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Journal ArticleDOI

Estimation of dehydroascorbic acid in blood of diabetic patients

01 Oct 1979-Analytical Biochemistry (Academic Press)-Vol. 98, Iss: 2, pp 368-374
TL;DR: The DHA from diabetic blood has been isolated as the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivative and identified by thin-layer chromatography and spectrophotometry.

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Abstract: A modified method has been described for the estimation of ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) in blood and plasma. DHA is practically absent in the blood of normal human beings. On the other hand, diabetic patients have a persistently high blood DHA level. The DHA from diabetic blood has been isolated as the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivative and identified by thin-layer chromatography and spectrophotometry.

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Topics: Dehydroascorbic acid (61%), Ascorbic acid (60%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The discovery that pentosidine can form not only from pentoses but also from hexoses and ascorbate raises major new questions concerning biochemical pathways of the Maillard reaction in vivo.

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Abstract: Pentosidine is a recently discovered fluorescent protein cross-link from human extracellular matrix that involves lysyl and arginyl residues in an imidazo (4, 5b) pyridinium ring. Pentosidine could be synthesized in vitro by the reaction of ribose, lysine, and arginine. The potential biological significance of the molecule prompted us to investigate its mechanism of formation from D-ribose and key Maillard intermediates, as well as from other potential precursor sugars. The yield of pentosidine from N alpha-t-Boc-lysine, N alpha-t-Boc-arginine, and D-ribose was highest at pH 9.0 and 65 degrees C, but was unaffected by reactant ratios at alkaline pH suggesting an important role for base catalysis. Ribated Boc-lysine on incubation with N alpha-t-Boc-arginine afforded a fluorescent compound with UV, fluorescence, 1H NMR, and MS properties identical with those from native or synthetic pentosidine. 3-Deoxypentosone, however, was not a major pentosidine precursor. Pentosidine became slowly detectable in bovine serum albumin incubated with 0.25 M and 1.0 M glucose and reached, at 30 days, 13.2 and 17 pmol/mg bovine serum albumin, respectively. Spectroscopical properties of glucose-derived pentosidine were identical with those from ribose-derived pentosidine. Pentosidine formed from glucated Boc-lysine with N alpha-t-Boc-arginine in higher yields than from glucose under standard conditions. Fructose, and unexpectedly ascorbate, also formed pentosidine in similar yields as glucose. The discovery that pentosidine can form not only from pentoses but also from hexoses and ascorbate raises major new questions concerning biochemical pathways of the Maillard reaction in vivo.

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458 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Steven C. Rumsey1, Oran Kwon1, Guo Wei Xu1, Charles F. Burant1  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
TL;DR: GLUT1 and GLUT3 isoforms are the specific glucose transporter isoforms which mediate DHA transport and subsequent accumulation of AA according to Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system studies.

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Abstract: Dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) is rapidly taken up by cells and reduced to ascorbic acid (AA). Using the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system we examined transport of DHA and AA via glucose transporter isoforms GLUT1-5 and SGLT1. The apparent Km of DHA transport via GLUT1 and GLUT3 was 1.1 +/- 0.2 and 1.7 +/- 0.3 mM, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography analysis confirmed 100% reduction of DHA to AA within oocytes. GLUT4 transport of DHA was only 2-4-fold above control and transport kinetics could not be calculated. GLUT2, GLUT5, and SGLT1 did not transport DHA and none of the isoforms transported AA. Radiolabeled sugar transport confirmed transporter function and identity of all cDNA clones was confirmed by restriction fragment mapping. GLUT1 and GLUT3 cDNA were further verified by polymerase chain reaction. DHA transport activity in both GLUT1 and GLUT3 was inhibited by 2-deoxyglucose, D-glucose, and 3-O-methylglucose among other hexoses while fructose and L-glucose showed no inhibition. Inhibition by the endofacial inhibitor, cytochalasin B, was non-competitive and inhibition by the exofacial inhibitor, 4,6-O-ethylidene-alpha-glucose, was competitive. Expressed mutant constructs of GLUT1 and GLUT3 did not transport DHA. DHA and 2-deoxyglucose uptake by Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing either GLUT1 or GLUT3 was increased 2-8-fold over control cells. These studies suggest GLUT1 and GLUT3 isoforms are the specific glucose transporter isoforms which mediate DHA transport and subsequent accumulation of AA.

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412 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 2004-Diabetes Care
Abstract: OBJECTIVE —The intake of antioxidants was studied for its ability to predict type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS —A cohort of 2,285 men and 2,019 women 40–69 years of age and free of diabetes at baseline (1967–1972) was studied. Food consumption during the previous year was estimated using a dietary history interview. The intake of vitamin C, four tocopherols, four tocotrienols, and six carotenoids was calculated. During a 23-year follow-up, a total of 164 male and 219 female incident cases occurred. RESULTS —Vitamin E intake was significantly associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. The relative risk (RR) of type 2 diabetes between the extreme quartiles of the intake was 0.69 (95% CI 0.51–0.94, P for trend = 0.003). Intakes of α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, and β-tocotrienol were inversely related to a risk of type 2 diabetes. Among single carotenoids, β-cryptoxanthin intake was significantly associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.44–0.78, P CONCLUSIONS —This study supports the hypothesis that development of type 2 diabetes may be reduced by the intake of antioxidants in the diet.

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356 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 1992-Diabetes
TL;DR: Immunohistochemical localization studies revealed that pyrraline is found predominantly in the sclerosed extracellular matrix of glomerular and arteriolar renal tissues from both diabetic and aged nondiabetic individuals, suggesting that molecular damage by advanced Maillard reaction products may be a common mechanism in their development.

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Abstract: Recent progress in structure elucidation of products of the advanced Maillard reaction now allows probing specifically for the role of this reaction in the pathogenesis of age- and diabetes-related complications. Pyrraline is a glucose-derived advanced glycation end product against which polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have been raised. Immunohistochemical localization studies revealed that pyrraline is found predominantly in the sclerosed extracellular matrix of glomerular and arteriolar renal tissues from both diabetic and aged nondiabetic individuals. Pentosidine and carboxymethyllysine are Maillard end products derived from both glucose and ascorbate. In addition, pentosidine can be formed from several other sugars under oxidative conditions, and in vitro studies suggest that a common intermediate involving a pentose is a necessary precursor molecule. The highest levels of these advanced Maillard products are generally found in the extracellular matrix, but these products are also present in lens proteins and in proteins with a fast turnover such as plasma proteins. Diabetes, and especially uremia, greatly catalyzes pentosidine formation. Both conditions are characterized by accelerated cataractogenesis, atherosclerosis, and neuropathy, suggesting that molecular damage by advanced Maillard reaction products may be a common mechanism in their development.

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306 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
David R. Sell1, Annunziata Lapolla1, Patrizio Odetti1, John Fogarty1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Oct 1992-Diabetes
TL;DR: A high correlation betweenpentosidine levels and long-wave collagen-linked fluorescence also was observed, suggesting that pentosidine is a generalized marker of accelerated tissue modification by the advanced glycosylation/Maillard reaction, which is enhanced in IDDM patients with severe complications.

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Abstract: Pentosidine is an advanced glycosylation end product and protein cross-link that results from the reaction of pentoses with proteins. Recent data indicate that long-term glycation of proteins with glucose also leads to pentosidine formation through sugar fragmentation. In this study, the relationship between the severity of diabetic complications and pentosidine formation was investigated in collagen from skin-punch biopsies from 25 nondiabetic control subjects and 41 IDDM patients with diabetes duration >17 yr. Pentosidine was significantly elevated in all IDDM patients versus control subjects ( P P P P P P P P > 0.05). A high correlation between pentosidine levels and long-wave collagen-linked fluorescence also was observed, suggesting that pentosidine is a generalized marker of accelerated tissue modification by the advanced glycosylation/Maillard reaction, which is enhanced in IDDM patients with severe complications.

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297 citations


Cites background from "Estimation of dehydroascorbic acid ..."

  • ...Favoring this possibility is the discovery of elevated dehydroascorbate levels in the plasma of diabetic individuals (23-25)....

    [...]


References
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01 Jan 1966-

26,377 citations


Book
01 Jan 1963-
Abstract: Methods of enzymatic analysis , Methods of enzymatic analysis , مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و اطلاع رسانی کشاورزی

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18,099 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Using the in vitro method, the ascorbic acid synthesizing abilities of different species of animals in the phylogenetic tree are examined, and the results are given below.

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Abstract: The requirement of ascorbic acid (vitamin C ) is a common property of living organisms, and it has long been considered that all animals except the guinea pig, monkey, and man can synthesize this vitamin. The classic method for determining the ability of an animal to synthesize ascorbic acid is to feed it a scorbutogenic diet for a prolonged period and to observe the appearance of the scurvy syndrome. Obviously, the method is laborious and time-consuming. Also, the onset of the scorbutic syndrome depends on the ascorbic-acid-retention capacity of the animal. For example, whereas the guinea pigs can be made scorbutic in about 3 weeks, it takes 3 to 4 months to produce scurvy in man. Since the discovery of the technique for studying ascorbic acid synthesir in vitro,1-8 the task has become much simpler. In this technique, the tissue homogenates or the subcellular fractions are incubated with precursors of ascorbic acid and the amount of the vitamin formed is estimated. Using the in vitro method, we have examined the ascorbic acid synthesizing abilities of different species of animals in the phylogenetic tree, and the results are given below.

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325 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Methods for determinations of vitamin C dehydro-Z-ascorbic (DHA), DHA, and DKA in the presence of each other are reported, indicating that these derivatives are identical substances.

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Abstract: By the Roe and Kuether (1) method for the determination of vitamin C dehydro-Z-ascorbic (DHA) and diketo-Z-gulonic acid (DKA) are not differentiated. The basic principle of this method, however., is adaptable to the determination of Z-ascorbic acid (AsA), DHA, and DKA in the presence of each other. It is the purpose of this paper to report methods for such determinations. The first problem to overcome in this work was the extraction of the three compounds from tissues. This must be done by techniques that will not permit the oxidation of AsA to DHA and will keep at a minimum the ‘change of DHA into DKA. Roe and Oesterling (2) prevented the oxidation of AsA in plant tissues by extracting with a metaphosphoric acid solution containing 1 per cent of thiourea. However, in animal tissues thiourea will not adequately prevent the oxidation of AsA during extraction because of the powerful oxidant effect of oxyhemoglobin. The problem was solved by adding SnCla in 10 per cent concentration to the HP03 solution; SnClz effectively reduces the oxyhemoglobin of animal tissues. Furthermore SnCh is a more convenient reagent, since it can be removed later in the procedure. The procedure developed consists of grinding the tissue under 10 per cent solution of stannous chloride in 5 per cent HPOI, after which enough 5 per cent metaphosphoric acid solution is added to make the SnCh. concentration 0.5 per cent. From data on melting points, nitrogen content, and chromatographic adsorption Penney and Zilva (3) came to the conclusion that the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatives of AsA, DHA, and DKA are the same compound. Absorption curves of the derivatives of DHA and DKA, prepared by ourselves, also indicate that these derivatives are identical substances. Penney and Zilva (3) have postulated that 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine couples only with DKA and, therefore, DHA gives rise to a derivative in

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258 citations



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