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Ethnicity in the 1991 census

01 Jan 1996-
TL;DR: This paper used the 1991 census to study ethnicity higher education qualifications ethnic differences in the educational participation of 16-19 year-olds, self-employment and unemployment patterns of ethnic minority employment int he context of industrial and occupational growth and decline education and occupational attainments.
Abstract: Introduction - using the 1991 census to study ethnicity higher education qualifications ethnic differences in the educational participation of 16-19 year-olds labour force participation rates, self-employment and unemployment patterns of ethnic minority employment int he context of industrial and occupational growth and decline education and occupational attainments - the impact of ethnic origins monitoring equal employment opportunity "race", ethnicity and housing differentials in Britain regional and local differences in the housing tenure of ethnic minorities the housing position of ethnic minority group home owners finding a place - the impact of locality on the housing experience of tenants from minority ethnic groups adding an ethnic dimension to local housing need assessments - the use of the 1991 census of population ethnic differences in attainment in education, occupation and lifestyle "ethnic penalties" and racial discrimination in education, employment and housing - conclusions and policy implications.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an alternative account of the classroom realities in contemporary multilingual schools where the linguistic profiles and language learning needs of ESL students are not easily understood in terms of fixed concepts of ethnicity and language is presented.
Abstract: TESOL practice in the schooling sector in England has implicitly assumed that ESL students are linguistic and social outsiders and that there is a neat one-to-one correspondence between ethnicity and language. This perspective has tended to conceptualise L2 learners as a linguistically diverse group (from non-English-speaking backgrounds) but with similar language learning needs. However, demographic and social changes in the past 30 years have rendered such assumptions inadequate and misleading, particularly in multiethnic urban areas. In this article we seek to (a) offer an alternative account of the classroom realities in contemporary multilingual schools where the linguistic profiles and language learning needs of ESL students are not easily understood in terms of fixed concepts of ethnicity and language; (b) draw on recent developments in cultural theory to clarify the shifting and changing relationship among ethnicity, social identity, and language use in the context of postcolonial diaspora; and (c) question the pedagogical relevance of the notion of native speaker and propose that instead TESOL professionals should be concerned with questions about language expertise, language inheritance, and language affiliation.

447 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors argue that a third demographic transition is underway in Europe and the United States due to high levels of immigration of persons from remote geographic origins or with distinctive ethnic and racial ancestry, in combination with persistent sub-replacement fertility and accelerated levels of emigration of the domestic population.
Abstract: THIS ARTICLE PROPOSES that a third demographic transition is underway in Europe and the United States. The ancestry of some national populations is being radically and permanently altered by high levels of immigration of persons from remote geographic origins or with distinctive ethnic and racial ancestry, in combination with persistent sub-replacement fertility and accelerated levels of emigration of the domestic population. The estimates and projections on which these statements are based relate to seven European countries with a 2005 total population of 183 million—about half the population of Western Europe. Most of the other Western European countries, however, share the same essential features of low fertility and high immigration. This proposition resolves itself into two claims. The first has two components: (i) in some industrial countries a rapid change is already apparent in the composition of the population according to national or ethnic origin, arising from the direct and indirect effects of immigration in the last few decades, and (ii) projections based on plausible assumptions imply, within the conventional time scale of projections, a substantial alteration of the composition of that population which if continued in the longer term would lead to the displacement of the original population into a minority position. This first claim is relatively easy to demonstrate in empirical terms, given explicit and defensible assumptions. The second claim is that such a process, were it to continue and materialize in its demographic aspect over such a short historical period would warrant the label of “transition.” Ultimate acceptance of such a label would depend on whether the transformation proved to be permanent and general and thereby would bear comparison with the familiar first and second demographic transitions.

356 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is argued that it is time to reclaim the heterogencity of women's past migratory experiences in the authors' understanding of European patterns of post-war immigration and the implications of the diversification of contemporary female migration in the European Union are explored.
Abstract: "First, this article critically assesses the dominant accounts of the sequence of labor migration and family reunification and argues that it is time to reclaim the heterogeneity of women's past migratory experiences in our understanding of European patterns of post-war immigration. Second, it examines family migration, covering diverse forms of family reunification and formation which, although the dominant form of legal immigration into Europe since the 1970s, has received relatively little attention. Third, it explores the implications of the diversification of contemporary female migration in the European Union and argues for the necessity of taking account of the reality of changing patterns of employment, households and social structures to advance our understanding of European immigration."

250 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors explored motivations and influences for entering higher education and to consider how these may contribute to current discourses surrounding Muslim women in Britain, and the possible impact higher education may have on their future relationships and lifestyle choices is also briefly considered.
Abstract: Participation rates in higher education for British South Asian Muslim women are steadily increasing. The aim of this article, therefore, is to explore motivations and influences for entering higher education and to consider how these may contribute to current discourses surrounding Muslim women in Britain. The possible impact higher education may have on their future relationships and lifestyle choices is also briefly considered. Various notions of 'agency' have been expressed that are characteristic of the ongoing complex assessments made by these women in relation to both perceived familial obligations and their own aspirations. Their articulations suggest that higher education is increasingly viewed as a necessary asset in maintaining and gaining social prestige. This preliminary research indicates that young South Asian Muslim women are continually negotiating and renegotiating their cultural, religious and personal identities and that these processes operate in complex and sometimes contradictory ways.

190 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined changing mobility patterns, attitudes and behaviours of UK higher education students who spend a part of their degree program studying or working abroad and found that decreasing mobility to Europe is more than compensated by rising flows to other world destinations, especially North America and Australia.
Abstract: Students have been little studied as a mobile population, despite their increasing importance among human flows in the contemporary globalizing world. This article examines changing mobility patterns, attitudes and behaviours of UK higher education students who spend a part of their degree programme studying or working abroad. The research was stimulated by perceptions that UK students were turning away from international mobility, especially to Europe. Using a multi-method approach, based on further statistical analysis of existing data sources, notably the UK Socrates–Erasmus student dataset, and on a range of questionnaire and interview surveys to staff and students in selected UK higher education institutions, the article explores the changing patterns of student movement and the drivers and barriers to mobility for UK students. We find that UK students's decreasing mobility to Europe is more than compensated by rising flows to other world destinations, especially North America and Australia. Question...

188 citations