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Journal ArticleDOI

Essentials of nursing research: Methods and applications

01 Feb 1986-Nurse Education Today (Elsevier)-Vol. 6, Iss: 1, pp 46
About: This article is published in Nurse Education Today.The article was published on 1986-02-01. It has received 47 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Nursing research.
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Aug 2019
TL;DR: This article investigated the use of English discourse markers in students writing at Universitas PGRI Semarang, Indonesia and found that most students used and familiar using elaborate and contrastive functions rather than contrastive and inferential.
Abstract: This study investigated the use of English discourse markers in students writing at Universitas PGRI Semarang, Indonesia. Fraser identifies three functional classes of EDMs; contrastive, elaborative and inferential. The problems of this study are; what are the English discourse markers used in students writing, and what are the functions realized in students writing. This is a qualitative descriptive design. The sample of the study was the EFL students writing result which have 45 essays at English education study program of Universitas PGRI Semarang Indonesia. In analyzing the data, the writers did prior activities such as collecting and classifying. The result is that shows students used contrastive EDMs like; but 24, however 8, although 5, elaborative EDMs like; and 344, also 50, in addition 3, inferential EDMs like; as a results 4, then 10, because 13, since 39. It elaborates us that mostly students used and familiar using elaborative functions rather than contrastive and inferential. Furthermore, they have a very limitation in understanding and comprehending some words of EDMs in their writing, it has only 10 markers in all functions. The more markers they use in their writing so that the more coherence and cohesion within their writing. Conclusion of this study reflects that students are still weak in using some EDMs in their writing so that they only produce the certain familiar markers. The pedagogical implication that I can say is that students of EFL need to get some kinds of EDMs to compose their writing well organized and understood. Keywords—English discourse markers; students writing

10 citations


Cites background from "Essentials of nursing research: Met..."

  • ...A sample is a subset of a population nominated to participate in the study, it is a fraction of the whole, selected to participate in the research project [17,18]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the prevalent errors in contract documents and their effects on construction projects and concluded that overmeasurement in bill of quantities was prevalent in private, institutional and management procured projects.
Abstract: One of the highly rated causes of poor performance is errors in contract documents. The objectives of this study are to investigate the prevalent errors in contract documents and their effects on construction projects. Questionnaire survey and 51 case study projects (mixed method) were adopted for the study. The study also involved the use of Delphi technique to extract the possible errors that may be contained in contract documents; it did not however constitute the empirical data for the study. The sample of the study consists of 985 consulting and 275 contracting firms that engaged in the construction of building projects that were completed between 2013 and 2016 and were above the ground floor. The two-stage stratified random sampling technique was adopted for the study. The data for the study were analysed with descriptive and inferential statistics (based on Shapiro-Wilk’s test). The results of the study indicate that errors in contract documents were moderately prevalent. However, overmeasurement in bill of quantities was prevalent in private, institutional and management procured projects. Traditionally procured projects contain 68% of the errors in contract documents among the procurement methods. Drawings contain the highest number of errors, followed by bill of quantities and specifications. The severe effects of errors in contract documents were structural collapse, deterioration of buildings and contractors’ claims among others. The result of the study implies that, management procurement method is the route to error minimization in developing countries, but it may need to be backed by law and guarded against overmeasurement.

9 citations


Cites background from "Essentials of nursing research: Met..."

  • ...Polit and Hungler (1985) posited that Cronbach alpha of 0.7 and above indicates higher reliability of the instrument and are therefore, generally accepted for reliable instrument....

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Dissertation
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigate the causes of dispute occurrence, the degrees of usage and effectiveness of various dispute resolution methods, and the occurrence of dispute resolution obstacles in the construction industry in the Gaza Strip.
Abstract: A key factor for a successful construction industry is the fewer occurrences of disputes, which are influenced by many factors during the project life cycle. The main aim of this study is to investigate the dispute resolution in the construction industry in Gaza Strip. This study aims to investigate the causes of dispute occurrence, the degrees of usage and effectiveness of various dispute resolution methods, and the occurrence and effectiveness of dispute resolution obstacles. In addition, this study also aims to investigate the usage and effectiveness degrees of some managerial techniques that help in solving disputes and dispute avoidance techniques. The objectives of this study have been achieved through studying of seventy-two questionnaires distributed to contracting companies have valid registration in Palestinian Contractors Union (PCU). The results of analyzing 58 causes considered in the questionnaire concluded that the main causes lead to dispute are: the use of a biased contract by the owner, the contract has ambiguous provisions and financing difficulties. The results illustrates that implementing the lowest bidder system, specifications and drawings are not consistent, repeated design changes, and using private contract by the owner are considered the main causes of disputes. The study results prove that the most used and effective methods in dispute resolution are: negotiation, mediation, conciliation and arbitration. According to the study results, delegating authorities to the field staff is considered the main way that help in resolving disputes, delaying the resolution of disputes to the project end by the owner is considered the main obstacle of resolving disputes, and using a fair contract is considered the main technique to avoid dispute occurrence. The results of this study recommended using a fair contract to all parties, completeness and consistence of drawings and specifications, and accurate design to avoid dispute causes. The results recommended modifying the lowest bidder system of awarding tenders to avoid awarding works to unqualified contractors. PCU is requested to cooperate with Association of Engineers (AoE) to pay more attention to training needs of contracting companies in order to improve their performance in dispute resolution.

8 citations


Cites background from "Essentials of nursing research: Met..."

  • ...Reliability of an instrument is the degree of consistency with which it measures the attribute it is supposed to be measuring (Polit and Hungler, 1985)....

    [...]

Dissertation
01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors propose a method to solve the problem of "uniformity" and "uncertainty" in the context of health care, and propose a solution.
Abstract: 1

8 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A significant negative correlation was found between the percentage of IEP objectives met variable and three collaborative variables--team meetings, reviewing progress, and develop goals and objectives, indicating that as the frequency of these team processes increased, fewer objectives were met.
Abstract: Objective A descriptive, correlational study using a survey instrument and record review was designed to describe collaboration practices between teachers and occupational therapists in public schools and to explore relationships of these practices to individual education plan (IEP) objectives and teachers' perceptions of occupational therapy contributions to student skill development. Method Forty teachers of students who receive occupational therapy comprised the sample. Descriptive statistics and Spearman rank order correlations were used to describe the practices and to determine associations among the variables. Results and conclusions The findings indicated that teachers and occupational therapists were using collaborative team practices, such as jointly developing goals and objectives, collaboration within the classrooms, jointly monitoring interventions, and jointly reviewing student progress. However, scheduling team meetings was difficult. The majority of respondents stated that occupational therapy contributed to student skill development, and as collaboration practices increased, the teachers' perceptions of occupational therapy contribution to student skill development increased. A significant negative correlation was found between the percentage of IEP objectives met variable and three collaborative variables--team meetings, reviewing progress, and develop goals and objectives. This finding indicated that as the frequency of these team processes increased, fewer objectives were met.

104 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results suggest that the Do-Eat is a reliable, valid tool for identifying children at risk for DCD.
Abstract: BACKGROUND. The Do�Eat was developed to evaluate daily task performance abilities among children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). This study investigated the tool�s reliability and validity. METHOD. Participants were 59 children ages 5 to 6.5 years; 30 children diagnosed with DCD according to the DSM�IV�TR; and a control group of 29 children, who were matched for age, gender, and sociodemographic background. RESULTS. Both the Do�Eat and the accompanying Parent Questionnaire yielded high internal consistency (as = .89�.93). Construct validity was demonstrated by significant between-group differences on the Do-Eat (t[57] = 14.09, p < .001) and the Parent Questionnaire (t[57] = 3.64, p < .001). Significant correlations between children�s scores on the sensory�motor component of the Do�Eat and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children final score confirmed concurrent validity (r = -.86, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS. Results suggest that the Do�Eat is a reliable, valid tool for identifying children at risk for DCD

45 citations

01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: In this article, a survey questionnaire was conducted to elicit professionals' views on and experiences with factors affecting the accuracy of pre-tender cost estimates; a total of 70 organizations responded to the survey.
Abstract: Pre-tender cost estimates of construction projects require extensive knowledge and expertise. The aim of this paper is to identify, evaluate and rank essential factors affecting the accuracy of pre-tender cost estimating from the perspective of clients and consultants. A survey questionnaire was conducted to elicit professionals' views on and experiences with factors affecting the accuracy of pre-tender cost estimates; a total of 70 organisations (i.e., 46 clients and 24 consultants operating in the Gaza Strip, Palestine) responded to the survey. The results of analysing a total of 64 factors considered in the questionnaire reveal that the top five factors affecting the accuracy of pre-tender cost estimating are (1) materials (prices/availability/supply/quality/imports), (2) closure and blockade of borders, (3) project team's experience in the construction type, (4) the experience and skill level of the consultant and (5) clear and detailed drawings and specifications. Kendall's coefficient of concordance was used as a measure of agreement between the two groups of respondents (i.e., clients and consultants) who ranked various factors and it appears that they are generally in agreement. Both clients and consultant groups should focus on the main factors identified in this study to develop effective strategies for accurate cost estimating, which would ultimately lead to successful projects.

44 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors identify factors influencing time and cost overruns in construction projects in the Gaza Strip, and present a detailed questionnaire containing 110 factors that caused time delay and 42 factors which caused cost overrun.
Abstract: The construction industry is considered one of the most important industries in Palestine. However, most construction projects in the Gaza Strip have been exposed to time and cost overruns. The aim of this paper is to identify factors influencing time and cost overruns in construction projects in the Gaza Strip. A detailed questionnaire containing 110 factors that caused time delay and 42 factors that caused cost overruns was developed as a basis to invite inputs from contractors. 80 questionnaires were distributed to contractors and 66 were completed and returned representing an 83% response rate. The view of contractors has been analyzed to rank the causes of delay and cost overruns on an importance index. The most significant causes of time delay identified in this research are; strikes, border closures, lack of materials in markets, shortage of construction materials at site, delay of material delivery to site, cash-flow problems during construction, and poor site management. The most signific...

39 citations