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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/RS13050969

Estimation of Surface NO2 Concentrations over Germany from TROPOMI Satellite Observations Using a Machine Learning Method

04 Mar 2021-Remote Sensing (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)-Vol. 13, Iss: 5, pp 969
Abstract: In this paper, we present the estimation of surface NO2 concentrations over Germany using a machine learning approach. TROPOMI satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) and several meteorological parameters are used to train the neural network model for the prediction of surface NO2 concentrations. The neural network model is validated against ground-based in situ air quality monitoring network measurements and regional chemical transport model (CTM) simulations. Neural network estimation of surface NO2 concentrations show good agreement with in situ monitor data with Pearson correlation coefficient (R) of 0.80. The results also show that the machine learning approach is performing better than regional CTM simulations in predicting surface NO2 concentrations. We also performed a sensitivity analysis for each input parameter of the neural network model. The validated neural network model is then used to estimate surface NO2 concentrations over Germany from 2018 to 2020. Estimated surface NO2 concentrations are used to investigate the spatio-temporal characteristics, such as seasonal and weekly variations of NO2 in Germany. The estimated surface NO2 concentrations provide comprehensive information of NO2 spatial distribution which is very useful for exposure estimation. We estimated the annual average NO2 exposure for 2018, 2019 and 2020 is 15.53, 15.24 and 13.27 µµg/m3, respectively. While the annual average NO2 concentration of 2018, 2019 and 2020 is only 12.79, 12.60 and 11.15 µµg/m3. In addition, we used the surface NO2 data set to investigate the impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on ambient NO2 levels in Germany. In general, 10–30% lower surface NO2 concentrations are observed in 2020 compared to 2018 and 2019, indicating the significant impacts of a series of restriction measures to reduce the spread of the virus.

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8 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SCS.2021.103173
Kamill Dániel Kovács1, Ionel Haidu1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Using Sentinel-5P data, this study investigated the magnitude of change in the concentration of air pollutants (NO2, HCHO, SO2, O3, CO, and aerosol index) in the air of ten cities and urban areas of the French region of Grand Est as a result of the first lockdown imposed between March 17, 2020 and May 11, 2020. The results showed that the air quality in the urban environments of Grand Est improved significantly compared to the same period in 2019 without lockdown. NO2, O3, aerosol index and CO were the pollutants that exhibited maximum reductions by an average of -33.98%, -5.94%, -26.82% and -0.66%, respectively (the observed maximum decreases were -54.7%, -7.7%, -13.1%, and -5.3%, respectively). The largest decrease occurred in the Public Establishments of Inter-municipal Cooperation (EPCI, in French: Etablissement public de cooperation intercommunale) areas of Eurometropole de Strasbourg, CA Colmar, and CA Mulhouse Alsace. The maximum decrease in air pollution first occurred in land cover classes close to cities, followed by built-up urban areas. In this study, a global depollution index known as the atmospheric clearance index (ACI) was developed, which involved several air pollution parameters, and quantitatively analyzed the decrease in contamination levels of the atmosphere in this region. In addition, the correlation between the novel ACI and other population and economic development indices was studied. The results indicated that there was a negative and statistically significant correlation between ACI and population density, gross domestic product, gross value added (GVA) at basic prices, number of employees, and active enterprises.

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Topics: Air quality index (55%), Population (53%)

1 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: When a new environmental policy or a specific intervention is taken in order to improve air quality, it is paramount to assess and quantify - in space and time - the effectiveness of the adopted strategy. The lockdown measures taken worldwide in 2020 to reduce the spread of the SARS-CoV- 2 virus can be envisioned as a policy intervention with an indirect effect on air quality. In this paper we propose a statistical spatio-temporal model as a tool for intervention analysis, able to take into account the effect of weather and other confounding factors, as well as the spatial and temporal correlation existing in the data. In particular, we focus here on the 2019/2020 relative change in nitrogen dioxide (NO$_2$) concentrations in the north of Italy, for the period of March and April during which the lockdown measure was in force. As an output, we provide a collection of weekly continuous maps, describing the spatial pattern of the NO$_2$ 2019/2020 relative changes. We found that during March and April 2020 most of the studied area is characterized by negative relative changes (median values around -25%), with the exception of the first week of March and the fourth week of April (median values around 5%). As these changes cannot be attributed to a weather effect, it is likely that they are a byproduct of the lockdown measures.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/RS13234839
29 Nov 2021-Remote Sensing
Abstract: Machine learning (ML) plays an important role in atmospheric environment prediction, having been widely applied in atmospheric science with significant progress in algorithms and hardware. In this paper, we present a brief overview of the development of ML models as well as their application to atmospheric environment studies. ML model performance is then compared based on the main air pollutants (i.e., PM2.5, O3, and NO2) and model type. Moreover, we identify the key driving variables for ML models in predicting particulate matter (PM) pollutants by quantitative statistics. Additionally, a case study for wet nitrogen deposition estimation is carried out based on ML models. Finally, the prospects of ML for atmospheric prediction are discussed.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2021.150721
Yulei Chi1, Yulei Chi2, Meng Fan2, Chuanfeng Zhao1  +5 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Most current scientific research on NO2 remote sensing focuses on tropospheric NO2 column concentrations rather than ground-level NO2 concentrations; however, ground-level NO2 concentrations are more related to anthropogenic emissions and human health. This study proposes a machine learning estimation method for retrieving the ground-level NO2 concentrations throughout China based on the tropospheric NO2 column concentrations from the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) and multisource geographic data from 2018 to 2020. This method adopts the XGBoost machine learning model characterized by a strong fitting ability and complex model structure, which can explain the complex nonlinear and high-order relationships between ground-measured NO2 and its influencing factors. The R2 values between the retrievals and the validation and test datasets are 0.67 and 0.73, respectively, which suggests that the proposed method can reliably retrieve the ground-level NO2 concentrations across China. The distribution characteristics, seasonal variations and interannual differences in ground-level NO2 concentrations are further analyzed based on the retrieval results, demonstrating that the ground-level NO2 concentrations exhibit significant geographical and seasonal variations, with high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer, and the highly polluted regions are concentrated mainly in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), the Pearl River Delta (PRD), Cheng-Yu District (CY) and other urban agglomerations. Finally, the interannual variation in the ground-level NO2 concentrations indicates that pollution decreased continuously from 2018 to 2020.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.APR.2021.101205
Meng Lu1, Ruoying Dai2, Cjestmir V. de Boer3, Oliver Schmitz2  +3 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Statistical learning models have been applied to study the spatial patterns of ambient Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ), which is a highly dynamic, traffic-related air pollutant. Commonly, the validation process in most studies is based on bootstrapped split-sampling of training and test sets from fixed ground station measurements. As the ground stations distribute mostly sparsely over a region or country, this kind of cross-validation validation method does not consider how well models are capable of representing spatial variations in air pollution mostly occurring over distances shorter than the ground station sampling spacing. This may lead to inadequate hyperparameter optimisation and bias when comparing different statistical models. External mobile measurements are therefore needed for more reliable model evaluations as these provide detailed and spatially continuous information on air pollution patterns. However, most current designs of mobile NO 2 sensing instruments suffer from the trade-off between flexibility and measurement accuracy, as high-end sensors are commonly too heavy to be carried by a person or on a bike. In addition, sufficient repetitions over time are needed so that the measurements are representative to concentrations over a relatively long-term period. In this study, we installed a mobile air quality station onboard a cargo-bike to collect a dataset suitable for external validation. With the external validation dataset the model hyperparameter setting and statistical model comparison results alter. Our model comparison results also differ from previous studies relying only on ground stations for cross-validation.

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Topics: Statistical model (52%), Hyperparameter (51%), Air quality index (51%)

References
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62 results found


Open accessDOI: 10.5065/D68S4MVH
01 Jan 2008-
Abstract: The Technical Note series provides an outlet for a variety of NCAR manuscripts that contribute in specialized ways to the body of scientific knowledge but which are not suitable for journal, monograph, or book publication. Reports in this series are issued by the NCAR Scientific Divisions ; copies may be obtained on request from the Publications Office of NCAR. Designation symbols for the series include: Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

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8,353 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1029/2005RG000183
Tom G. Farr1, Paul A. Rosen1, Edward R. Caro1, Robert E. Crippen1  +14 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: [1] The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission produced the most complete, highest-resolution digital elevation model of the Earth. The project was a joint endeavor of NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, and the German and Italian Space Agencies and flew in February 2000. It used dual radar antennas to acquire interferometric radar data, processed to digital topographic data at 1 arc sec resolution. Details of the development, flight operations, data processing, and products are provided for users of this revolutionary data set.

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Topics: Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (72%), Space-based radar (64%), Radar imaging (63%) ... read more

4,095 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/QJ.3803
Hans Hersbach1, Bill Bell1, Paul Berrisford1, Shoji Hirahara2  +39 moreInstitutions (4)

2,265 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1175/1520-0469(1999)056<0127:SMOAMM>2.0.CO;2
Abstract: SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography) is a spectrometer designed to measure sunlight transmitted, reflected, and scattered by the earth’s atmosphere or surface in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared wavelength region (240–2380 nm) at moderate spectral resolution (0.2–1.5 nm, λ/Δλ ≈ 1000–10 000). SCIAMACHY will measure the earthshine radiance in limb and nadir viewing geometries and solar or lunar light transmitted through the atmosphere observed in occultation. The extraterrestrial solar irradiance and lunar radiance will be determined from observations of the sun and the moon above the atmosphere. The absorption, reflection, and scattering behavior of the atmosphere and the earth’s surface is determined from comparison of earthshine radiance and solar irradiance. Inversion of the ratio of earthshine radiance and solar irradiance yields information about the amounts and distribution of important atmospheric constituents and the spectral reflecta...

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Topics: SCIAMACHY (66%), Solar irradiance (62%), Radiance (60%) ... read more

1,649 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2006.872333
Abstract: The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial resolution of 13 km/spl times/24 km. Trace gases measured include O/sub 3/, NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, HCHO, BrO, and OClO. In addition, OMI will measure aerosol characteristics, cloud top heights, and UV irradiance at the surface. OMI's unique capabilities for measuring important trace gases with a small footprint and daily global coverage will be a major contribution to our understanding of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry and climate change. OMI's high spatial resolution is unprecedented and will enable detection of air pollution on urban scale resolution. In this paper, the instrument and its performance will be discussed.

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Topics: Ozone Monitoring Instrument (69%), Ozone depletion (52%), Ozone layer (51%) ... read more

1,457 Citations