is approaching consensus on a general taxonomy of personality traits, the " Big Five " personality dimensions. These dimensions do not represent a particular theoretical perspective but were derived from analyses of the natural-language terms people use to describe themselves 3 and others. Rather than replacing all previous systems, the Big Five taxonomy serves an integrative function because it can represent the various and diverse systems of personality …

7,256 citations


"Engineering software-based motivati..." refers background in this paper

  • ...There are several strategies towards designing softwarebased motivation and trying to model behavioural change and persuasion in a technological context, such as Fogg’s persuasive strategies [10]....

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  • ...We structure our discussion on these properties using Fogg’s persuasive model [10]....

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  • ...It is considered as surveillance in Fogg’s model when managers, peers, or others within the workplace have access to all, or part of the collected data....

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Book
30 Dec 2002-
TL;DR: Mother Nature knows best--How engineered organizations of the future will resemble natural-born systems.
Abstract: Mother Nature knows best--How engineered organizations of the future will resemble natural-born systems.

3,557 citations


"Engineering software-based motivati..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...This can help achieving a software-based motivation that is more acceptable by users from the social and mental wellbeing aspects....

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  • ...One of the challenges is in the high diversity in users’ perception and acceptance of motivation strategies and their software-based incarnations....

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  • ...We conduct an empirical research and identify elements which describe people with regard to their perception and preferences towards software-based motivational techniques and create a set of exemplary personas to aid the engineering process....

    [...]


Proceedings ArticleDOI
06 Jan 2014-
TL;DR: The review indicates that gamification provides positive effects, however, the effects are greatly dependent on the context in which the gamification is being implemented, as well as on the users using it.
Abstract: This paper reviews peer-reviewed empirical studies on gamification. We create a framework for examining the effects of gamification by drawing from the definitions of gamification and the discussion on motivational affordances. The literature review covers results, independent variables (examined motivational affordances), dependent variables (examined psychological/behavioral outcomes from gamification), the contexts of gamification, and types of studies performed on the gamified systems. The paper examines the state of current research on the topic and points out gaps in existing literature. The review indicates that gamification provides positive effects, however, the effects are greatly dependent on the context in which the gamification is being implemented, as well as on the users using it. The findings of the review provide insight for further studies as well as for the design of gamified systems.

2,555 citations


"Engineering software-based motivati..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...We conduct an empirical research and identify elements which describe people with regard to their perception and preferences towards software-based motivational techniques and create a set of exemplary personas to aid the engineering process....

    [...]


Book
01 Jan 1994-
Abstract: Practical Surveys. Cornerstones of a Quality Survey. Deciding What Information You Need. Choosing a Survey Method. When and How to Select a Sample. Writing Good Questions. Questionnaire Design. Setting Your Survey in Motion and Getting It Done. From Questionnaires to Survey Results. Reporting Survey Results. Advice, Resources, and Maintaining Perspective. References. Index.

2,220 citations


Book
15 Dec 1999-
Abstract: For a current, practical introduction to the field of sampling that you'll want to keep close at hand, Sharon L. Lohr's SAMPLING: DESIGN AND ANALYSIS, 2ND EDITION, answers the call. Practical and authoritative, the book is listed as a standard reference for training on real-world survey problems by a number of prominent surveying organizations. Lohr concentrates on the statistical aspects of taking and analyzing a sample, incorporating a multitude of applications from a variety of disciplines. The text gives guidance on how to tell when a sample is valid or not, and how to design and analyze many different forms of sample surveys. Recent research on theoretical and applied aspects of sampling is included, as well as technology instructions for using statistical software with survey data.

2,098 citations


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