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Journal ArticleDOI

Estudo do comportamento cortisol, gh e insulina apos uma sessao de exercicio resistido agudo

01 Jan 2014-Revista Brasileira De Medicina Do Esporte (Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina do Exercício e do Esporte)-Vol. 20, Iss: 1, pp 21-25

AbstractINTRODUCAO: Muitos trabalhos tem estudado o comportamento hormonal nos exercicio resistido, entretanto poucos relacionam os hormonios cortisol, GH e insulina. OBJETIVO: Estudar os ajustes das concentracoes plasmaticas dos hormonios cortisol, GH e insulina em exercicios resistidos de mesma intensidade com relacao a massas musculares distintas. METODOS: Dez voluntarios, com 20,3 ± 4,2 anos, 74,1 ± 10,2 kg de peso, 177,2 ± 4,6 cm de estatura e 23,8 ± 3,2 kg/m2 de IMC, realizaram uma sessao de leg press (LP) e supino reto (SR) com quatro series com 10 repeticoes a 70% 1 RM com tres minutos de intervalo. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue para dosagem das concentracoes plasmaticas de cortisol, GH e insulina em repouso (Pre) e em 0' (Rec. 0'), 30' (Rec. 30') e 90' (Rec. 90') de recuperacao. RESULTADOS: As concentracoes plasmaticas de cortisol foram significativamente reduzidas ao final da recuperacao em LP (2,20±0,37 ng/dl para 1,33±0,38ng/dl) em relacao a pre-dosagem. As concentracoes de GH e insulina elevaram-se significativamente durante a recuperacao. GH em LP foi significativamente maior em Rec. 0' (2,75±3,29 ng/ml para 9,60±5,32 ng/dl) do que em pre. A insulina elevou-se significativamente em Rec. 30' em LP (14,70±7,92 ulU/ml para 21,66 ± 8,61 ulU/ml) e em SR (6,17 ± 2,99 ulU/ml para 19,70 ± 13,8 ulU/ml) em relacao a pre. As concentracoes plasmaticas de insulina pre em LP foram significativamente superiores a SR (14,70 ulU/ml e 6,17 ± 2,99 ulU/ml). CONCLUSAO: O exercicio resistido promoveu diferentes ajustes nas concentracoes hormonais de cortisol, GH e insulina durante o periodo de recuperacao.

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TL;DR: Variables for muscular injury showed no evidence of alterations 24 hours after the CT sessions, hence confirming that the workload did not generate significant post-stress muscular injury.
Abstract: Introduction: Complex Training (CT) has been used to achieve Post-activation Potentiation (PAP) of physical capabilities and, in doing so, improve the sports performance of athletes. However, few studies have considered alterations in serum Cortisol, Metabolic Creatine Kinase (MB-CK), Total Creatine Kinase (Total-CK), and Lactate concentrations ([La]) resulting from this training method. Objective: This study determined the behavior of the following blood serum substances in a CT session: Cortisol, MB-CK, Total CK and [La]. Method: Ten military athlete volunteers aged 28.5 ± 4.8 years; 66.2 ± 2.8 kg, 171.4 ± 3.7 cm, 22.6 ± 1.2 kg/m2; 11.3 ± 2.9% of fat tissue took part in the study. The study had a quasi-experimental, intrasubject design. The variable measurements were: Cortisol, MB-CK, Total-CK, and [La], measured before physical exercise and 24 hours post-stress. The CT session consisted of: four series of five repetitions at 30% of 1RM, plus four repetitions at 60% of 1RM, plus three throws of a 575 g projectile, 15 seconds apart. The statistical analysis was carried out through repeated measure ANOVA for Lactate and a Wilcoxon Matched Pairs t-Test for Cortisol, MB-CK and Total-CK. Results: There was no evidence of alterations in the indicators for fatigue ([La] p = 0.36), and muscular injury (Cortisol p = 0.16; MB-CK p = 0.23; Total-CK p = 0.64) after the training sessions. Conclusion: Variables for muscular injury showed no evidence of alterations 24 hours after the CT sessions, hence confirming that the workload did not generate significant post-stress muscular injury. Level of Evidence I; Therapeutic Study: Investigating Treatment Results.

2 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Introduction Resistance exercises (RE) performed at high intensity cause an inflammatory response and electrolyte abnormalities in blood plasma. Objectives To study the plasma electrolyte changes resulting from a high-intensity session of RE in untrained volunteers, and to correlate these with delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Methods Twenty volunteers, aged 26.9 (±4.4) years, underwent an RE session. The workout (leg extension, squat and leg press) consisted of four sets of 10 maximum repetitions. Electrolytes (Na+, K+, Ca2+ e Mg2+) were evaluated before the training (baseline), immediately (0 min), and 30 minutes after the RE. The DOMS was assessed 24 hours after the sessions. Results The Na+ increased immediately after the RE and returned to normal after 30 min (p<0.001). After 30 min, K+ increased compared to baseline levels and immediately after the RE (p<0.001). Ca2+ and Mg2+ levels did not change throughout the study. Changes in Na+ and K+ levels were correlated immediately (r=-0.511; p=0.021) and 30 min (r=-0.455; p=0.049) after RE. Plasma concentrations of Na+ 0 min were correlated (r=-0.520; p=0.018) with the DOMS. Conclusion High-intensity RE in untrained volunteers leads to changes in plasma concentrations of Na+ and K+. Na+ concentrations immediately after RE were related to DOMS; individuals that presented smaller alterations in this electrolyte reported more muscular pain. Level of evidence II; Diagnostic Studies - Development of diagnostic criteria on consecutive patients (with universally applied reference “gold” standard).

1 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A minimum duration of 10 min, high intensity exercise consistently increased circulating GH in adult males, and this increase occurred despite simultaneous increases in both IRI and glucose.
Abstract: We hypothesized that circulating GH would increase only if a threshold of work intensity [corresponding to the anaerobic or lactate threshold (LT)] was exceeded. Ten healthy male volunteers (18-35 yr) first performed ramp-type progressive cycle-ergometer exercise to determine the LT and the maximal oxygen uptake. On subsequent mornings after an overnight fast, each subject performed bouts of 1, 5, and 10 min constant work rate exercise of either high intensity (above LT) or low intensity (below LT). A 1-h interval separated exercise bouts. Gas exchange (breath-by-breath), GH, immunoreactive insulin, glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and epinephrine and norepinephrine were measured at regular intervals. After the 10-min bouts of high compared with low intensity exercise, lactate was 7.2 +/- 3.7 mmol/L vs. 1.4 +/- 1.3, P less than 0.05; epinephrine was 1,113 +/- 519 pmol/L vs. 496 +/- 273, P less than 0.05; and norepinephrine was 7.89 +/- 3.45 nmole/L vs. 2.83 +/- 1.34, P less than 0.05. GH did not increase significantly from preexercise baseline during low intensity exercise (e.g., GH after 10-min low intensity exercise changed from baseline values by 1.5 +/- 2.0 micrograms/L, NS). Although lactate was elevated after 5-min of high intensity exercise, peak GH was significantly elevated (mean increase above baseline of 7.7 +/- 2.4 micrograms/L, P less than 0.05) only after 10 min of high intensity exercise (increases in 9 of 10 subjects). The GH increase occurred despite simultaneous increases in both IRI and glucose. A minimum duration of 10 min, high intensity exercise consistently increased circulating GH in adult males.

313 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The number of sets functions up to a point as a stimulus for increased hormonal concentrations in order to optimize adaptations with MH and SE protocols, and has no effect on a MS protocol.
Abstract: SMILIOS, I., T. PILIANIDIS, M. KARAMOUZIS, and S. P. TOKMAKIDIS. Hormonal Responses after Various Resistance Exercise Protocols. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 644 – 654, 2003. Purpose: This study examined the effects of the number of sets on testosterone, cortisol, and growth hormone (hGH) responses after maximum strength (MS), muscular hypertrophy (MH), and strength endurance (SE) protocols. Methods: Eleven young men performed multi-joint dynamic exercises using MS (5 reps at 88% of one-repetition maximum (1-RM), 3-min rest) and MH (10 reps at 75% of 1-RM, 2-min rest) protocols with 2, 4, and 6 sets at each exercise; and an SE (15 reps at 60% of 1-RM, 1-min rest) with 2 and 4 sets. Hormonal concentrations were measured before exercise, immediately after, and at 15 and 30 min of recovery. Results: The number of sets did not affect the hormonal responses after the MS protocol. Cortisol and hGH were higher (P 0.05) after the four-set compared with the two-set sessions in the MH and SE protocols. No differences were observed between the six-set and the four-set sessions in the MH protocol. Cortisol and hGH were higher (P 0.05) than the MS after the SE and MH protocols, and only when four and six sets were performed in the latter. hGH was higher than the MH after the SE protocol, whether two or four sets were executed, whereas cortisol (P 0.05) was higher after the SE protocol only when two sets were performed. Testosterone did not change with any workout. Conclusion: The number of sets functions up to a point as a stimulus for increased hormonal concentrations in order to optimize adaptations with MH and SE protocols, and has no effect on a MS protocol. Furthermore, the number of sets may differentiate long-term adaptations with MS, MH, and SE protocols causing distinct hormonal responses. Key Words: STRENGTH, HYPERTROPHY, STRENGTH ENDURANCE, NUMBER OF SETS, TOTAL WORK

280 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In both trials, IGF-1 concentrations were significantly lower after exercise as compared to concentrations found at 0800 hours the morning before exercise, and it is not known if this reduction observed 22 hours after exercise is of physiological significance.
Abstract: The hormonal responses of nine male, strength athletes to strength exercise were examined. The athletes performed one moderate- and one high-intensity strength exercise workout. In the high-intensity workout, the load was 100% of each subject's three-repetition maximum (3-RM) for squats and front squats, and 100% of each subject's six-repetition maximum (6-RM) for leg extensions. In the moderate-intensity workout, the load was 70% of the high-intensity protocol. Rest periods between sets were 4-6 min for both workouts. Blood samples were taken before, 30 min into, and every 15 min for the 1st h after exercise, and then 3, 7, 11, 22 and 33 h after exercise, thus allowing examination of both the acute and prolonged hormonal responses. Blood samples were analyzed for testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), cortisol, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), insulin, sex hormone binding globulin, creatine kinase, total protein, glucose and lactate. The acute responses of testosterone and cortisol were greater during the high-intensity protocol as compared to the moderate-intensity protocol. The cortisol response was associated with an increase in ACTH concentration. LH and FSH showed no response to either protocol. Acute GH responses were not different between protocols. There were great inter-individual differences in acute GH responses to both protocols. There were no significant differences between protocols with regard to prolonged responses for any hormone. In both trials, IGF-1 concentrations were significantly lower at 0800 hours the morning after exercise as compared to concentrations found at 0800 hours the morning before exercise. The mechanisms responsible for reducing IGF-1 concentration in these trials are unclear, and it is not known if this reduction observed 22 hours after exercise is of physiological significance.

227 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Data indicate that significant acute increases in hormone concentrations are limited to H type protocols independent of the volume of work competed and it appears the H protocol also elicits a unique pattern of muscle activity as well.
Abstract: The purpose of the current study was to determine the acute neuroendocrine response to hypertrophy (H), strength (S), and power (P) type resistance exercise (RE) equated for total volume. Ten male subjects completed three RE protocols and a rest day (R) using a randomized cross-over design. The protocols included (1) H: 4 sets of 10 repetitions in the squat at 75% of 1RM (90 s rest periods); (2) S: 11 sets of three repetitions at 90% of 1RM (5 min rest periods); and (3) P: 8 sets of 6 repetitions of jump squats at 0% of 1RM (3 min rest periods). Total testosterone (T), cortisol (C), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were determined prior to (PRE), immediately post (IP), 60 min post, 24 h post, and 48 h post exercise bout. Peak force, rate of force development, and muscle activity from the vastus medialis (VM) and biceps femoris (BF) were determined during a maximal isometric squat test. A unique pattern of response was observed in T, C, and SHBG for each RE protocol. The percent change in T, C, and SHBG from PRE to IP was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater in comparison to the R condition only after the H protocol. The percent of baseline muscle activity of the VM at IP was significantly greater following the H compared to the S protocol. These data indicate that significant acute increases in hormone concentrations are limited to H type protocols independent of the volume of work competed. In addition, it appears the H protocol also elicits a unique pattern of muscle activity as well. RE protocols of varying intensity and rest periods elicit strikingly different acute neuroendocrine responses which indicate a unique physiological stimulus.

182 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Makoto Kanzaki1
TL;DR: Both spatial and temporal regulations of actin dynamics, both beneath the plasma membrane and around endomembranes, by insulin receptor signals are also involved in the process of GLUT4 translocation.
Abstract: In skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is dependent upon translocation of the insulin-responsive glucose transporter GLUT4 from intracellular storage compartments to the plasma membrane. This insulin-induced redistribution of GLUT4 protein is achieved through a series of highly organized membrane trafficking events, orchestrated by insulin receptor signals. Recently, several key molecules linking insulin receptor signals and membrane trafficking have been identified, and emerging evidence supports the importance of subcellular compartmentalization of signaling components at the right time and in the right place. In addition, the translocation of GLUT4 in adipocytes requires insulin stimulation of dynamic actin remodeling at the inner surface of the plasma membrane (cortical actin) and in the perinuclear region. This results from at least two independent insulin receptor signals, one leading to the activation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and the other to the activation of the Rho family small GTP-binding protein TC10. Thus, both spatial and temporal regulations of actin dynamics, both beneath the plasma membrane and around endomembranes, by insulin receptor signals are also involved in the process of GLUT4 translocation.

165 citations