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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41467-021-21432-9

Enzymatic spiroketal formation via oxidative rearrangement of pentangular polyketides.

04 Mar 2021-Nature Communications (Nature Publishing Group)-Vol. 12, Iss: 1, pp 1431-1431
Abstract: The structural complexity and bioactivity of natural products often depend on enzymatic redox tailoring steps. This is exemplified by the generation of the bisbenzannulated [5,6]-spiroketal pharmacophore in the bacterial rubromycin family of aromatic polyketides, which exhibit a wide array of bioactivities such as the inhibition of HIV reverse transcriptase or DNA helicase. Here we elucidate the complex flavoenzyme-driven formation of the rubromycin pharmacophore that is markedly distinct from conventional (bio)synthetic strategies for spiroketal formation. Accordingly, a polycyclic aromatic precursor undergoes extensive enzymatic oxidative rearrangement catalyzed by two flavoprotein monooxygenases and a flavoprotein oxidase that ultimately results in a drastic distortion of the carbon skeleton. The one-pot in vitro reconstitution of the key enzymatic steps as well as the comprehensive characterization of reactive intermediates allow to unravel the intricate underlying reactions, during which four carbon-carbon bonds are broken and two CO2 become eliminated. This work provides detailed insight into perplexing redox tailoring enzymology that sets the stage for the (chemo)enzymatic production and bioengineering of bioactive spiroketal-containing polyketides. Rubromycin family of natural products belongs to aromatic polyketides with diverse bioactivities, but details of their biosynthesis are limited. Here, the authors report the complete in vitro reconstitution of enzymatic formation of the spiroketal moiety of rubromycin polyketides, driven by flavin-dependent enzymes, and characterize reaction intermediates.

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5 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ABB.2020.108732
Marina Toplak1, Arne Matthews1, Robin Teufel1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The ubiquitous flavoenzymes commonly catalyze redox chemistry such as the monooxygenation of organic substrates and are both widely utilized in nature (e.g., in primary and secondary metabolism) and of significant industrial interest. In this work, we highlight the structural and mechanistic characteristics of the distinct types of flavoprotein monooxygenases (FPMOs). We thereby illustrate the chemical basis of FPMO catalysis, which enables reactions such as (aromatic) hydroxylation, epoxidation, (de)halogenation, heteroatom oxygenation, Baeyer-Villiger oxidation, α-hydroxylation of ketones, or non-oxidative carbon-hetero bond cleavage. This seemingly unmatched versatility in oxygenation chemistry results from extensive fine-tuning and regiospecific functionalization of the flavin cofactor that is tightly controlled by the surrounding protein matrix. Accordingly, FPMOs steer the formation of covalent flavin-oxygen adducts for oxygen transfer in the form of the classical flavin-C4a-(hydro)peroxide or the recently discovered N5-functionalized flavins (i.e. the flavin-N5-oxide and the flavin-N5-peroxide), while in rare cases covalent oxygen adduct formation may be foregone entirely. Finally, we speculate about hitherto undiscovered flavin-mediated oxygenation reactions and compare FPMOs to cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, before addressing open questions and challenges for the future investigation of FPMOs.

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14 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/JACS.1C04996
Ying Duan1, Marina Toplak1, Anwei Hou2, Nelson L. Brock3  +3 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Bacterial tropone natural products such as tropolone, tropodithietic acid, or the roseobacticides play crucial roles in various terrestrial and marine symbiotic interactions as virulence factors, antibiotics, algaecides, or quorum sensing signals. We now show that their poorly understood biosynthesis depends on a shunt product from aerobic CoA-dependent phenylacetic acid catabolism that is salvaged by the dedicated acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-like flavoenzyme TdaE. Further characterization of TdaE revealed an unanticipated complex catalysis, comprising substrate dehydrogenation, noncanonical CoA-ester oxygenolysis, and final ring epoxidation. The enzyme thereby functions as an archetypal flavoprotein dioxygenase that incorporates both oxygen atoms from O2 into the substrate, most likely involving flavin-N5-peroxide and flavin-N5-oxide species for consecutive CoA-ester cleavage and epoxidation, respectively. The subsequent spontaneous decarboxylation of the reactive enzyme product yields tropolone, which serves as a key virulence factor in rice panicle blight caused by pathogenic edaphic Burkholderia plantarii. Alternatively, the TdaE product is most likely converted to more complex sulfur-containing secondary metabolites such as tropodithietic acid from predominant marine Rhodobacteraceae (e.g., Phaeobacter inhibens).

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Topics: Tropolone (56%), Dioxygenase (51%), Tropone (50%)

2 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ANIE.202109384
10 Nov 2021-Angewandte Chemie
Abstract: The medically important bacterial aromatic polyketide natural products typically feature a planar, polycyclic core structure. An exception is found for the rubromycins, whose backbones are disrupted by a bisbenzannulated [5,6]-spiroketal pharmacophore that was recently shown to be assembled by flavin-dependent enzymes. In particular, a flavoprotein monooxygenase proved critical for the drastic oxidative rearrangement of a pentangular precursor and the installment of an intermediate [6,6]-spiroketal moiety. Here we provide structural and mechanistic insights into the control of catalysis by this spiroketal synthase, which fulfills several important functions as reductase, monooxygenase, and presumably oxidase. The enzyme hereby tightly controls the redox state of the substrate to counteract shunt product formation, while also steering the cleavage of three carbon-carbon bonds. Our work illustrates an exceptional strategy for the biosynthesis of stable chroman spiroketals.

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Topics: Polyketide synthase (54%), Polyketide (54%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.ORGLETT.1C03432
Xian Shu1, Guangzheng Wei1, Yuben Qiao2, Kexin Zhang1  +5 moreInstitutions (3)
06 Nov 2021-Organic Letters
Abstract: The flavoprotein monooxygenase (FPMO) TerC is encoded by all known cyclopentene biosynthetic gene clusters. It can catalyze oxidative dearomatization toward a series of 6-HM analogues and further induces different skeletal distortions to form either benzoquinone or pyrone by bimodal reaction cascades, which is only governed by the C7 substitutions. Beyond our study demonstrated bimodal reaction cascades and advanced the biosynthetic knowledge of fungal cyclopentenes, this work also sets the stage for the bioengineering of 6-HM polyketides.

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53 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0968-0004(99)01533-9
Marco W. Fraaije1, Andrea Mattevi1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Many biochemical processes exploit the extraordinary versatility of flavoenzymes and their flavin cofactors. Flavoproteins are now known to have a variety of folding topologies but a careful examination of their structures suggests that there are recurrent features in their catalytic apparatus. The flavoenzymes that catalyse dehydrogenation reactions share a few invariant features in the hydrogen-bond interactions between their protein and flavin constituents. Similarly, the positioning of the reactive part of the substrate with respect to the cofactor is generally conserved. Modulation of substrate and cofactor reactivity and exact positioning of the substrate are key elements in the mode of action of these enzymes.

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Topics: Flavoprotein (52%), Flavin group (50%)

446 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/B507395M
Abstract: Covering: 2002–2005 This review covers advances in understanding of the biosynthesis of polyketidesproduced by type II PKS systems at the genetic, biochemical and structural levels.

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Topics: Polyketide (54%)

425 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ABB.2013.12.005
Abstract: Flavin-dependent monooxygenases catalyze a wide variety of chemo-, regio- and enantioselective oxygenation reactions. As such, they are involved in key biological processes ranging from catabolism, detoxification and biosynthesis, to light emission and axon guidance. Based on fold and function, flavin-dependent monooxygenases can be distributed into eight groups. Groups A and B comprise enzymes that rely on NAD(P)H as external electron donor. Groups C–F are two-protein systems, composed of a monooxygenase and a flavin reductase. Groups G and H comprise internal monooxygenases that reduce the flavin cofactor through substrate oxidation. Recently, many new flavin-dependent monooxygenases have been discovered. In addition to posing basic enzymological questions, these proteins attract attention of pharmaceutical and fine-chemical industries, given their importance as regio- and enantioselective biocatalysts. In this review we present an update of the classification of flavin-dependent monooxygenases and summarize the latest advances in our understanding of their catalytic and structural properties.

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Topics: Flavin reductase (55%), Monooxygenase (52%), Flavin group (52%) ... show more

334 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/BI991489F
12 Jan 2000-Biochemistry
Abstract: Chalcone synthase (CHS) catalyzes formation of the phenylpropanoid chalcone from one p-coumaroyl-CoA and three malonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters. The three-dimensional structure of CHS [Ferrer, J.-L., Jez, J. M., Bowman, M. E., Dixon, R. A., and Noel, J. P. (1999) Nat. Struct. Biol. 6, 775−784] suggests that four residues (Cys164, Phe215, His303, and Asn336) participate in the multiple decarboxylation and condensation reactions catalyzed by this enzyme. Here, we functionally characterize 16 point mutants of these residues for chalcone production, malonyl-CoA decarboxylation, and the ability to bind CoA and acetyl-CoA. Our results confirm Cys164's role as the active-site nucleophile in polyketide formation and elucidate the importance of His303 and Asn336 in the malonyl-CoA decarboxylation reaction. We suggest that Phe215 may help orient substrates at the active site during elongation of the polyketide intermediate. To better understand the structure−function relationships in some of these mutants, we al...

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Topics: Chalcone synthase (66%), Decarboxylation (58%), Polyketide (57%) ... show more

306 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/MOLBEV/MST025
Marnix H. Medema1, Eriko Takano1, Eriko Takano2, Rainer Breitling3  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: The genes encoding many biomolecular systems and pathways are genomically organized in operons or gene clusters. With MultiGeneBlast, we provide a user-friendly and effective tool to perform homology searches with operons or gene clusters as basic units, instead of single genes. The contextualization offered by MultiGeneBlast allows users to get a better understanding of the function, evolutionary history, and practical applications of such genomic regions. The tool is fully equipped with applications to generate search databases from GenBank or from the user's own sequence data. Finally, an architecture search mode allows searching for gene clusters with novel configurations, by detecting genomic regions with any user-specified combination of genes. Sources, precompiled binaries, and a graphical tutorial of MultiGeneBlast are freely available from http://multigeneblast.sourceforge.net/.

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Topics: Gene cluster (53%), Comparative genomics (50%), GenBank (50%)

258 Citations


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20215