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Journal ArticleDOI

Essentials of nursing research: Methods and applications

01 Feb 1986-Nurse Education Today (Elsevier)-Vol. 6, Iss: 1, pp 46
About: This article is published in Nurse Education Today.The article was published on 1986-02-01. It has received 47 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Nursing research.
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Dissertation
01 Jan 2007
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a hybrid model combining the merits of AHP, Neural Networks (NN) and Genetic Algorithms (GA) in one unified model called the Genetic Neural Network (GNN) model.
Abstract: Contractor pre-qualification is characterised as a multi-criteria problem with uncertain inputs. The criteria used for pre-qualification includes qualitative and quantitative information. Owing to the nature of pre-qualification, which depends on subjective judgements of construction professionals, it becomes an art rather than a science. Two approaches are found in the literature to model the contractor's pre-qualification criteria; Linear and non-linear models. The main aim of this research is to offer a rational method for contractor prequalification that enables to pre-qualify the contractors who are able to achieve the client's objectives. The main question guiding the research is how to be sure that the selected contractor is able to achieve the client's objectives. It is believed that there is an indirect relationship between the contractor's attributes and the contractor's ability to achieve the client's objectives. The time, cost and quality overruns of a project have been used as indicators to measure the contractor's ability to achieve client's objectives. To achieve this aim, the methodologies used included literature review, questionnaires, surveys, and hypothetical and real-life case studies. This work suggested improvements to the previous contractor pre-qualification models by using a hybrid model, combining the merits of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Neural Networks (NN) and Genetic Algorithms (GA) in one consolidated model called the Genetic Neural Network (GNN) model. AHP was used to establish relative weights of the contractor's pre-qualification criteria; NN was used as the main processing tool to find a relationship between the contractor's attributes and his performance. The GA was used to select the appropriate topology of the network. The data collected from questionnaires 1 and 2 were utilized to establish relative weights of contractors attributes. Hypothetical and real-life case studies from executed projects in the Gaza Strip and West Bank were collected through structured questionnaires. The actual evaluation of the contractor's attributes and the actual performance of the contractor in these projects in terms of overrun of time, cost and quality were collected. The weighted attributes were used as inputs to the GNN model. The corresponding time, cost, and quality overruns for the same case were fed as outputs to the GNN model in a supervised learning back propagation neural network. The adopted training and testing processes to develop a trained model are presented. The accuracy of the model was investigated using Average Absolute Error *^ (AAE), Mean Square Error (MSE) and correlation co-efficient (R ). The factors: AAE; MSE; and R2 showed a very good accuracy when comparing model prediction with actual real-life cases. The results revealed that there is a satisfactory relationship between the contractor attributes and the corresponding performance in terms of contractor's deviation from the client objectives. The GNN model is able to predict future contractor performance in terms of time, cost, and quality overruns. Therefore, the evolved model is able to predict the contractor performance. Key words: Pre-qualification, Contractors, Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithm, Model, Contractor Performance.

6 citations


Cites methods from "Essentials of nursing research: Met..."

  • ...The obtained scores then are compared by computing a reliability coefficient (Polit and Hungler, 1985)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The careful and systematic development of an exposure history questionnaire can be a key determinant in the success of occupational health research.
Abstract: 1. Research linking disease with occupational and environmental exposures is often predicated on obtaining accurate exposure information from affected persons. 2. Exposure history questionnaires are used to obtain comprehensive information about work history, residential history, behavioral patterns, and lifetime exposures. 3. The process of questionnaire development includes: establishing the conceptual background of the research; assuring integrity of the research questions; specifying the content domain of the questionnaire; wording, level, and formatting decisions; establishing evidence for questionnaire validity; assessment of questionnaire reliability; and final edit and polishing. 4. The careful and systematic development of an exposure history questionnaire can be a key determinant in the success of occupational health research.

6 citations

DOI
01 Jan 1990
TL;DR: Nursing continues to attract the traditional student who has Holland's Social vocational personality type as measured by the Self-Directed Search, although many Social types are choosing rival health occupations.
Abstract: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE AND PERCEPTIONS OF PROFESSIONAL NURSING FUNCTIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS Ellis Quinn Youngkin Old Dominion University, 1990 Director: Dr. Wolfgang Pindur This study identifies the occupational interests and predominant vocational personality types of freshmen students (undeclared majors, nursing majors, and non­ nursing majors), explores perceptions about selected professional nursing functions and characteristics among the students, and examines perceptual differences between groups (ma j ors). A non-experimental ex post facto design is used to analyze data from 312 students in a large urban university. Descriptive and inferential statistics are applied in data analysis. The following findings support the hypotheses: 1. Nursing continues to attract the traditional student who has Holland's Social vocational personality type as measured by the Self-Directed Search, although many Social types are choosing rival health occupations. 2. The vocational personality profiles of the majors differ significantly, matching Holland's high point Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. code letters for occupations represented by the more homogeneous majors. 3. Significant differences in gender, race, SDS and daydream high point letter codes, and if nursing has ever been considered for a career occur between majors. 4. Perceptions of nursing as measured by the Professional Nursing Functions and Characteristics Interest Inventory (PNFCII) are significantly different between the three groups and the majors. Women in all majors and over half of all respondents perceive nursing favorably. 5. Students with Social vocational personality codes, regardless of group or major, view the functions and characteristics of professional nursing positively. Implications are as follows: 1. Social students need earlier identification for intensive recruitment by nursing; 2. Non-traditional students, including male, non-white, and more qualified, brighter students, with predominant vocational personality types other than Social, especially Investigative, should be targeted; 3. Recruitment strategies should promote role satisfaction and salary-related benefits, as well as traditional factors of helping people; 4. Nurse role modeling should be promoted in the community to make nursing visible to people who influence occupational choice; Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. 5. The PNFCII instrument may be used in rating interest in nursing, guidance counseling, and recruiting; 6. Changing the name of nursing would not make a significant difference in recruitment; and 7. Nursing must be marketed differently to attract a wider group of people who would impact the fundamental image of the profession positively over time. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

5 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A significant negative correlation was found between the percentage of IEP objectives met variable and three collaborative variables--team meetings, reviewing progress, and develop goals and objectives, indicating that as the frequency of these team processes increased, fewer objectives were met.
Abstract: Objective A descriptive, correlational study using a survey instrument and record review was designed to describe collaboration practices between teachers and occupational therapists in public schools and to explore relationships of these practices to individual education plan (IEP) objectives and teachers' perceptions of occupational therapy contributions to student skill development. Method Forty teachers of students who receive occupational therapy comprised the sample. Descriptive statistics and Spearman rank order correlations were used to describe the practices and to determine associations among the variables. Results and conclusions The findings indicated that teachers and occupational therapists were using collaborative team practices, such as jointly developing goals and objectives, collaboration within the classrooms, jointly monitoring interventions, and jointly reviewing student progress. However, scheduling team meetings was difficult. The majority of respondents stated that occupational therapy contributed to student skill development, and as collaboration practices increased, the teachers' perceptions of occupational therapy contribution to student skill development increased. A significant negative correlation was found between the percentage of IEP objectives met variable and three collaborative variables--team meetings, reviewing progress, and develop goals and objectives. This finding indicated that as the frequency of these team processes increased, fewer objectives were met.

104 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results suggest that the Do-Eat is a reliable, valid tool for identifying children at risk for DCD.
Abstract: BACKGROUND. The Do�Eat was developed to evaluate daily task performance abilities among children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). This study investigated the tool�s reliability and validity. METHOD. Participants were 59 children ages 5 to 6.5 years; 30 children diagnosed with DCD according to the DSM�IV�TR; and a control group of 29 children, who were matched for age, gender, and sociodemographic background. RESULTS. Both the Do�Eat and the accompanying Parent Questionnaire yielded high internal consistency (as = .89�.93). Construct validity was demonstrated by significant between-group differences on the Do-Eat (t[57] = 14.09, p < .001) and the Parent Questionnaire (t[57] = 3.64, p < .001). Significant correlations between children�s scores on the sensory�motor component of the Do�Eat and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children final score confirmed concurrent validity (r = -.86, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS. Results suggest that the Do�Eat is a reliable, valid tool for identifying children at risk for DCD

45 citations

01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: In this article, a survey questionnaire was conducted to elicit professionals' views on and experiences with factors affecting the accuracy of pre-tender cost estimates; a total of 70 organizations responded to the survey.
Abstract: Pre-tender cost estimates of construction projects require extensive knowledge and expertise. The aim of this paper is to identify, evaluate and rank essential factors affecting the accuracy of pre-tender cost estimating from the perspective of clients and consultants. A survey questionnaire was conducted to elicit professionals' views on and experiences with factors affecting the accuracy of pre-tender cost estimates; a total of 70 organisations (i.e., 46 clients and 24 consultants operating in the Gaza Strip, Palestine) responded to the survey. The results of analysing a total of 64 factors considered in the questionnaire reveal that the top five factors affecting the accuracy of pre-tender cost estimating are (1) materials (prices/availability/supply/quality/imports), (2) closure and blockade of borders, (3) project team's experience in the construction type, (4) the experience and skill level of the consultant and (5) clear and detailed drawings and specifications. Kendall's coefficient of concordance was used as a measure of agreement between the two groups of respondents (i.e., clients and consultants) who ranked various factors and it appears that they are generally in agreement. Both clients and consultant groups should focus on the main factors identified in this study to develop effective strategies for accurate cost estimating, which would ultimately lead to successful projects.

44 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors identify factors influencing time and cost overruns in construction projects in the Gaza Strip, and present a detailed questionnaire containing 110 factors that caused time delay and 42 factors which caused cost overrun.
Abstract: The construction industry is considered one of the most important industries in Palestine. However, most construction projects in the Gaza Strip have been exposed to time and cost overruns. The aim of this paper is to identify factors influencing time and cost overruns in construction projects in the Gaza Strip. A detailed questionnaire containing 110 factors that caused time delay and 42 factors that caused cost overruns was developed as a basis to invite inputs from contractors. 80 questionnaires were distributed to contractors and 66 were completed and returned representing an 83% response rate. The view of contractors has been analyzed to rank the causes of delay and cost overruns on an importance index. The most significant causes of time delay identified in this research are; strikes, border closures, lack of materials in markets, shortage of construction materials at site, delay of material delivery to site, cash-flow problems during construction, and poor site management. The most signific...

39 citations