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DOI

Evaluación de mezclas biodiésel-diésel en la generación de energía eléctrica

01 Jul 2011-Vol. 15, Iss: 2, pp 319-336

AbstractEn este articulo se muestra el efecto de tres diferentes biodieseles mezclados con diesel en el funcionamiento de una planta de generacion de energia electrica que simula el consumo electrico de una vivienda pequena. En la planta se realizaron pruebas a diferentes cargas, para evaluar el consumo especifico de combustible (CEC) y emisiones gaseosas (CO, CO2, O2 y otros gases). Se utilizo biodiesel de aceite de higuerilla (H), aceite de fritura usado (AFU) y aceite de palma (P), mezclados con petrodiesel, en una relacion de 1:4 (B20), en mezclas binarias y terciarias de biodiesel. Se encontro que el CEC del motor es directamente proporcional a la carga que se le imponga a este; mientras que la combustion interna del motor es independiente de la carga impuesta a la planta electrica, pero dependiente del tipo de combustible con el que se alimenta. La mezcla de combustibles que logro minimizar el CEC y las emisiones gaseosas fue la mezcla D80/P10/AFU10.

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Journal ArticleDOI
28 Jun 2019
Abstract: The biodiesel production was analyzed by chemical and enzymatic processes, from used cooking oil (UCO), evaluating the quality and yield of the product obtained in each method. For the chemical process, an acid esterification followed by a basic transesterification was developed, (reaction temperature: 60 °C, oil:methanol 1:6 molar ratio, concentration of KOH catalyst: 1% w/w reaction times: 55 and 70 min); and enzymatic transesterification (temperature: 38 °C, oil:methanol 1:3 molar ratio, enzyme concentration lipase XX 25 split liquid: 5%, reaction times: 3 and 6 hours). Physicochemical properties (i.e. density, kinematic viscosity, moisture content, fatty acid profile, percentage of acidity, peroxides index and saponification) of the raw material were determined. Results showed the presence of oleic acid (42.45%) and palmitic acid (33.52%). The highest yield obtained was from the chemical transesterification under the conditions of 60 °C, 1% KOH and 70 min with a conversion percentage of 96.15% and an acid number of 1.33 mmKOH/g, compared to the enzymatic transesterification which registered a high acid number of 6.91 mmKOH/g and conversion percentage of 48.81% under the conditions of 38 °C, 5% of enzyme lipase and 3 hours.

2 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...In the investigation of [47] it is found that the specific consumption of the fuel is reduced by using biodiesel mixtures from vegetable sources other than palm oil, with conventional diesel, reporting a lower consumption of this in D80/H20 mixtures (80% diesel with 20% biodiesel from castor oil) and D80/P10/AFU10 (80% diesel with 10% biodiesel from palm oil and 10% biodiesel from used frying oil)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: espanolContexto: La tendencia de la cultura de la sociedad moderna, se basa especialmente en el desarrollo de nuevos biocombustibles, donde se direccionan mas especificamente en el campo de los motores de combustion interna, estableciendose como punto central, la perdida de su rendimiento termico. Este factor es uno de los principales retos, donde la investigacion se dinamiza en forma compleja e importante. En este contexto, la investigacion aqui propuesta, fortalece esta area del conocimiento, tambien, determina el comportamiento del desempeno de un motor monocilindrico encendido por compresion y con mezclas entre el diesel convencional y un biodiesel producido con tecnicas innovadoras. Metodo: En este trabajo se realizo, un analisis en un banco de pruebas para motores de combustion interna tipo Diesel, donde se caracterizo y se determino la eficiencia del motor, utilizando Diesel y diferentes mezclas como la B2, B5, B10, B20, B50 y B100 lo cual el numero determina el porcentaje de biodiesel en la mezcla. El biodiesel utilizado, conto como base el aceite de palma africana y se obtuvo por medio de la tecnologia de radiacion por microondas. Estas pruebas fueron realizadas utilizando la norma SAE J1349. La toma de datos como potencia, torque, consumo de combustibles y temperaturas, indicaron el desempeno del motor, que a su vez determinaron los efectos de los diferentes combustibles en estudio. Resultados: Al desarrollar las pruebas y realizar su analisis, se evidencio que, para todas las mezclas analizadas, la combustion se formo sin complicaciones, ademas de esto, al incrementar el porcentaje de biocombustible en la mezcla, se identifico aumentos mayores o iguales al 20% del consumo de combustible y perdidas de potencia en el rango del 40%. Ahora, respecto a la utilizacion del proceso por la tecnologia con microondas se mostro mas eficiente para la produccion del mismo Conclusiones: Con la metodologia aplicada, se determino que para la mezcla B20, los valores de la potencia fueron los mas estables en terminos de rendimiento termico. En el contexto del comparativo de los combustibles patron, diesel colombiano y venezolano, sometidos bajos las mismas condiciones de operacion, se obtuvo que el combustible tipo diesel venezolano presenta mejores caracteristicas de rendimiento en cuanto a su potencia, torque y estabilidad termica. Con respecto al consumo especifico del combustible obtenido, se observa el aumento con mayor porcentaje de mezcla de biodiesel, esto directamente proporcional a la perdida de potencia. EnglishContext: The trend in modern society's culture is based especially on the development of new biofuels, where they are directed more specifically in the field of internal combustion engines, establishing as a central point, the loss of their thermal performance. This factor is one of the main challenges, where research is dynamized in a complex and important way. In this context, the research proposed here strengthens this area of knowledge, also, determines the performance behavior of a single-cylinder engine ignited by compression and with mixtures between conventional diesel and biodiesel produced with innovative techniques. Method: In this work, an analysis was made in a test bench for internal combustion engines type Diesel, where the efficiency of the engine was characterized and determined, using Diesel and different mixtures such as B2, B5, B10, B20, B50 and B100 which number determines the percentage of biodiesel in the mixture. The biodiesel used was based on African palm oil and was obtained by means of microwave radiation technology. These tests were performed using SAE J1349 standard. Data collection such as power, torque, fuel consumption, and temperature, indicated engine performance, which in turn determined the effects of the different fuels under study. Results: During the development of the tests and their analysis, it was evidenced that, for all the analyzed mixtures, the combustion was formed without complications. In addition, when increasing the percentage of bio-fuel in the mixture, increases greater or equal to 20% of the fuel consumption and power losses in the range of 40% were identified. Now, with respect to the use of the process by the technology with microwaves, it was shown more efficient for the production of the same Conclusions: With the methodology applied, it was determined that for the B20 mixture, the power values were the most stable in terms of thermal efficiency. In the context of the comparison of the standard fuels, Colombian and Venezuelan diesel, submitted under the same operating conditions, it was obtained that the Venezuelan diesel type fuel presents better performance characteristics in terms of power, torque, and thermal stability. With respect to the specific consumption of the fuel obtained, the increase is observed with a higher percentage of biodiesel mixture, this being directly proportional to the loss of power.

19 Jul 2021
Abstract: Proyecto de grado (Magister en Sistemas Energeticos)-- Universidad Autonoma de Occidente, 2021

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits and the fact that it is made from renewable resources. The cost of biodiesel, however, is the main hurdle to commercialization of the product. The used cooking oils are used as raw material, adaption of continuous transesterification process and recovery of high quality glycerol from biodiesel by-product (glycerol) are primary options to be considered to lower the cost of biodiesel. There are four primary ways to make biodiesel, direct use and blending, microemulsions, thermal cracking (pyrolysis) and transesterification. The most commonly used method is transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats. The transesterification reaction is aAected by molar ratio of glycerides to alcohol, catalysts, reaction temperature, reaction time and free fatty acids and water content of oils or fats. The mechanism and kinetics of the transesterification show how the reaction occurs and progresses. The processes of transesterification and its downstream operations are also addressed. ” 1999 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

4,645 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Biodiesel is gaining more and more importance as an attractive fuel due to the depleting fossil fuel resources. Chemically biodiesel is monoalkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable feed stock like vegetable oils and animal fats. It is produced by transesterification in which, oil or fat is reacted with a monohydric alcohol in presence of a catalyst. The process of transesterification is affected by the mode of reaction condition, molar ratio of alcohol to oil, type of alcohol, type and amount of catalysts, reaction time and temperature and purity of reactants. In the present paper various methods of preparation of biodiesel with different combination of oil and catalysts have been described. The technical tools and processes for monitoring the transesterification reactions like TLC, GC, HPLC, GPC, 1H NMR and NIR have also been summarized. In addition, fuel properties and specifications provided by different countries are discussed.

3,045 citations


"Evaluación de mezclas biodiésel-dié..." refers background in this paper

  • ...El biodiésel es producto de la transesterificación de los aceites y grasas con un alcohol de cadena corta, en presencia de un catalizador ácido, básico o enzimático (Zhang et ál., 2003; Meher et ál., 2006)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The acid-catalyzed process using waste cooking oil proved to be technically feasible with less complexity than the alkali-catalystzed process, thereby making it a competitive alternative to commercial biodiesel production by the alkaline-catalyszed process.
Abstract: Four different continuous process flowsheets for biodiesel production from virgin vegetable oil or waste cooking oil under alkaline or acidic conditions on a commercial scale were developed. Detailed operating conditions and equipment designs for each process were obtained. A technological assessment of these four processes was carried out to evaluate their technical benefits and limitations. Analysis showed that the alkali-catalyzed process using virgin vegetable oil as the raw material required the fewest and smallest process equipment units but at a higher raw material cost than the other processes. The use of waste cooking oil to produce biodiesel reduced the raw material cost. The acid-catalyzed process using waste cooking oil proved to be technically feasible with less complexity than the alkali-catalyzed process using waste cooking oil, thereby making it a competitive alternative to commercial biodiesel production by the alkali-catalyzed process.

1,623 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 2007-Fuel
Abstract: Biodiesel, an alternative renewable fuel made from transesterification of vegetable oil with alcohol, is becoming more readily available for use in blends with conventional diesel fuel for transportation applications. Soybean and Rapeseed are common feedstocks for Biodiesel production in USA and Europe, respectively. However, Asian countries are not self sufficient in edible oil and exploring non-edible seed oils, like Jatropha and Pongamia as biodiesel raw materials. However there is a gestation period of few years before these crops start yielding seeds and oil. On the other hand, South Eastern countries like Malaysia and Thailand have surplus Palm crops. But due to substantial amount of saturated fats in Palm, the Palm biodiesel has poor low temperature properties. In order to exploit the proximity of South Asian and South-East Asian countries, blends of Jatropha and Palm biodiesel have been examined to study their physico-chemical properties and to get an optimum mix of them to achieve better low temperature properties, with improved oxidation stability.

528 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Three fatty materials, soy-bean oil, used frying oil and tallow, were transformed into two different types of biodiesel, by transesterification and amidation reactions with methanol and diethylamine respectively. The ignition properties of these types of biodiesel were evaluated calculating the cetane index of the transesterification products, and the blending cetane number of the amide biodiesel blended with conventional diesel. Amide biodiesel enhances the ignition properties of the petrochemical diesel fuel, and it could account for the 5% market share that should be secured to biofuels by 2005.

431 citations