# Estimating F-statistics for the analysis of population structure.

TL;DR: The purpose of this discussion is to offer some unity to various estimation formulae and to point out that correlations of genes in structured populations, with which F-statistics are concerned, are expressed very conveniently with a set of parameters treated by Cockerham (1 969, 1973).

Abstract: This journal frequently contains papers that report values of F-statistics estimated from genetic data collected from several populations. These parameters, FST, FIT, and FIS, were introduced by Wright (1951), and offer a convenient means of summarizing population structure. While there is some disagreement about the interpretation of the quantities, there is considerably more disagreement on the method of evaluating them. Different authors make different assumptions about sample sizes or numbers of populations and handle the difficulties of multiple alleles and unequal sample sizes in different ways. Wright himself, for example, did not consider the effects of finite sample size. The purpose of this discussion is to offer some unity to various estimation formulae and to point out that correlations of genes in structured populations, with which F-statistics are concerned, are expressed very conveniently with a set of parameters treated by Cockerham (1 969, 1973). We start with the parameters and construct appropriate estimators for them, rather than beginning the discussion with various data functions. The extension of Cockerham's work to multiple alleles and loci will be made explicit, and the use of jackknife procedures for estimating variances will be advocated. All of this may be regarded as an extension of a recent treatment of estimating the coancestry coefficient to serve as a mea-

...read more

##### Citations

13,830 citations

12,377 citations

12,252 citations

7,572 citations

### Cites background or methods from "Estimating F-statistics for the ana..."

...As further detailed in the genepop documentation, while the single locus estimators are identical, these multilocus estimators differ from the ones described in Weir & Cockerham (1984) and Weir (1996)....

[...]

...…of Weir (1996) give the same weight to estimates of the Q’s for a locus typed at five individuals in each subpopulation as for a locus typed at 50 individuals in each subpopulation, while the estimators or Weir & Cockerham (1984) give less weight to the Q estimates from loci with larger samples....

[...]

4,408 citations

##### References

8,066 citations

### "Estimating F-statistics for the ana..." refers background in this paper

...Many papers do not give computational formulae, but generally refer to work by Wright (1943, 1951, 1965, 1973) or Nei (1973, 1977), and any assumptions made about sample sizes are not stated....

[...]

6,650 citations

5,893 citations

5,111 citations

### "Estimating F-statistics for the ana..." refers background in this paper

...Many papers do not give computational formulae, but generally refer to work by Wright (1943, 1951, 1965, 1973) or Nei (1973, 1977), and any assumptions made about sample sizes are not stated....

[...]

3,163 citations

##### Related Papers (5)

[...]