# Estimating causal effects of treatments in randomized and nonrandomized studies.

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### Cites methods from "Estimating causal effects of treatm..."

...I first describe the potential outcomes framework, which has also been described as the Rubin Causal Model (Rubin, 1974)....

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...Because propensity score methods allow one to mimic some of the characteristics of an RCT in the context of an observational study, I begin this article by describ- framework, which has also been described as the Rubin Causal Model (Rubin, 1974)....

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4,814 citations

### Cites methods from "Estimating causal effects of treatm..."

...Rubin (1974) , Rosenbaum and Rubin (1983, 1985a) or Lechner (1998)....

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...The standard framework in evaluation analysis to formalise this problem is the potential outcome approach or Roy-Rubin-model (Roy (1951), Rubin (1974) )....

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...The standard framework in evaluation analysis to formalize this problem is the potential outcome approach or Roy–Rubin model (Roy, 1951; Rubin, 1974)....

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...See e.g. Rubin (1974), Rosenbaum and Rubin (1983, 1985a) or Lechner (1998)....

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