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Journal Article

Environmental and technical efficiency analysis in bitter gourd production

01 Jan 2012-Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences (University of Agriculture)-Vol. 49, Iss: 4, pp 583-588

AboutThis article is published in Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences.The article was published on 2012-01-01 and is currently open access. It has received 10 citation(s) till now. The article focuses on the topic(s): Bitter gourd.

Topics: Bitter gourd (84%)

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Citations
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01 Jan 1997
TL;DR: The strengths and weaknesses for estimating environmental efficiency of the methods applied are revealed; namely Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA).
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to estimate comprehensive environmental efficiency measures for Dutch dairy farms. The environmental efficiency scores are based on the nitrogen surplus, phosphate surplus and the total (direct and indirect) energy use of an unbalanced panel of dairy farms. We define environmental efficiency as the ratio of minimum feasible to observed use of multiple environmentally detrimental inputs, conditional on observed levels of output and the conventional inputs. We compare two methods for the calculation of efficiency; namely Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). This paper reveals the strengths and weaknesses for estimating environmental efficiency of the methods applied. Both SFA and DEA can estimate environmental efficiency scores. The mean technical efficiency scores (output-oriented, SFA 89%, DEA 78%) and the mean comprehensive environmental efficiency scores (SFA 80%, DEA 52%) differ between the two methods. SFA allows hypothesis testing, and the monotonicity hypothesis is rejected for the specification including phosphate surplus. DEA can calculate environmental efficiency scores for all specifications, because regularity is imposed in this method.

46 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results of logit model show that health cost, age, education below 8th grade, perception of temporary impact and health problems are important determinants of adopting PPE among the cotton pickers.
Abstract: The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during cotton harvesting is critical for securing better health for female cotton pickers in the developing countries where health facilities are not sufficiently available to the masses in the rural areas. Despite increasing the efforts in increasing awareness about the benefits of PPE among the farm workers, a vast majority of the farm workers including pickers don't use the PPE. The present study examines health impacts of cotton harvesting in Pakistani Punjab along with the factors affecting the use of PPE among the cotton pickers. Cross-sectional data collected from Vehari district is used. The study estimates health cost and the use of PPE among the young and elder cotton pickers. Headache, sleeplessness, cough, flue/fever, skin and eyes problems are reported by the young and elder cotton pickers. Personal protective equipment is rarely used during picking. However, the young pickers relatively adopt more PPE compared to the elder cotton pickers. Health cost of cotton picking is US$2.96 and 3.06 per season during the year for the young and elder cotton pickers, respectively. Results of logit model show that health cost, age, education below 8th grade, perception of temporary impact and health problems are important determinants of adopting PPE among the cotton pickers. The findings of the study conclude that the use of PPE can be realized through proper training and education of cotton pickers and farm workers.

18 citations


Cites background from "Environmental and technical efficie..."

  • ...Bakhsh (2012) and Bakhsh et al. (2014) find that farmers can attain the same productivity by reducing the pesticides as there exists environmental inefficiency in pesticide use....

    [...]


Journal Article
TL;DR: Oral administered LCT caused reduction in feed intake and body weight along with disruption of hemato-biochemical parameters, and correlated it with hematological instabilities.
Abstract: Received: Revised: Accepted: August 04, 2013 August 18, 2013 August 28, 2013 The present study assessed in vivo endocrine disrupting effect of orally administered lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) on metabolic hormones and correlated it with hematological instabilities. Adult female albino rats were divided in three equal groups; one kept as control and other two treated with 20 and 40 mg/kg BW LCT, respectively by oral gavage for 14 days. At the end of trial, blood was collected for hormonal and hematological analysis. The results showed that LCT led to reduction in serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4) level (P<0.001) without modifying serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level in a dose related manner. Lambdacyhalothrin also caused a significant (P<0.05) reduction in hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, red blood cell (RBC) count, total leukocyte count (TLC), platelets count, pack cell volume (PCV) and lymphocyte count. No significant variation was observed in erythrocytic indices. In sum, orally administered LCT caused reduction in feed intake and body weight along with disruption of hemato-biochemical parameters. ©2013 PVJ. All rights reserved

16 citations


Cites background from "Environmental and technical efficie..."

  • ...Pesticides are extensively used worldwide to combat the insects, however, their irrational use has led to growing health related problems in human and animals (Fleming et al., 1999; Basir et al., 2011; Bakhsh, 2012; Tahir et al., 2012; Verger and Boobis, 2013)....

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Journal Article
TL;DR: It was concluded that the efficiency of hybrid maize farmers can be enhanced by covering the inefficiency from the environmental variables, farmers’ personal characteristics and farming conditions.
Abstract: High yielding crop like maize is very important for countries like Pakistan, which is third cereal crop after wheat and rice. Maize accounts for 4.8 percent of the total cropped area and 4.82 percent of the value of agricultural production. It is grown all over the country but major areas are Sahiwal, Okara and Faisalabad. Chiniot is one of the distinct agroecological domains of central Punjab for the maize cultivation, that’s why this district was selected for the study and the technical efficiency of hybrid maize farmers was estimated. The primary data of 120 farmers, 40 farmers from each of the three tehsils of Chiniot were collected in the year 2011.Causes of low yields for various farmers than the others, while using the same input bundle were estimated. The managerial factors causing the inefficiency of production were also measured. The average technical efficiency was estimated to be 91 percent, while it was found to be 94.8, 92.7 and 90.8 for large, medium and small farmers, respectively. Stochastic frontier production model was used to measure technical efficiency. Statistical software Frontier 4.1 was used to analyse the data to generate inferences because the estimates of efficiency were produced as a direct output from package. It was concluded that the efficiency can be enhanced by covering the inefficiency from the environmental variables, farmers’ personal characteristics and farming conditions.

6 citations


01 Jan 2014
Abstract: In this research article, we have made an attempt to determine possibility of a reduction in pesticide use and factors affecting pesticide use in bitter gourd production. Stochastic production function frontier was used to determine technical efficiency and on the basis of this, input-oriented environmental efficiency was determined. Determinants of environmental efficiency were explored using OLS method. Results showed that the huge potential existed to reduce the use of environmental contaminating variables without sacrificing yield in bitter gourd production. Farming experience, tenancy, access to information and credit were significantly related with environmental efficiency in bitter gourd production. The findings have important policy recommendation that by strengthening agricultural extension services and capacity building of vegetable growers, higher environmental efficiency can be achieved in vegetable production.

4 citations


Cites background from "Environmental and technical efficie..."

  • ...Bakhsh (2012) determined environmental and technical efficiency in bitter gourd production and showed a very low level of environmental efficiency score (06 percent), implying that the use of environmental detriment inputs is inefficient....

    [...]

  • ...…labour input could be attributed to more use of surplus family labour in vegetable production, since vegetable growers are small landholders, almost completing depending on agricultural land for their livelihood and, therefore, the use of labour is not optimum (Bakhsh, 2012; Coelli et al., 2002)....

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  • ...However, very little information is available on efficient use of inputs except a few studies (Bakhsh, 2012) and factors responsible for inefficient use of fertilizer and pesticide in bitter gourd production....

    [...]


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Previous studies of the so-called frontier production function have not utilized an adequate characterization of the disturbance term for such a model. In this paper we provide an appropriate specification, by defining the disturbance term as the sum of symmetric normal and (negative) half-normal random variables. Various aspects of maximum-likelihood estimation for the coefficients of a production function with an additive disturbance term of this sort are then considered.

7,390 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A stochastic frontier production function is defined for panel data on firms, in which the non-negative technical inefficiency effects are assumed to be a function of firm-specific variables and time. The inefficiency effects are assumed to be independently distributed as truncations of normal distributions with constant variance, but with means which are a linear function of observable variables. This panel data model is an extension of recently proposed models for inefficiency effects in stochastic frontiers for cross-sectional data. An empirical application of the model is obtained using up to ten years of data on paddy farmers from an Indian village. The null hypotheses, that the inefficiency effects are not stochastic or do not depend on the farmer-specific variables and time of observation, are rejected for these data.

5,378 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Frontier production functions are important for the prediction of technical efficiencies of individual firms in an industry. A stochastic frontier production function model for panel data is presented, for which the firm effects are an exponential function of time. The best predictor for the technical efficiency of an individual firm at a particular time period is presented for this time-varying model. An empirical example is presented using agricultural data for paddy farmers in a village in India.

2,675 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to estimate comprehensive environmental efficiency measures for Dutch dairy farms. The environmental efficiency scores are based on the nitrogen surplus, phosphate surplus and the total (direct and indirect) energy use of an unbalanced panel of dairy farms. We define environmental efficiency as the ratio of minimum feasible to observed use of multiple environmentally detrimental inputs, conditional on observed levels of output and the conventional inputs. We compare two methods for the calculation of efficiency; namely Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). This paper reveals the strengths and weaknesses for estimating environmental efficiency of the methods applied. Both SFA and DEA can estimate environmental efficiency scores. The mean technical efficiency scores (output-oriented, SFA 89%, DEA 78%) and the mean comprehensive environmental efficiency scores (SFA 80%, DEA 52%) differ between the two methods. SFA allows hypothesis testing, and the monotonicity hypothesis is rejected for the specification including phosphate surplus. DEA can calculate environmental efficiency scores for all specifications, because regularity is imposed in this method.

495 citations