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Journal ArticleDOI

Ethnicity and Subjective Well-being in the Republic of North Macedonia

09 Apr 2021-Eastern European Economics (Informa UK Limited)-Vol. 59, Iss: 4, pp 1-18
TL;DR: This paper examined the nature of inter-ethnic relations in North Macedonia drawing on the 2008 European Quality of Life Survey (EQL) and found that the self-declared level of subjective well-being is Ceteris paribus.
Abstract: This paper examines the nature of inter-ethnic relations in North Macedonia drawing on the 2008 European Quality of Life Survey. Ceteris paribus, the self-declared level of subjective well-being is...
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Journal ArticleDOI
Maria Koinova1
TL;DR: This paper argued that the relative changes in minority rights compared to the communist period, rather than the absolute scope of minority rights granted by the new constitutions, created a political threshold early in the transition period that propelled causal chains of minority-majority interactions that led to different degrees of ethnonational violence.
Abstract: Why did ethnonational conflicts reach different degrees of violence during the 1990s: high in Kosovo, middle-ranged in Macedonia, and low in Bulgaria? This article analyzes the relationship between the Albanians of Macedonia and Kosovo, the Turks of Bulgaria, and their respective states. Challenging democratization and security dilemma theories, it argues that the relative changes in minority rights compared to the communist period, rather than the absolute scope of minority rights granted by the new constitutions, created a political threshold early in the transition period that propelled causal chains of minority–majority interactions that led to different degrees of ethnonational violence. Combined with the status change, governmental strategies of co-optation, or coercion prompted the minorities to pursue their demands either through the institutions of the state (Bulgaria), through clandestine activities (Kosovo), or through a combination of both (Macedonia). This article also argues that a timely governmental response to nonterritorial minority demands prevented them from expanding to become territorial and from triggering higher levels of violence.

9 citations


"Ethnicity and Subjective Well-being..." refers background in this paper

  • ...However, as Koinova (2009) notes, this co-optation was not a genuine power sharing arrangement and the goal of ethnic Albanians to become a “constituent element” of Macedonia remained elusive....

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  • ...The status reversal sparked a clash of cultural identities that deepened the social gulf between the two ethnic communities (Koinova 2009)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors assess trends and differentials in happiness among the U.S. population using data from the General Social Survey, 1972-2016 and the intersectionality paradigm to guide this work, finding that happiness differentials across gender and race are generally converging; however, patterns are quite complex and contingent on group membership.
Abstract: This study assesses trends and differentials in happiness among the U.S. population. Using data from the General Social Survey, 1972–2016 and the intersectionality paradigm to guide this work, I find that happiness differentials across gender and race are generally converging; however, patterns are quite complex and contingent on group membership (i.e. gender, race). Black women for instance, present a consistent pattern of improvement in happiness across decades, while White women display a persistent pattern of decline. In contrast, Black men experienced a discernable pattern of improvement in happiness between the 1970s and 1990s, followed by a leveling off in the early-2000s. White men experienced moderate gains in happiness between the 1970s and 1990s, but after the Great Recession/Obama Era, White male happiness followed a pattern of unprecedented decline, with the “happiness advantage” they once enjoyed (as a group) over Black men and women largely vanishing. In fact, although advantaged White men in the general population (i.e. financially satisfied) were about as happy as their White female and African–American female peers after the Great Recession, disadvantaged White men who were financially dissatisfied were less likely to report the same sentiment when compared to their White female and Black female peers who were similarly disadvantaged. Taking these patterns in account, I conclude with a discussion of what these patterns demonstrate regarding the changing nature of racial and gender inequality in the United States, past and present.

7 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article used the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to measure the effect of residential segregation by race on wellbeing and found that whites, blacks, and Hispanics are happier among their own race.
Abstract: We study the effect of residential segregation by race on wellbeing. Wellbeing is measured as self reported happiness (subjective wellbeing). Segregation is measured at three levels of aggregation. We use the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System containing information about over 125 metropolitan areas and over 125,000 people living there, and measure segregation using exposure/isolation index based on census data at metropolitan level. Second dataset, 1978-2012 General Social Surveys surveyed respondents about race at block level. Third dataset, the Quality Of American Life surveyed respondents about race at neighborhood level. There are conflicting theories about the effect of segregation on wellbeing, but we know surprisingly little about the actual net effect. Sociologists tend to assume, without testing, that segregation has a negative effect because it is associated with concentrated poverty, exclusion, lack of opportunity, and crime. The negative effect is argued for minorities, and especially blacks. Our results, however, are consistent across all racial groups. We find that whites, blacks, and Hispanics are happier among their own race. keywords: segregation, race, subjective wellbeing (SWB), happiness, life satisfaction, sociobiology, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), General Social Survey (GSS) Geographic segregation of people along racial (and economic) lines is one of the defining features of American cities (e.g., Massey and Denton 1993, Jargowsky 1997, Reardon et al. 2015). From 1970 to 2010, number of segregated metropolitan areas has declined, but the degree of segregation changed little and still about a third of blacks live in highly segregated areas (Massey and Tannen 2015). In sociology, segregation is commonly equated with disadvantage and assumed to reduce wellbeing (e.g., Massey and Denton 1993). But does it? Nobody has tested it directly. For instance, Massey et al. (1987) claim that segregation affects social and economic wellbeing–yet they do not measure social and economic wellbeing directly by asking people whether they are satisfied with their lives. Stiglitz et al. (2009), Helliwell et al. (2012), and Easterlin (2013) have recently asked social scientists and policy makers to use measures of happiness to better understand social processes and draft informed policies. We propose to use a happiness yardstick to evaluate the effect of segregation on the overall human wellbeing. Are we happier among our own race? 1Postmes and Branscombe (2002) studied segregation and wellbeing among 200 African Americans, but their study, like most psychological studies, is not representative of the the population. Vogt Yuan (2007) studied wellbeing in a representative sample but measured it differently from what is a standard in happiness literature and used data from Illinois only. All similar studies, cited in Vogt Yuan (2007), investigate the relationship within a small area, usually one metropolitan area, and they mostly study mortality, sometimes depression, but never happiness/wellbeing. In addition, unlike all other studies, we analyze racial makeup of an area at three levels of aggregation: metropolitan area (study 1), block (study 2), and neighborhood (Study 3). Currently, in a working paper, Herbst and Lucio (2014) are revisiting the issue as well, but take economics perspective on the topic, use smaller dataset, and focus on blacks only.

6 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the state of inter-ethnic relations in Macedonia, with special focus on relations between ethnic Macedonians and ethnic Albanians, is analyzed, and main factors that contribute to interethnic tensions in the country and explores possible scenarios in the future.
Abstract: Abstract Inter-ethnic relations between Albanians and Macedonians in Macedonia have been rather problematic since the times of former Yugoslavia. After independence, the new constitution of the Republic of Macedonia instead of improving it has further downgraded the position of Albanians and other minorities living in the country. The non-fulfilment of Albanians’ core demands led to an armed conflict in 2001. The Ohrid Agreement has in addition to ending the armed conflict, also provided for a range of legislative and policy measures to improve the position of the Albanians by ensuring equality and minority protection. However, 16 years after the Ohrid Agreement, inter-ethnic relations in Macedonia still remain burdened by prejudice and stereotypes, rather than cooperation and mutual prosperity. The main aim of the paper is to analyse the state of inter-ethnic relations in Macedonia, with special focus on relations between ethnic Macedonians and ethnic Albanians. The paper also offers an analysis of main factors that contribute to inter-ethnic tensions in the country and explores possible scenarios in the future. The most relevant part of the paper analyses the causality between inter-ethnic and interstate relations. The paper claims that similarly to most of the countries in the Western Balkans, inter-ethnic and interstate relations are basically the components of the same equation. The paper concludes that in Macedonia, Kosovo rather than Albania is much more relevant for the causality between inter-ethnic and interstate relations in Macedonia, and it also offers several reasons to support such thesis. Accordingly, the overall inter-ethnic relations between Macedonians and Albanians in Macedonia heavily depend on inter-state relations between Macedonia and Kosovo and vice versa.

6 citations


"Ethnicity and Subjective Well-being..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Inter-ethnic tensions subsided for a while following the implementation of the Ohrid agreement, but the ethnic distance did not decrease (Bartlett et al. 2009; Demjaha 2017; International Crisis Group 2011; Reka 2008; Staniševski and Miller 2009)....

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