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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2021.01.051

Enteric helminth coinfection enhances host susceptibility to neurotropic flaviviruses via a tuft cell-IL-4 receptor signaling axis

04 Mar 2021-Cell (Cell Press)-Vol. 184, Iss: 5
Abstract: Summary Although enteric helminth infections modulate immunity to mucosal pathogens, their effects on systemic microbes remain less established. Here, we observe increased mortality in mice coinfected with the enteric helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb) and West Nile virus (WNV). This enhanced susceptibility is associated with altered gut morphology and transit, translocation of commensal bacteria, impaired WNV-specific T cell responses, and increased virus infection in the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system. These outcomes were due to type 2 immune skewing, because coinfection in Stat6−/− mice rescues mortality, treatment of helminth-free WNV-infected mice with interleukin (IL)-4 mirrors coinfection, and IL-4 receptor signaling in intestinal epithelial cells mediates the susceptibility phenotypes. Moreover, tuft cell-deficient mice show improved outcomes with coinfection, whereas treatment of helminth-free mice with tuft cell-derived cytokine IL-25 or ligand succinate worsens WNV disease. Thus, helminth activation of tuft cell-IL-4-receptor circuits in the gut exacerbates infection and disease of a neurotropic flavivirus.

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Topics: Tuft cell (59%), Coinfection (56%), Heligmosomoides polygyrus (54%) ... read more
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12 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2021.10.004
Tomasz Ahrends1, Begüm Aydin1, Fanny Matheis1, Cajsa H. Classon1  +5 moreInstitutions (3)
11 Nov 2021-Cell
Abstract: Summary The enteric nervous system (ENS) controls several intestinal functions including motility and nutrient handling, which can be disrupted by infection-induced neuropathies or neuronal cell death. We investigated possible tolerance mechanisms preventing neuronal loss and disruption in gut motility after pathogen exposure. We found that following enteric infections, muscularis macrophages (MMs) acquire a tissue-protective phenotype that prevents neuronal loss, dysmotility, and maintains energy balance during subsequent challenge with unrelated pathogens. Bacteria-induced neuroprotection relied on activation of gut-projecting sympathetic neurons and signaling via β2-adrenergic receptors (β2AR) on MMs. In contrast, helminth-mediated neuroprotection was dependent on T cells and systemic production of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 by eosinophils, which induced arginase-expressing MMs that prevented neuronal loss from an unrelated infection located in a different intestinal region. Collectively, these data suggest that distinct enteric pathogens trigger a state of disease or tissue tolerance that preserves ENS number and functionality.

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Topics: Neuroprotection (55%), Enteric nervous system (54%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41385-021-00443-1
01 Sep 2021-Mucosal Immunology
Abstract: The enteric nervous system (ENS) of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract interacts with the local immune system bidirectionally. Recent publications have demonstrated that such interactions can maintain normal GI functions during homeostasis and contribute to pathological symptoms during infection and inflammation. Infection can also induce long-term changes of the ENS resulting in the development of post-infectious GI disturbances. In this review, we discuss how the ENS can regulate and be regulated by immune responses and how such interactions control whole tissue physiology. We also address the requirements for the proper regeneration of the ENS and restoration of GI function following the resolution of infection.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SMIM.2021.101530
Abstract: The intestinal tract is the target organ of most parasitic infections, including those by helminths and protozoa. These parasites elicit prototypical type 2 immune activation in the host's immune system with striking impact on the local tissue microenvironment. Despite local containment of these parasites within the intestinal tract, parasitic infections also mediate immune adaptation in peripheral organs. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on how such gut-tissue axes influence important immune-mediated resistance and disease tolerance in the context of coinfections, and elaborate on the implications of parasite-regulated gut-lung and gut-brain axes on the development and severity of airway inflammation and central nervous system diseases.

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Topics: Immune system (53%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41385-021-00430-6
Maya E. Kotas1, Nicholas M. Mroz1, Satoshi Koga1, Hong-Erh Liang1  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
21 Jul 2021-Mucosal Immunology
Abstract: Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are tissue-resident effectors poised to activate rapidly in response to local signals such as cytokines. To preserve homeostasis, ILCs must employ multiple pathways, including tonic suppressive mechanisms, to regulate their primed state and prevent inappropriate activation and immunopathology. Such mechanisms remain incompletely characterized. Here we show that cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CISH), a suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family member, is highly and constitutively expressed in type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). Mice that lack CISH either globally or conditionally in ILC2s show increased ILC2 expansion and activation, in association with reduced expression of genes inhibiting cell-cycle progression. Augmented proliferation and activation of CISH-deficient ILC2s increases basal and inflammation-induced numbers of intestinal tuft cells and accelerates clearance of the model helminth, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, but compromises innate control of Salmonella typhimurium. Thus, CISH constrains ILC2 activity both tonically and after perturbation, and contributes to the regulation of immunity in mucosal tissue.

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Topics: Innate lymphoid cell (60%), CISH (59%), Immune system (50%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PATHOGENS10091163
Sruthi Rajeev1, Olivia Sosnowski1, Shuhua Li1, Thibault Allain1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
09 Sep 2021-Pathogenetics
Abstract: Enteric tuft cells are chemosensory epithelial cells gaining attention in the field of host-parasite interactions. Expressing a repertoire of chemosensing receptors and mediators, these cells have the potential to detect lumen-dwelling helminth and protozoan parasites and coordinate epithelial, immune, and neuronal cell defenses against them. This review highlights the versatility of enteric tuft cells and sub-types thereof, showcasing nuances of tuft cell responses to different parasites, with a focus on helminths reflecting the current state of the field. The role of enteric tuft cells in irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal viral infection is assessed in the context of concomitant infection with parasites. Finally, the review presents pertinent questions germane to understanding the enteric tuft cell and its role in enteric parasitic infections. There is much to be done to fully elucidate the response of this intriguing cell type to parasitic-infection and there is negligible data on the biology of the human enteric tuft cell—a glaring gap in knowledge that must be filled.

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Topics: Tuft cell (71%)

References
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74 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1164206
14 Nov 2008-Science
Abstract: Although in vitro observations suggest that cross-presentation of antigens is mediated primarily by CD8α+ dendritic cells, in vivo analysis has been hampered by the lack of systems that selectively eliminate this cell lineage. We show that deletion of the transcription factor Batf3 ablated development of CD8α+ dendritic cells, allowing us to examine their role in immunity in vivo. Dendritic cells from Batf3–/– mice were defective in cross-presentation, and Batf3–/– mice lacked virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses to West Nile virus. Importantly, rejection of highly immunogenic syngeneic tumors was impaired in Batf3–/– mice. These results suggest an important role for CD8α+ dendritic cells and cross-presentation in responses to viruses and in tumor rejection.

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1,463 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1172/JCI34261
Abstract: Helminths are parasitic worms. They are the most common infectious agents of humans in developing countries and produce a global burden of disease that exceeds better-known conditions, including malaria and tuberculosis. As we discuss here, new insights into fundamental helminth biology are accumulating through newly completed genome projects and the nascent application of transgenesis and RNA interference technologies. At the same time, our understanding of the dynamics of the transmission of helminths and the mechanisms of the Th2-type immune responses that are induced by infection with these parasitic worms has increased markedly. Ultimately, these advances in molecular and medical helminth biology should one day translate into a new and robust pipeline of drugs, diagnostics, and vaccines for targeting parasitic worms that infect humans.

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Topics: Helminthiasis (52%), Neglected tropical diseases (51%), Helminths (50%)

1,250 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1204351
10 Jun 2011-Science
Abstract: A defining feature of inflammation is the accumulation of innate immune cells in the tissue that are thought to be recruited from the blood. We reveal that a distinct process exists in which tissue macrophages undergo rapid in situ proliferation in order to increase population density. This inflammatory mechanism occurred during T helper 2 (T(H)2)-related pathologies under the control of the archetypal T(H)2 cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) and was a fundamental component of T(H)2 inflammation because exogenous IL-4 was sufficient to drive accumulation of tissue macrophages through self-renewal. Thus, expansion of innate cells necessary for pathogen control or wound repair can occur without recruitment of potentially tissue-destructive inflammatory cells.

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Topics: Macrophage proliferation (58%), Innate immune system (58%), Inflammation (57%) ... read more

1,162 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TCB.2005.09.002
Paul Martin1, S. Joseph Leibovich2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Damage to any tissue triggers a cascade of events that leads to rapid repair of the wound – if the tissue is skin, then repair involves re-epithelialization, formation of granulation tissue and contraction of underlying wound connective tissues. This concerted effort by the wounded cell layers is accompanied by, and might also be partially regulated by, a robust inflammatory response, in which first neutrophils and then macrophages and mast cells emigrate from nearby tissues and from the circulation. Clearly, this inflammatory response is crucial for fighting infection and must have been selected for during the course of evolution so that tissue damage did not inevitably lead to death through septicemia. But, aside from this role, exactly what are the functions of the various leukocyte lineages that are recruited with overlapping time courses to the wound site, and might they do more harm than good? Recent knockout and knockdown studies suggest that depletion of one or more of the inflammatory cell lineages can even enhance healing, and we discuss new views on how regulation of the migration of inflammatory cells to sites of tissue damage might guide therapeutic strategies for modulating the inflammatory response.

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Topics: Wound healing (56%), Granulation tissue (55%), Inflammation (53%)

1,128 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CHOM.2016.03.010
Helen M. Lazear1, Jennifer Govero2, Amber M. Smith2, Derek J. Platt2  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic and unexpected clinical outcomes, including Guillain-Barre syndrome and birth defects, has brought an urgent need for animal models. We evaluated infection and pathogenesis with contemporary and historical ZIKV strains in immunocompetent mice and mice lacking components of the antiviral response. Four- to six-week-old Irf3(-/-)Irf5(-/-)Irf7(-/-) triple knockout mice, which produce little interferon α/β, and mice lacking the interferon receptor (Ifnar1(-/-)) developed neurological disease and succumbed to ZIKV infection, whereas single Irf3(-/-), Irf5(-/-), and Mavs(-/-) knockout mice exhibited no overt illness. Ifnar1(-/-) mice sustained high viral loads in the brain and spinal cord, consistent with evidence that ZIKV causes neurodevelopmental defects in human fetuses. The testes of Ifnar1(-/-) mice had the highest viral loads, which is relevant to sexual transmission of ZIKV. This model of ZIKV pathogenesis will be valuable for evaluating vaccines and therapeutics as well as understanding disease pathogenesis.

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Topics: Sexual transmission (52%)

687 Citations


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No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
202112