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Journal ArticleDOI

Essentials of nursing research: Methods and applications

01 Feb 1986-Nurse Education Today (Elsevier)-Vol. 6, Iss: 1, pp 46
About: This article is published in Nurse Education Today.The article was published on 1986-02-01. It has received 47 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Nursing research.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A significant negative correlation was found between the percentage of IEP objectives met variable and three collaborative variables--team meetings, reviewing progress, and develop goals and objectives, indicating that as the frequency of these team processes increased, fewer objectives were met.
Abstract: Objective A descriptive, correlational study using a survey instrument and record review was designed to describe collaboration practices between teachers and occupational therapists in public schools and to explore relationships of these practices to individual education plan (IEP) objectives and teachers' perceptions of occupational therapy contributions to student skill development. Method Forty teachers of students who receive occupational therapy comprised the sample. Descriptive statistics and Spearman rank order correlations were used to describe the practices and to determine associations among the variables. Results and conclusions The findings indicated that teachers and occupational therapists were using collaborative team practices, such as jointly developing goals and objectives, collaboration within the classrooms, jointly monitoring interventions, and jointly reviewing student progress. However, scheduling team meetings was difficult. The majority of respondents stated that occupational therapy contributed to student skill development, and as collaboration practices increased, the teachers' perceptions of occupational therapy contribution to student skill development increased. A significant negative correlation was found between the percentage of IEP objectives met variable and three collaborative variables--team meetings, reviewing progress, and develop goals and objectives. This finding indicated that as the frequency of these team processes increased, fewer objectives were met.

104 citations


Cites background from "Essentials of nursing research: Met..."

  • ...Cronbach’s alpha is a “reliability index that estimates internal consistency or homogeneity of a measure composed of several items or subparts” (Polit & Hungler, 1985, p. 383)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results suggest that the Do-Eat is a reliable, valid tool for identifying children at risk for DCD.
Abstract: BACKGROUND. The Do�Eat was developed to evaluate daily task performance abilities among children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). This study investigated the tool�s reliability and validity. METHOD. Participants were 59 children ages 5 to 6.5 years; 30 children diagnosed with DCD according to the DSM�IV�TR; and a control group of 29 children, who were matched for age, gender, and sociodemographic background. RESULTS. Both the Do�Eat and the accompanying Parent Questionnaire yielded high internal consistency (as = .89�.93). Construct validity was demonstrated by significant between-group differences on the Do-Eat (t[57] = 14.09, p < .001) and the Parent Questionnaire (t[57] = 3.64, p < .001). Significant correlations between children�s scores on the sensory�motor component of the Do�Eat and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children final score confirmed concurrent validity (r = -.86, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS. Results suggest that the Do�Eat is a reliable, valid tool for identifying children at risk for DCD

45 citations

01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: In this article, a survey questionnaire was conducted to elicit professionals' views on and experiences with factors affecting the accuracy of pre-tender cost estimates; a total of 70 organizations responded to the survey.
Abstract: Pre-tender cost estimates of construction projects require extensive knowledge and expertise. The aim of this paper is to identify, evaluate and rank essential factors affecting the accuracy of pre-tender cost estimating from the perspective of clients and consultants. A survey questionnaire was conducted to elicit professionals' views on and experiences with factors affecting the accuracy of pre-tender cost estimates; a total of 70 organisations (i.e., 46 clients and 24 consultants operating in the Gaza Strip, Palestine) responded to the survey. The results of analysing a total of 64 factors considered in the questionnaire reveal that the top five factors affecting the accuracy of pre-tender cost estimating are (1) materials (prices/availability/supply/quality/imports), (2) closure and blockade of borders, (3) project team's experience in the construction type, (4) the experience and skill level of the consultant and (5) clear and detailed drawings and specifications. Kendall's coefficient of concordance was used as a measure of agreement between the two groups of respondents (i.e., clients and consultants) who ranked various factors and it appears that they are generally in agreement. Both clients and consultant groups should focus on the main factors identified in this study to develop effective strategies for accurate cost estimating, which would ultimately lead to successful projects.

44 citations


Cites background or methods from "Essentials of nursing research: Met..."

  • ...According to Polit and Hungler (1985), validity refers to the degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to be measuring....

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  • ...To ensure the validity of the questionnaire and following Polit and Hungler (1985), two statistical tests were applied....

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  • ...According to Polit and Hungler (1985), validity refers to the degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to be measuring. Instrument validity can be evaluated in two ways: (1) content validity and (2) statistical validity, which includes criterion-related validity and construct validity. For this research, the content validity of the questionnaire was tested by an expert panel of ten experts in the project management field consisting of two academics, four consultants and four seasoned clients. Each expert was requested to evaluate the content validity for each item based on rating the index of content validity. Based on the comments of the experts, the final questionnaire included 64 factors grouped into five categories. To ensure the validity of the questionnaire and following Polit and Hungler (1985), two statistical tests were applied....

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  • ...Instrument Validity According to Polit and Hungler (1985), validity refers to the degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to be measuring....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors identify factors influencing time and cost overruns in construction projects in the Gaza Strip, and present a detailed questionnaire containing 110 factors that caused time delay and 42 factors which caused cost overrun.
Abstract: The construction industry is considered one of the most important industries in Palestine. However, most construction projects in the Gaza Strip have been exposed to time and cost overruns. The aim of this paper is to identify factors influencing time and cost overruns in construction projects in the Gaza Strip. A detailed questionnaire containing 110 factors that caused time delay and 42 factors that caused cost overruns was developed as a basis to invite inputs from contractors. 80 questionnaires were distributed to contractors and 66 were completed and returned representing an 83% response rate. The view of contractors has been analyzed to rank the causes of delay and cost overruns on an importance index. The most significant causes of time delay identified in this research are; strikes, border closures, lack of materials in markets, shortage of construction materials at site, delay of material delivery to site, cash-flow problems during construction, and poor site management. The most signific...

39 citations


Cites background from "Essentials of nursing research: Met..."

  • ...The reliability of an instrument is the degree of consistency which measures the attribute it is supposed to be measuring (Poilt and Hungler, 1985)....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
03 Jan 2018
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined the likelihood, degree of impact and probability of risk occurrence on tendering and procurement of construction projects and concluded that risk issues are better solved at bidding and procurement phase than construction phase as the case has been.
Abstract: The construction industry is plagued by risks above other industries due to its unique features which include the complexity of building activities, extended period of construction, complicated processes, financial intensity and dynamic organisational structure. These risks are not adequately dealt with and result in increased cost, time and reduced quality. While many types of research have been conducted on construction risks, only a few types of research have investigated the impact of risk (at tendering and procurement stage) on construction projects before they commence. Meanwhile, risk issues are better solved at bidding and procurement phase than construction phase as the case has been. Therefore, this paper examines the likelihood, degree of impact and probability of risk occurrence on tendering and procurement of construction projects. It also investigates the significant sources of tendering and procurement risks, the level of awareness and adoption of risk management techniques in construction tendering and procurement. The questionnaire for the study was administered on building contractors and consultants. A total of 44 questionnaires were retrieved and used for the analysis of the study. The statistical tools used for analysis are frequencies, percentages, mean scores and t test. The findings of the study revealed 17 significant sources of risk among the 35 that were investigated. Risks with high likelihood of occurrence, the degree of impact and high probability of occurrence were also indicated in the study. Based on the findings, it was concluded that respondents are aware and adopt risk management techniques on construction projects, but their adoption is at response level rather than identification level. Therefore, the recommendation of the study is that awareness should be created on the need for risk identification before construction projects commence. This should be implemented at professional and organizational level. Construction stakeholders should guard against risks with a high degree of impact and probability of occurrence during tendering and procurement of construction projects. Therefore, this study contributes to the body of knowledge by investigating the significant sources of risks to tendering and procurement, likelihood of risk occurrence, impact of risks and probability of risk occurrence in tendering and procurement. Keywords: Construction projects, Cost overrun, Impact of risk, Probability of risk, Procurement, Sources of risk, Tendering and procurement.

7 citations

Dissertation
01 Jan 1999
TL;DR: The clinical education role in its present form changes registered nurses relationship with their patients and changes their pattern of work, and requires good communication with nurse lecturers, preparation for the role, and needs to provide nursing students with the opportunity to learn.
Abstract: Although clinical education has long been acknowledged as the heart of nursing education, the role of the nurse lecturer in relation to the clinical learning experience of nursing students, is an area of long standing confusioFl and dispute. The many advances in technology, nursing science, and the professional role, have not been accompanied by substantive change in the approach to clinical education. Research to date has focused on the lecturers' and students' perceptions of the clinical education role. This study describes the characteristics of the clinical education role as perceived by ten registered nurses working a practice setting. The participants in the study were employed by a Crown Health Enterprise which has for many years, served as a clinical practice agency for a department of nursing within an educational institute. All the participants were employed as registered nurses within the general medical and surgical wards. A qualitative, descriptive and exploratory study was undertaken. Face to face, semi-structured interviews were used to obtain data. This was then analysed using thematic content analysis. Findings from the data revealed five characteristics of the clinical education role as perceived by Registered Nurses working in the practice setting. The clinical education role in its present form changes registered nurses relationship with their patients and changes their pattern of work. It requires good communication with nurse lecturers, preparation for the role, and needs to provide nursing students with the opportunity to learn.

7 citations

10 Apr 2000
TL;DR: It was revealed that an overwhelming number of men had never practiced testicular self-examination and the vast majority of participants also indicated that no specific barriers existed to impede its practice.
Abstract: : Testicular cancer is the most common neoplasm found in men between the ages of 15 and 35, with an incidence that has nearly doubled over the last 20 years. Previous studies in the United States and Europe suggests that there is a limited awareness of testicular cancer and an even more limited practice of testicular self-examination. The purpose of this research was to investigate the beliefs and practices of active duty Air Force males related to testicular cancer and testicular self-examination. This study used a descriptive design to examine concepts from the health belief model and social cognitive theory that have been predictive of self-care and prevention behaviors. A nonrandom convenience sample of 100 men was taken from the active duty Air Force population assigned to a large Air Force facility in the eastern section of the United States. Data were collected using a questionnaire adapted from Champion's tool measuring variables related to breast self-examination. The findings of this study revealed that an overwhelming number of men had never practiced testicular self-examination. The vast majority of participants also indicated that no specific barriers existed to impede its practice.

6 citations