# Entropy Generation During Natural Convection in a Porous Cavity: Effect of Thermal Boundary Conditions

02 Aug 2012-Numerical Heat Transfer Part A-applications (Taylor & Francis Group)-Vol. 62, Iss: 4, pp 336-364

TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the effect of different boundary conditions on entropy generation, and showed that the entropy generation rates are reduced in sinusoidal heating (case 2) when compared to that for uniform heating with a penalty on thermal mixing, and that there exists an intermediate Da for optimal values of entropy generation.

Abstract: Entropy generation plays a significant role in the overall efficiency of a given system, and a judicious choice of optimal boundary conditions can be made based on a knowledge of entropy generation. Five different boundary conditions are considered and their effect of the permeability of the porous medium, heat transfer regime (conduction and convection) on entropy generation due to heat transfer, and fluid friction irreversibilities are investigated in detail for molten metals (Pr = 0.026) and aqueous solutions (Pr = 10), with Darcy numbers (Da) between 10−5–10−3 and at a representative high Rayleigh number, Ra = 5 × 105. It is observed that the entropy generation rates are reduced in sinusoidal heating (case 2) when compared to that for uniform heating (case 1), with a penalty on thermal mixing. Finally, the analysis of total entropy generation due to variation in Da and thermal mixing and temperature uniformity indicates that, there exists an intermediate Da for optimal values of entropy generation, th...

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01 Jan 1997TL;DR: This chapter introduces the finite element method (FEM) as a tool for solution of classical electromagnetic problems and discusses the main points in the application to electromagnetic design, including formulation and implementation.

Abstract: This chapter introduces the finite element method (FEM) as a tool for solution of classical electromagnetic problems. Although we discuss the main points in the application of the finite element method to electromagnetic design, including formulation and implementation, those who seek deeper understanding of the finite element method should consult some of the works listed in the bibliography section.

1,820 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the entropy generation due to conjugate natural convection-conduction heat transfer in a square domain under steady-state condition, and the results showed that both the average Nusselt number and entropy generation are increasing functions of K ro while they are maxima at some critical values of D.

Abstract: Entropy generation due to conjugate natural convection–conduction heat transfer in a square domain is numerically investigated under steady-state condition. The domain composed of porous cavity heated by a triangular solid wall and saturated with a CuO–water nanofluid. Equations governing the heat transfer in the triangular solid together with the heat and nanofluid flow in the nanofluid-saturated porous medium are solved numerically using the over-successive relaxation finite-difference method. A temperature dependent thermal conductivity and modified expression for the thermal expansion of nanofluid are adopted. A new criterion for assessment of the thermal performance is proposed. The investigated parameters are the nanoparticles volume fraction φ (0–0.05), modified Rayleigh number Ra (10–1000), solid wall to base-fluid saturated porous medium thermal conductivity ratio K ro (0.44, 1, 23.8), and the triangular solid thickness D (0.1–1). The results show that both the average Nusselt number and the entropy generation are increasing functions of K ro , while they are maxima at some critical values of D . It is also found that the addition of nanoparticles increases the entropy generation. According to the new proposed criterion, the results show that the largest solid thickness ( D = 1.0) and the lower wall thermal conductivity ratio manifest better thermal performance.

142 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the entropy generation in natural convection of nanofluid in a wavy cavity using a single-phase model was analyzed using the finite difference method of the second-order accuracy.

Abstract: Purpose
The main purpose of this numerical study is to study on entropy generation in natural convection of nanofluid in a wavy cavity using a single-phase nanofluid model.
Design/methodology/approach
The cavity is heated non-uniformly from the wavy wall and cooled from the right side while it is insulated from the horizontal walls. The physical domain of the problem is transformed into a rectangular geometry in the computational domain using an algebraic coordinate transformation by introducing new independent variables ξ and η. The governing dimensionless partial differential equations with corresponding initially and boundary conditions were numerically solved by the finite difference method of the second-order accuracy. The governing parameters are Rayleigh number (Ra = 1000-100000), Prandtl number (Pr = 6.82), solid volume fraction parameter of nanoparticles (φ = 0.0-0.05), aspect ratio parameter (A = 1), undulation number (κ = 1-3), wavy contraction ratio (b = 0.1-0.3) and dimensionless time (τ = 0-0.27).
Findings
It is found that the average Bejan number is an increasing function of nanoparticle volume fraction and a decreasing function of the Rayleigh number, undulation number and wavy contraction ratio. Also, an insertion of nanoparticles leads to an attenuation of convective flow and enhancement of heat transfer.
Originality
The originality of this work is to analyze the entropy generation in natural convection within a wavy nanofluid cavity using single-phase nanofluid model. The results would benefit scientists and engineers to become familiar with the flow behaviour of such nanofluids, and will be a way to predict the properties of this flow for the possibility of using nanofluids in advanced nuclear systems, in industrial sectors including transportation, power generation, chemical sectors, ventilation, air-conditioning, etc.

128 citations

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TL;DR: It is found that the applied magnetic field can suppress both the natural convection and the entropy generation rate, and the nanoparticles addition can be useful if a compromised magnetic field value represented by a Hartman number of 30 is applied.

Abstract: This paper investigates the entropy generation and natural convection inside a C-shaped cavity filled with CuO-water nanofluid and subjected to a uniform magnetic field. The Brownian motion effect is considered in predicting the nanofluid properties. The governing equations are solved using the finite volume method with the SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations) algorithm. The studied parameters are the Rayleigh number (1000 ≤ Ra ≤ 15,000), Hartman number (0 ≤ Ha ≤ 45), nanofluid volume fraction (0 ≤ φ ≤ 0.06), and the cavity aspect ratio (0.1 ≤ AR ≤ 0.7). The results have shown that the nanoparticles volume fraction enhances the natural convection but undesirably increases the entropy generation rate. It is also found that the applied magnetic field can suppress both the natural convection and the entropy generation rate, where for Ra = 1000 and φ = 0.04, the percentage reductions in total entropy generation decreases from 96.27% to 48.17% for Ha = 45 compared to zero magnetic field when the aspect ratio is increased from 0.1 to 0.7. The results of performance criterion have shown that the nanoparticles addition can be useful if a compromised magnetic field value represented by a Hartman number of 30 is applied.

120 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a numerical study is made on the mixed convection of copper-water nanofluid inside a differentially heated skew enclosure, where the finite volume based SIMPLEC algorithm is used to solve the transformed equations for fluid flow and heat transfer equations in the computational domain.

Abstract: A numerical study is made on the mixed convection of copper–water nanofluid inside a differentially heated skew enclosure. Co-ordinate transformations are used to transform the physical domain to the computational domain in an orthogonal co-ordinate. The finite volume based SIMPLEC algorithm is used to solve the transformed equations for fluid flow and heat transfer equations in the computational domain. The fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are studied for a wide range of skew angles ( 30 ° ⩽ λ ⩽ 150 ° ) , nanoparticle volume fraction ( 0.0 ⩽ ϕ ⩽ 0.2 ) and Richardson number ( 0.1 ⩽ Ri ⩽ 5 ) at a fixed value of Reynolds number. The entropy generation and Bejan number are evaluated to demonstrate the thermodynamic optimization of the mixed convection. It is shown that the heat transfer rate increases remarkably by the addition of nanoparticles. The flow field is sensible to the skew angle variation. Our results show that the heat transfer augmentation through nanoparticles with lower rate in entropy generation enhancement can be achieved in a skewed cavity.

76 citations

##### References

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TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that the minimum temperature gradient for which convection can occur is approximately 4π2h2μ/kgρ0α D2, where h2 is the thermal diffusivity, g is the acceleration of gravity, μ is the viscosity, k is the permeability, α is the coefficient of cubical expansion, ρ 0 is the density at zero temperature, and D is the thickness of the layer; this exceeds the limiting gradient found by Rayleigh for a simple fluid by a factor of 16D2/27π2

Abstract: The problem is considered of the convection of a fluid through a permeable medium as the result of a vertical temperature‐gradient, the medium being in the shape of a flat layer bounded above and below by perfectly conducting media. It appears that the minimum temperature‐gradient for which convection can occur is approximately 4π2h2μ/kgρ0α D2, where h2 is the thermal diffusivity, g is the acceleration of gravity, μ is the viscosity, k is the permeability, α is the coefficient of cubical expansion, ρ0 is the density at zero temperature, and D is the thickness of the layer; this exceeds the limiting gradient found by Rayleigh for a simple fluid by a factor of 16D2/27π2kρ0. A numerical computation of this gradient, based upon the data now available, indicates that convection currents should not occur in such a geological formation as the Woodbine sand of East Texas (west of the Mexia Fault zone); in view of the fact, however, that the distribution of NaCl in this formation seems to require the existence of ...

796 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of viscous dissipation in natural convection is considered for vertical surfaces subject to both isothermal and uniform-flux surface conditions, and the first temperature perturbation function is calculated for Prandtl numbers from 10−2 to 104.

Abstract: The effect of viscous dissipation in natural convection is appreciable when the induced kinetic energy becomes appreciable compared to the amount of heat transferred. This occurs when either the equivalent body force is large or when the convection region is extensive. Viscous dissipation is considered here for vertical surfaces subject to both isothermal and uniform-flux surface conditions. A perturbation method is used and the first temperature perturbation function is calculated for Prandtl numbers from 10−2 to 104. The magnitude of the effect depends upon a dissipation number, which is not expressible in terms of the Grashof or the Prandtl number.

429 citations

### "Entropy Generation During Natural C..." refers background in this paper

...For various fluids such as molten metals, gases at ordinary temperatures, aqueous solutions, and viscous fluids such as engine oils and silicones, the quantity gb=cp is very low ( O(10 (7)–10 (10))) and viscous dissipation effect can become significant only for very large values of L, which are not encountered in common applications [47]....

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TL;DR: In this article, the modified Darcy model for transport of momentum is applied but the velocity square term in the momentum equation and the axial conduction term in energy equation are neglected, and the results show that the Nusselt number for fully-developed fields increases with an increase in the porous media shape parameter.

Abstract: Laminar flow through a porous channel bounded by two parallel plates maintained at a constant and equal temperature is considered. The modified Darcy model for transport of momentum is applied but the velocity square term in the momentum equation and the axial conduction term in the energy equation are neglected. The results show that the Nusselt number for fully-developed fields increases with an increase in the porous media shape parameter, г = (W 2 3/K) 1 2 , where W is channel width, /3 is porosity and K is permeability. The results also show that excess pressure drop, associated with the entrance region, decreases as г increases.

293 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the entropy generation in rectangular cavities with the same area but different aspect ratios is numerically investigated and the variation of the total entropy generation and average Bejan number for the whole cavity volume at different aspects ratios for different values of the Rayleigh number and irreversibility distribution ratio are also evaluated.

Abstract: In the present study, entropy generation in rectangular cavities with the same area but different aspect ratios is numerically investigated. The vertical walls of the cavities are at different constant temperatures while the horizontal walls are adiabatic. Heat transfer between vertical walls occurs by laminar natural convection. Based on the obtained dimensionless velocity and temperature values, the distributions of local entropy generation due to heat transfer and fluid friction, the local Bejan number and local entropy generation number are determined and related maps are plotted. The variation of the total entropy generation and average Bejan number for the whole cavity volume at different aspect ratios for different values of the Rayleigh number and irreversibility distribution ratio are also evaluated. It is found that for a cavity with high value of Rayleigh number (i.e., Ra = 10(5)), the total entropy generation due to fluid friction and total entropy generation number increase with increasing aspect ratio, attain a maximum and then decrease. The present results are compared with reported solutions and excellent agreement is observed. The study is performed for 10(2) < Ra < 10(5), 10(-4) < 0 < 10(-2), and Pr = 0.7. (Less)

291 citations

### "Entropy Generation During Natural C..." refers result in this paper

...The results in terms of entropy generation due to heat transfer and fluid friction are in excellent agreement with earlier work [48] (see Figure 2)....

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TL;DR: In this article, it is shown that the thermal boundary layer is stable provided that the Rayleigh number for the system does not exceed a critical positive value, and that the wave-number of the critical neutral disturbance is finite.

Abstract: It is supposed that a heated liquid is rising very slowly through a semi-infinite porous medium towards the permeable horizontal surface, where it mixes with a layer of cool overlying fluid. In the steady state a thermal boundary layer of exponential form exists in the medium. It is shown that the layer is stable provided that the Rayleigh number for the system does not exceed a critical positive value, and that the wave-number of the critical neutral disturbance is finite. The stability properties of the layer are explained qualitatively from physical considerations.

277 citations