scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Journal ArticleDOI

Essentials of nursing research: Methods and applications

01 Feb 1986-Nurse Education Today (Elsevier)-Vol. 6, Iss: 1, pp 46
About: This article is published in Nurse Education Today.The article was published on 1986-02-01. It has received 47 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Nursing research.
Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A significant negative correlation was found between the percentage of IEP objectives met variable and three collaborative variables--team meetings, reviewing progress, and develop goals and objectives, indicating that as the frequency of these team processes increased, fewer objectives were met.
Abstract: Objective A descriptive, correlational study using a survey instrument and record review was designed to describe collaboration practices between teachers and occupational therapists in public schools and to explore relationships of these practices to individual education plan (IEP) objectives and teachers' perceptions of occupational therapy contributions to student skill development. Method Forty teachers of students who receive occupational therapy comprised the sample. Descriptive statistics and Spearman rank order correlations were used to describe the practices and to determine associations among the variables. Results and conclusions The findings indicated that teachers and occupational therapists were using collaborative team practices, such as jointly developing goals and objectives, collaboration within the classrooms, jointly monitoring interventions, and jointly reviewing student progress. However, scheduling team meetings was difficult. The majority of respondents stated that occupational therapy contributed to student skill development, and as collaboration practices increased, the teachers' perceptions of occupational therapy contribution to student skill development increased. A significant negative correlation was found between the percentage of IEP objectives met variable and three collaborative variables--team meetings, reviewing progress, and develop goals and objectives. This finding indicated that as the frequency of these team processes increased, fewer objectives were met.

104 citations


Cites background from "Essentials of nursing research: Met..."

  • ...Cronbach’s alpha is a “reliability index that estimates internal consistency or homogeneity of a measure composed of several items or subparts” (Polit & Hungler, 1985, p. 383)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results suggest that the Do-Eat is a reliable, valid tool for identifying children at risk for DCD.
Abstract: BACKGROUND. The Do�Eat was developed to evaluate daily task performance abilities among children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). This study investigated the tool�s reliability and validity. METHOD. Participants were 59 children ages 5 to 6.5 years; 30 children diagnosed with DCD according to the DSM�IV�TR; and a control group of 29 children, who were matched for age, gender, and sociodemographic background. RESULTS. Both the Do�Eat and the accompanying Parent Questionnaire yielded high internal consistency (as = .89�.93). Construct validity was demonstrated by significant between-group differences on the Do-Eat (t[57] = 14.09, p < .001) and the Parent Questionnaire (t[57] = 3.64, p < .001). Significant correlations between children�s scores on the sensory�motor component of the Do�Eat and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children final score confirmed concurrent validity (r = -.86, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS. Results suggest that the Do�Eat is a reliable, valid tool for identifying children at risk for DCD

45 citations

01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: In this article, a survey questionnaire was conducted to elicit professionals' views on and experiences with factors affecting the accuracy of pre-tender cost estimates; a total of 70 organizations responded to the survey.
Abstract: Pre-tender cost estimates of construction projects require extensive knowledge and expertise. The aim of this paper is to identify, evaluate and rank essential factors affecting the accuracy of pre-tender cost estimating from the perspective of clients and consultants. A survey questionnaire was conducted to elicit professionals' views on and experiences with factors affecting the accuracy of pre-tender cost estimates; a total of 70 organisations (i.e., 46 clients and 24 consultants operating in the Gaza Strip, Palestine) responded to the survey. The results of analysing a total of 64 factors considered in the questionnaire reveal that the top five factors affecting the accuracy of pre-tender cost estimating are (1) materials (prices/availability/supply/quality/imports), (2) closure and blockade of borders, (3) project team's experience in the construction type, (4) the experience and skill level of the consultant and (5) clear and detailed drawings and specifications. Kendall's coefficient of concordance was used as a measure of agreement between the two groups of respondents (i.e., clients and consultants) who ranked various factors and it appears that they are generally in agreement. Both clients and consultant groups should focus on the main factors identified in this study to develop effective strategies for accurate cost estimating, which would ultimately lead to successful projects.

44 citations


Cites background or methods from "Essentials of nursing research: Met..."

  • ...According to Polit and Hungler (1985), validity refers to the degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to be measuring....

    [...]

  • ...To ensure the validity of the questionnaire and following Polit and Hungler (1985), two statistical tests were applied....

    [...]

  • ...According to Polit and Hungler (1985), validity refers to the degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to be measuring. Instrument validity can be evaluated in two ways: (1) content validity and (2) statistical validity, which includes criterion-related validity and construct validity. For this research, the content validity of the questionnaire was tested by an expert panel of ten experts in the project management field consisting of two academics, four consultants and four seasoned clients. Each expert was requested to evaluate the content validity for each item based on rating the index of content validity. Based on the comments of the experts, the final questionnaire included 64 factors grouped into five categories. To ensure the validity of the questionnaire and following Polit and Hungler (1985), two statistical tests were applied....

    [...]

  • ...Instrument Validity According to Polit and Hungler (1985), validity refers to the degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to be measuring....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors identify factors influencing time and cost overruns in construction projects in the Gaza Strip, and present a detailed questionnaire containing 110 factors that caused time delay and 42 factors which caused cost overrun.
Abstract: The construction industry is considered one of the most important industries in Palestine. However, most construction projects in the Gaza Strip have been exposed to time and cost overruns. The aim of this paper is to identify factors influencing time and cost overruns in construction projects in the Gaza Strip. A detailed questionnaire containing 110 factors that caused time delay and 42 factors that caused cost overruns was developed as a basis to invite inputs from contractors. 80 questionnaires were distributed to contractors and 66 were completed and returned representing an 83% response rate. The view of contractors has been analyzed to rank the causes of delay and cost overruns on an importance index. The most significant causes of time delay identified in this research are; strikes, border closures, lack of materials in markets, shortage of construction materials at site, delay of material delivery to site, cash-flow problems during construction, and poor site management. The most signific...

39 citations


Cites background from "Essentials of nursing research: Met..."

  • ...The reliability of an instrument is the degree of consistency which measures the attribute it is supposed to be measuring (Poilt and Hungler, 1985)....

    [...]

References
More filters
Dissertation
01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a list of abbreviated versions of the following lists of abbreviations and figures: 1 1.1 BACKGROUND, 2 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT, 3 1.3 RESEARCH AIM and OBJECTIVES, 4 1.5 THESIS ORGANIZATION, 5 2.5 LITERATURE this article
Abstract: ................................................................................................................. III LIST OFABBREVIATIONS ...................................................................................... IX LIST OF TABLES ......................................................................................................... X LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................... XII CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION .................................................................................. 1 1.1 BACKGROUND ......................................................................................................... 1 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT ........................................................................................... 2 1.3 RESEARCH AIM AND OBJECTIVES .......................................................................... 2 1.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ................................................................................... 3 1.5 THESIS ORGANIZATION ........................................................................................... 4 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................................... 5 2.

2 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the role of gender and race in the development of gender stereotypes in the context of gender discrimination in the media. But they do not discuss the relationship between gender stereotypes and gender stereotypes.
Abstract: تصاعد التكلفة هي واحدة من الصعوبات الخطيرة التي تواجه صناعة البناء والتشييد. حيث يعاني قطاع البناء من التكلفة المتزايدة للمواد الخام ، مدخلات البناء والتضخم في الداخل و الأسواق الدولية. الهدف من هذه الورقة هو تحديد العوامل التي تؤثر على تصاعد التكلفة في مشاريع البناء في قطاع غزة. وهذا سوف يساعد المقاولين لخلق الوعي بحيث يمكن اتخاذ التدابير العلاجية في الوقت المناسب ل تخفيف المشاكل الناتجة. تم تحديد ما مجموعه 36 عامل تؤثر على التصعيد و المتعلقة بالمشروع ، المشرف ، النشاط ، المالك ، العمل و المعدات والمواد من خلال استعراض الدراسات السابقة التي كانت مدعومة من قبل لجنة من الخبراء والدراسة التجريبية. تم استخدام الاستبيانة لجمع البيانات الأولية. وكان ما مجموعه 120 استبانة وزعت عشوائيا على أصحاب العمل والمستشارين والمقاولين في قطاع البناء في قطاع غزة لجمع وجهات نظرهم حول العوامل التي تؤثر على تصاعد التكلفة. تم تقسيم الاستبيان إلى قسمين. الجزء الأول هو معلومات عامة والثاني هو العوامل التي تؤثر على التكلفة التصعيد. كشفت النتائج أن تكلفة البناء المواد والتصاريح والموافقات ، توافر نظام إشرافي فعال ، تقدير التكلفة غير السليم ، التغييرات في المشروع ، ونوعية العمل ، والآلات و المعدات اللازمة لتنفيذ المهام والأنشطة المطلوبة لإنجاز المشروع هي الأكثر شيوعا العوامل التي تؤدي إلى تصاعد تكلفة مشاريع البناء في قطاع غزة ..

2 citations

Dissertation
01 Jan 2012
TL;DR: In this article, the acceptance level of construction parties, identifying strengths and weaknesses in EAC arbitration procedures and then suggesting improvements was explored by exploring the acceptance of the construction parties to arbitration and finding that the main obstacles of arbitration extent are: lack of sufficient awareness of the dispute parties in principles and procedures of arbitration, not to promote members of the EAC by experts in the field of arbitral justice and lack of commitment of one of the parties to cover the financial obligations required for arbitration.
Abstract: Disputes in construction industry are normal and sometimes cannot be avoided. There are many methods to resolve disputes and arbitration is one of these methods. Arbitration is considered one of recently regulated dispute resolution methods in construction in the Gaza Strip. This study aims to evaluate and improve the Engineering Arbitration Center (EAC) procedures in the Gaza Strip. This aim achieved by exploring the acceptance level of construction parties, identifying strengths and weaknesses in EAC arbitration procedures and then suggesting improvements. In this research the current EAC engineering arbitration procedures in the Gaza Strip is investigated and compared to an international and regional arbitration institutions. Fifty questionnaires were distributed to dispute parties in arbitrated cases in EAC. Results of 34 questionnaires of respondents and 10 interviews with arbitration experts concluded that: It is found that costs and time of arbitration in EAC are not satisfying by disputants. It is also found that arbitration fees are preferred to be paid commensurately with the value of claims which are awarded to each of the dispute parties with a minimum must be paid by each dispute party. Respondents of the questionnaire preferred when forming arbitral tribunal that each of the dispute parties choose an arbitrator from the list of names of arbitrators determined by EAC, then the parties agree to the arbitral tribunal president in the case of three arbitrators. It is found that the main obstacles of arbitration extent are: lack of sufficient awareness of the dispute parties in principles and procedures of arbitration, not to promote members of the EAC by experts in the field of arbitral justice and lack of commitment of one of the dispute parties to cover the financial obligations required for EAC. It is found that there are high level of acceptance with arbitration procedures in EAC as 91% of respondents will reconsider EAC for resolution in future disputes. This study recommended that the arbitration procedures in EAC should be evaluated periodically for improvements and the website of the EAC should be activated and developed to publish articles about EAC efforts, services and arbitration magazine should be issued periodically. It is also recommended that EAC should cooperate with Palestinian Union of Contractors to conduct workshops and seminars to increase the contractors awareness of arbitration. Training courses for adopted arbitrators in EAC and new arbitrators should be conducted and focusing on means and techniques to make arbitration less costly for the dispute parties. Finally arbitration clauses to arbitrate any dispute at EAC should be contained in local construction contracts.

2 citations