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Essai sur les enjeux de gouvernance urbaine au Canada en contexte de mondialisation

TL;DR: In this paper, the notion d'urbain de la gouvernance urbaine is examined and the importe de clarifier d'emblee cette notion d’urbain is clarified.
Abstract: Cet essai porte sur la gouvernance urbaine et il importe de clarifier d’emblee cette notion d’urbain puisqu’elle influence directement la sphere de gouvernance qui sera examinee. Nous essaierons d’eclairer des nouvelles relations qui s’etablissent au sein des agglomerations entre les villes (les municipalites), les autres organismes publics, les divers niveaux de gouvernements et les differents secteurs de la societe civile, dans les tentatives de maitrise du sort competitif des agglomerations. L’essai porte donc autant sur les enjeux de la gouvernance que sur les enjeux dans la gouvernance.
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Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the role of the MRC (Regional Municipal Counties) in rural areas and the possibility now offered of electing regional mayors are other significant changes.
Abstract: Regional planning and development has been affected by many changes in Quebec during the last decade. Numerous pieces of legislation and policies were adopted during that period by the Parti Quebecois government, and especially those relating to municipal reform and rural development. The aim of these reforms was mainly to resolve planning and development problems such as urban sprawl in metropolitan areas and youth out-migration in peripheral administrative regions. Some issues are still unanswered in relation to these public policies: Do they provide better tools to address development problems? Do they create a coherent and comprehensive system of governance? These questions are addressed through a discussion using some historical and institutional data and through a literature review. Based on this, it emerges that recent territorial policies in Quebec are not revolutionary but they contribute toward a reinforcement of local and regional institutions. The rescaling process associated with the creation of metropolitan communities and the amalgamation of large and mid-sized cities could allow improvements in the fields of town planning, economic development or policing while decreasing intra-metropolitan competition. In addition, the reinforcement of the role of the MRC (Regional Municipal Counties) in rural areas and the possibility now offered of electing regional mayors are other significant changes. Lastly, the clarification of the mandates of the structures of economic development with the arrival of the CLD (Local Development Centres) could make it possible to develop local potential more effectively. However, the new system of governance is very complex compared to the former which was standardized throughout Quebec. We now have seven types of local government institutions in the province. Au Quebec, la gouvernance territoriale vit a l'heure des reformes. Diverses politiques territoriales ont ete adoptees au cours des dix dernie res annees. Il convient de nommer la reforme municipale et la politique de la ruralite. Dans une large mesure, les reformes instaurees visent a combattre des proble mes recurrents d'amenagement et de developpement territorial. Ces proble mes s'accentuent et se telescopent dans le contexte de la mondialisation. Toutefois, les nouvelles politiques et institutions permettent-elles de s'attaquer plus efficacement aux proble mes d'amenagement et de developpement ? Forment-elles un syste me de gouvernance integre et coherent ? Nous tenterons de repondre a ces questions a l'aide d'analyses faisant appel a la litterature scientifique sur ce sujet. Selon nos analyses, les nouveaux moyens d'intervention des communautes quebecoises ne sont pas necessairement revolutionnaires mais ils convergent vers un renforcement des institutions locales et regionales. La montee en echelle associee a la creation des communautes metropolitaines et des villes regroupees pourrait permettre une meilleure coordination des activites d'amenagement et d'urbanisme, de developpement economique ou de securite publique tout en diminuant la competition intra metropolitaine. D'autre part, le renforcement du role des MRC en milieu rural et la possibilite aujourd'hui offerte d'elire les prefets au suffrage universel sont d'autres changements significatifs. En dernier lieu, la clarification des mandats des structures de developpement economique avec la venue des CLD pourrait permettre de developper davantage les potentiels locaux. Toutefois, au syste me anterieur uniformise compose de la municipalite locale et de la MRC ou la communaute urbaine s'ajoutent maintenant sept combinaisons d'institutions locales qui rendent le syste me de gouvernance territoriale fort complexe. ********** Au Quebec, la gouvernance territoriale vit a l'heure des reformes. En effet,le gouvernement a adopte et mis en oeuvre diverses politiques territorialesau cours des dix dernieres annees. Il convient de nommer la reforme municipale ou la politique de la ruralite, politiques lancees respectivement en 2000 et 2001. …

5 citations

Book Chapter
01 Jan 1997
TL;DR: In this article, a portee des programs and des politiques environnementaux des municipalites canadiennes canadennes is presented, in comparant leur approche respective vis-a-vis des thematiques developpees au Canada en matiere d'amenagement urbain durable.
Abstract: Cet article situe la portee des programmes et des politiques environnementaux des municipalites canadiennes. Il s'interesse plus particulierement aux cas de Montreal et de Toronto, en comparant leur approche respective vis-a-vis des thematiques developpees au Canada en matiere d'amenagement urbain durable: la planification ecosystemique, le verdissement de la ville et le recours aux indicateurs de qualite de vie et de qualite d'environnement

1 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: In this paper, a unified model of associative externalities that admits peer-group effects in education and several kinds of neighborhood effects as special cases is presented, and the interactions between secession and regulation in the ongoing process of innovation in the local public economy.
Abstract: This paper considers the interactions between secession and regulation in the ongoing process of innovation in the local public economy. The paper makes several contributions. First, we present a unified model of associative externalities that admits peer-group effects in education and several kinds of neighborhood effects as special cases. In our model, associative externalities arise endogenously from individual contributions to a local public good. Second, unlike other models that deal with associative externalities, we consider the regulation of individual contributions to group quality. In addition to its direct effect, regulation is important because it fosters secession; it is a cost that enables the formation of exclusive groups. Third, because there is an externality associated with secession, the equilibrium degree of secession may inefficient. This implies that vouchers and similar programs may have undesirable efficiency consequences. Fourth, even though there is excessive secession, some secession is efficient under natural conditions, as is some regulation. Fifth, a planner unable to control migration directly could improve resource allocation by requiring strict regulation.

1 citations

References
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300 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors study the regional pattern of municipal business property tax rates in the province of British Columbia and find that municipal tax rates are sensitive to taxes set on the same base by super-municipal bodies.
Abstract: In this paper we study the regional pattern of municipal business property tax rates in the province of British Columbia. Reduced-form tax-setting equations produce some evidence that municipal governments respond to tax changes in neighbouring jurisdictions. A joint investigation of the determinants of tax base and municipal taxation decisions, however, reveals that it is difficult to interpret this response as arising primarily out of competition over tax base. There is also some evidence that municipal tax rates are sensitive to taxes set on the same base by super-municipal bodies. JEL Classification: C33, H71 Les determinants des taux d'imposition municipale en Colombie Britannique. Dans ce memoire, les auteurs etudient le pattern regional des taux d'imposition municipale sur la propriete fonciere commerciale dans la province de la Colombie Britannique. On montre a l'aide d'un modele en forme reduite d'equations de definition des taux d'imposition que les gouvernements municipaux reagissent aux changements dans les taux d'imposition dans leur voisinage. Cependant, un examen conjoint des determinants de la base d'imposition et des decisions municipales montre qu'il est difficile d'interpreter cette reaction comme emanant d'une concurrence fiscale. On montre aussi que les taux d'imposition municipale sont sensibles aux niveaux de fiscalite imposes sur la meme base par les autorites supra-municipales.

268 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article is the winner of the 2001 Real Estate Valuation manuscript prize (sponsored by The Appraisal Institute) presented at the 2001 American Real Estate Society Annual Meeting as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: This article is the winner of the Real Estate Valuation manuscript prize (sponsored by The Appraisal Institute) presented at the 2001 American Real Estate Society Annual Meeting.This hedonic study ...

167 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors analyzes gated communities in a geographic model of crime and finds that gating always diverts crime to other communities but has an overall deterrent effect on crime as long as it does not impact legitimate employment opportunities.

141 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a number of trends in recent immigration to Canada are discussed: the scale of contemporary movement; the transformation of national origins over the past generation; the diversity of entry classes and the lack of any singular immigrant condition; the remarkable contraction of immigrant destinations to a few large cities; the contribution of immigration to population growth and housing demand in these metropolitan areas; and the distinctive geography of the various entry classes, with higher-status arrivals disproportionately located in Vancouver.
Abstract: A number of trends in recent immigration to Canada are discussed: the scale of contemporary movement; the transformation of national origins over the past generation; the diversity of entry classes and the lack of any singular immigrant condition; the remarkable contraction of immigrant destinations to a few large cities; the contribution of immigration to population growth and housing demand in these metropolitan areas; and the distinctive geography of the various entry classes, with higher-status arrivals disproportionately located in Vancouver. The remainder of the paper considers and rejects two common myths in the discussion of immigration: first, the myth of an immigrant underclass, and second, the myth of an immigrant overclass. Using research from Vancouver associated with the Metropolis Project, the first myth is challenged from an analysis of Census data that emphasizes the social context of immigrant life and upward mobility; the second myth is shaken by a qualitative methodology that reveals the unexpectedly fragile experience of a number of business immigrants. Certaines tendances relatives a l'immigration recente au Canada sont examinees: l'envergure des deplacements actuels, les changements dans l'origine nationale des immigrants au cours de la derniere generation, la diversite des categories d'immigrants admis et, par consequent, l'absence d'une seule condition pour tous, le fait que les immigrants choisissent essentiellement de s'etablir dans quelques grandes villes, la croissance de la population et la demande en logement attribuables aux immigrants dans ces regions metropolitaines, et les choix geographiques distincts des immigrants selon leur categorie a l'admission, comme c'est le cas de Vancouver, qui accueille un nombre disproportionne d'arrivants de statut eleve. Dans le reste de l'article, les resultats d'etudes effectuees dans le cadre du Projet Metropole permettent d'examiner puis de refuter deux mythes communement associes a l'immigration au Canada: l'existence d'un sous-proletariat et celle d'une classe dominante d'immigrants urbains. D'abord, l'existence d'un sous-proletariat est rejetee suite a l'analyse de donnees tirees du recensement concernant le contexte social entourant les immigrants et la mobilite sociale ascendante de la plupart des nouveaux arrivants. Ensuite, une methode qualitative met en lumiere une decouverte surprenante: la fragilite de l'experience de la pretendue classe dominante – les immigrants qui travaillent dans le monde des affaires.

129 citations