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Journal ArticleDOI

Essentials of nursing research: Methods and applications

01 Feb 1986-Nurse Education Today (Elsevier)-Vol. 6, Iss: 1, pp 46
About: This article is published in Nurse Education Today.The article was published on 1986-02-01. It has received 47 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Nursing research.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A significant negative correlation was found between the percentage of IEP objectives met variable and three collaborative variables--team meetings, reviewing progress, and develop goals and objectives, indicating that as the frequency of these team processes increased, fewer objectives were met.
Abstract: Objective A descriptive, correlational study using a survey instrument and record review was designed to describe collaboration practices between teachers and occupational therapists in public schools and to explore relationships of these practices to individual education plan (IEP) objectives and teachers' perceptions of occupational therapy contributions to student skill development. Method Forty teachers of students who receive occupational therapy comprised the sample. Descriptive statistics and Spearman rank order correlations were used to describe the practices and to determine associations among the variables. Results and conclusions The findings indicated that teachers and occupational therapists were using collaborative team practices, such as jointly developing goals and objectives, collaboration within the classrooms, jointly monitoring interventions, and jointly reviewing student progress. However, scheduling team meetings was difficult. The majority of respondents stated that occupational therapy contributed to student skill development, and as collaboration practices increased, the teachers' perceptions of occupational therapy contribution to student skill development increased. A significant negative correlation was found between the percentage of IEP objectives met variable and three collaborative variables--team meetings, reviewing progress, and develop goals and objectives. This finding indicated that as the frequency of these team processes increased, fewer objectives were met.

104 citations


Cites background from "Essentials of nursing research: Met..."

  • ...Cronbach’s alpha is a “reliability index that estimates internal consistency or homogeneity of a measure composed of several items or subparts” (Polit & Hungler, 1985, p. 383)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results suggest that the Do-Eat is a reliable, valid tool for identifying children at risk for DCD.
Abstract: BACKGROUND. The Do�Eat was developed to evaluate daily task performance abilities among children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). This study investigated the tool�s reliability and validity. METHOD. Participants were 59 children ages 5 to 6.5 years; 30 children diagnosed with DCD according to the DSM�IV�TR; and a control group of 29 children, who were matched for age, gender, and sociodemographic background. RESULTS. Both the Do�Eat and the accompanying Parent Questionnaire yielded high internal consistency (as = .89�.93). Construct validity was demonstrated by significant between-group differences on the Do-Eat (t[57] = 14.09, p < .001) and the Parent Questionnaire (t[57] = 3.64, p < .001). Significant correlations between children�s scores on the sensory�motor component of the Do�Eat and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children final score confirmed concurrent validity (r = -.86, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS. Results suggest that the Do�Eat is a reliable, valid tool for identifying children at risk for DCD

45 citations

01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: In this article, a survey questionnaire was conducted to elicit professionals' views on and experiences with factors affecting the accuracy of pre-tender cost estimates; a total of 70 organizations responded to the survey.
Abstract: Pre-tender cost estimates of construction projects require extensive knowledge and expertise. The aim of this paper is to identify, evaluate and rank essential factors affecting the accuracy of pre-tender cost estimating from the perspective of clients and consultants. A survey questionnaire was conducted to elicit professionals' views on and experiences with factors affecting the accuracy of pre-tender cost estimates; a total of 70 organisations (i.e., 46 clients and 24 consultants operating in the Gaza Strip, Palestine) responded to the survey. The results of analysing a total of 64 factors considered in the questionnaire reveal that the top five factors affecting the accuracy of pre-tender cost estimating are (1) materials (prices/availability/supply/quality/imports), (2) closure and blockade of borders, (3) project team's experience in the construction type, (4) the experience and skill level of the consultant and (5) clear and detailed drawings and specifications. Kendall's coefficient of concordance was used as a measure of agreement between the two groups of respondents (i.e., clients and consultants) who ranked various factors and it appears that they are generally in agreement. Both clients and consultant groups should focus on the main factors identified in this study to develop effective strategies for accurate cost estimating, which would ultimately lead to successful projects.

44 citations


Cites background or methods from "Essentials of nursing research: Met..."

  • ...According to Polit and Hungler (1985), validity refers to the degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to be measuring....

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  • ...To ensure the validity of the questionnaire and following Polit and Hungler (1985), two statistical tests were applied....

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  • ...According to Polit and Hungler (1985), validity refers to the degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to be measuring. Instrument validity can be evaluated in two ways: (1) content validity and (2) statistical validity, which includes criterion-related validity and construct validity. For this research, the content validity of the questionnaire was tested by an expert panel of ten experts in the project management field consisting of two academics, four consultants and four seasoned clients. Each expert was requested to evaluate the content validity for each item based on rating the index of content validity. Based on the comments of the experts, the final questionnaire included 64 factors grouped into five categories. To ensure the validity of the questionnaire and following Polit and Hungler (1985), two statistical tests were applied....

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  • ...Instrument Validity According to Polit and Hungler (1985), validity refers to the degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to be measuring....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors identify factors influencing time and cost overruns in construction projects in the Gaza Strip, and present a detailed questionnaire containing 110 factors that caused time delay and 42 factors which caused cost overrun.
Abstract: The construction industry is considered one of the most important industries in Palestine. However, most construction projects in the Gaza Strip have been exposed to time and cost overruns. The aim of this paper is to identify factors influencing time and cost overruns in construction projects in the Gaza Strip. A detailed questionnaire containing 110 factors that caused time delay and 42 factors that caused cost overruns was developed as a basis to invite inputs from contractors. 80 questionnaires were distributed to contractors and 66 were completed and returned representing an 83% response rate. The view of contractors has been analyzed to rank the causes of delay and cost overruns on an importance index. The most significant causes of time delay identified in this research are; strikes, border closures, lack of materials in markets, shortage of construction materials at site, delay of material delivery to site, cash-flow problems during construction, and poor site management. The most signific...

39 citations


Cites background from "Essentials of nursing research: Met..."

  • ...The reliability of an instrument is the degree of consistency which measures the attribute it is supposed to be measuring (Poilt and Hungler, 1985)....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe and analyse risk management in a project-based organization within the construction industry and provide a better understanding of how risk management is used in practice but also what underlying factors that can affect risk management processes.
Abstract: Risk can be described as the absence of information when a decision is to be made at any time throughout a process. The construction industry is often considered as complex and defragmented due to working in a project based format; with a unique product and a process where there are times when decisions need to be made with insufficient information. Therefore, proper risk management processes can be vital to minimizing risks, maximizing opportunities and securing a successful project process This master thesis has been conducted at a large Swedish construction company that houses both a constructing unit and a residential development unit. Consequently, the focus of this thesis has been on analysing the risk management process when a residential project is both developed and constructed by the same company. The purpose of this master thesis is to describe and analyse risk management in a project based organization within the construction industry. The thesis aims to provide a better understanding of how risk management is used in practice but also what underlying factors that can affect risk management processes. The study will include both the perspective of the developer and the constructor; as well as their separate and joint processes facilitating risk management. In regards to the purpose of this thesis, a general risk management model has been used to provide a framework for analysis. This model consists of four steps: risk identification, risk assessment, risk mitigation and risk monitoring.

3 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, customer-centric marketing viewpoints have been receiving a substantial amount of attention by academics and researchers and they are progressively searching for methods in order to better comprehend, appeal to, keep and build a close and intimate long-lasting relationship with clients that are considered profitable.
Abstract: Customer-Centric marketing viewpoints have been receiving a substantial amount of attention by academics and researchers. They are progressively searching for methods in order to better comprehend, appeal to, keep and build a close and intimate long-lasting relationship with clients that are considered profitable (Kotler, et al, 2006). Making sure that the current clients are fully satisfied is one of the most vital areas of the client-centric marketing model. For this reason, companies have been studying and working on strategies that will lead to customer satisfaction. If a client is satisfied, Abstract

3 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1986
TL;DR: The concept of nursing research has been the subject of many semester-long courses at both the graduate and undergraduate level of nursing education and an overview of this topic would require several research columns.
Abstract: The concept of nursing research has been the subjectof many semester-long courses at both the graduate and undergraduate level of nursing education. An overview of this topic would require several research columns. This column is confined to an overview of the research process. In thinking about the research process, it is necessary to define research. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, defines research as &dquo;a scholarly or scientific

2 citations

01 Jan 2015
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors developed a theoretical framework of the performance evaluation of construction projects based on six key performance indicators (KPIs) namely time, cost, quality, safety, minimum site disputes and environmental impact.
Abstract: Performance criteria and measures among construction projects reflect the value of the project stakeholders on how they would be viewing the projects they undertake. From the literature review, it was established that one of the challenges facing public construction projects is the lack of sufficient and formal approaches on which to evaluate project performance. It is against this background that the present work attempts to develop a theoretical framework of the performance evaluation of construction projects based on six key performance indicators (KPIs) namely time, cost, quality, safety, minimum site disputes and environmental impact. In so doing, the paper considers the perceptions of 160 stakeholders in construction projects comprising of clients, consultants and contractors on recently completed Constituency Development Fund (CDF) projects in Kakamega, Vihiga Bungoma and Busia Counties. We have identified the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) in public construction projects through exploratory factor analysis and demonstrated the relationship between KPIs and overall project performance with the help of a conceptual diagram. The diagram reveals how performance of apublic construction project can be assessed in terms of the above six performance indicators. We have concluded by highlighting the contribution of the paper to the existing body of project management literature and providing recommendations for future research.

2 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The lived experience of institutionalized elderly people in Bahrain was explored in one of the elderly residential health care institutions in the kingdom of Bahrain to generate appropriate interventions to smooth the transition in to the residential facility.
Abstract: There is a continuous increase in the number of elderly people moving in to residential care facility in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Admission in to the residential facility perceived in Bahrain society as stigma, rejection for elders by their family members and a violation to Bahrain family values. Many adverse effects of institutionalizing elderly people were reported in literatures. This study aimed to explore the lived experience of institutionalized elderly people in order to generate appropriate interventions to smooth the transition in to the residential facility. A qualitative, phenomenological approach was used. The study was carried in one of the elderly residential health care institutions in the kingdom of Bahrain. The sample composed nine participants, were interviewed and audio recorded. The five themes emerged from the data analysis included: no choice, no freedom, killing routine, home of negligence, and elderly refuge. The conclusions involved implication for clinical practice, education and management. Future research in the same area was recommended.

2 citations