Evaluation of Odd–Even Day Traffic Restriction Experiments in Delhi, India
14 Sep 2017-Transportation Research Record (Transportation Research Board of the National Academies)-Vol. 2627, Iss: 2627, pp 9-16
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of the odd-even vehicle restriction in the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT) in India were evaluated. And the authors found that car flow rates on roads were reduced by a significant amount.
Abstract: During periods from January 1 to January 15 and April 15 to April 30, 2016, the Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi, India, implemented an odd–even vehicle rule. Under this rule, between 08:00 and 20:00, only cars with even-numbered plates were allowed to operate on even-numbered dates of the calendar and only cars with odd-numbered plates on odd-numbered dates. In light of the varying experiences of vehicle restriction practices from around the world, this study evaluated the effects of both phases of the odd–even policy on transport patterns and vehicle use in Delhi. Observational surveys were carried out at four locations in Delhi to observe traffic flow and vehicle occupancy data. Speed data were extracted for 38 origin–destination pairs during the January phase and for 66 pairs for the April phase, with a sample of roads from all over Delhi and with Google Maps API (application programming interface) software. During the experimental periods, car flow rates on roads were reduced by ...
TL;DR: Wang et al. as mentioned in this paper investigated the differences of two typical license-plate-number-based vehicle restriction strategies, i.e., One-Day-Per-Week (ODPW) and Odd-And-Even (OAE), in Langfang, China.
Abstract: To mitigate externalities of the urban transportation system, various travel demand management policies have been tested across the world in the past decades Among them, vehicle restriction is considered the most straightforward way to reduce travel demands The effects of this policy, however, are still inconclusive Using the massive license plate recognition (LPR) data in Langfang, China, this study investigates the differences of two typical license-plate-number-based vehicle restriction strategies, ie, One-Day-Per-Week (ODPW) and Odd-And-Even (OAE) This study compares ODPW and OAE from two perspectives: travel demand and traffic condition over the road network In addition to the change of traffic volume, the analysis of travel demand also includes the investigations of “illegal” travel, which denotes the road use of restricted vehicles, and travel intensity, which represents the travel frequency of certain vehicles in a time period The changes of traffic condition are assessed by travel speed Findings confirm that traffic volume declines as ODPW shifts to OAE, but not as significantly as expected This less-than-full adjustment can be explained by the increase of illegal travel and travel intensity The policy shift from ODPW to OAE significantly improves the travel speed in most of the road segments, whether in peak hours or off-peak hours The conclusions in this study provide in-depth insights into the influence of vehicle restriction policies and contribute to the effective design of travel demand management strategies
TL;DR: This is the first causal estimate of the contribution of Diwali firecracker burning to air pollution in Delhi and suggests that DiWali leads to a small, but statistically significant increase in air pollution.
Abstract: Delhi has had the distinction of being one of the most polluted cities in the world, especially in the winter months from October-January. These months coincide with the religious festival of Diwali. It is argued that air quality gets worse in the aftermath of Diwali on account of firecrackers that get burned during the festival. We use hourly data on PM 2.5 particulate concentration from 2013 to 2017 to estimate the Diwali effect on air quality in Delhi. We improve on existing work by using the event study technique as well as a difference-in-difference regression framework to estimate the Diwali effect on air quality. The results suggest that Diwali leads to a small, but statistically significant increase in air pollution. The effect is different across locations within Delhi. To our knowledge, this is the first causal estimate of the contribution of Diwali firecracker burning to air pollution.
TL;DR: Using Bayesian hierarchical approach with a Poisson-lognormal regression model, spatial analysis of road fatalities of VRUs with wards as areal units finds that fatality risk has a negative association with socio-economic status, population density, and number of roundabouts, and has a positive association with percentage of population as workers, number of bus stops,Number of flyovers, and vehicle kilometers travelled.
TL;DR: This scoping review analyzes 108 initiatives from around the world potentially influencing individual travel behaviour and producing changes in the shares of different transport modes (modal shifts), and discusses the determinants of success and failure, when it comes to different types of initiatives, emission reductions and evaluations.
TL;DR: A comparison with other neural network approaches as well as with a traditional land-use regression model, demonstrates the strength of the BR model for spatial interpolation of air quality.
Abstract: This study develops a set of algorithms to extract built environment features from Google aerial and street view images, reflecting the microcharacteristics of an urban location as well as the diff...
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an overview of the emission sources and control options for better air quality in Indian cities, with a particular focus on interventions like urban public transportation facilities; travel demand management; emission regulations for power plants; clean technology for brick kilns; management of road dust; and waste management to control open waste burning.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a multi-pollutant emissions inventory for the National Capital Territory of Delhi, covering the main district and its satellite cities -Gurgaon, Noida, Faridabad, and Ghaziabad.
TL;DR: In this paper, PM2.5 samples were collected at a high-traffic location (summer and winter 2013) and characterized for a large suite of elemental and organic markers.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used the ATMoS dispersion model and local meteorology to estimate health impacts in terms of premature mortality and morbidity effects in Delhi and its satellite cities.
Abstract: In Delhi and its satellite cities, vehicle exhaust, industries, waste burning, and construction activities account for the bulk of the particulate (PM) pollution, which between 2008 and 2011, averaged 123±87 μg/m3 for PM2.5 and 208±137 μg/m3 for PM10, both exceeding the national annual ambient standards of 40 μg/m3 and 60 μg/m3, respectively.Amulti-sectoral emissions inventory for 2010 was modeled using the ATMoS dispersion model and local meteorology to estimate health impacts in terms of premature mortality and morbidity effects. For the observed PM levels in the city, the health impacts analysis estimates 7,350–16,200 premature deaths and 6.0 million asthma attacks per year. For six residential and industrial zones, we also modeled the sector contributions to ambient PM2.5 ranging 16–34% for vehicle exhaust, 20–27% for diffused sources, 14–21% for industries, 3–16% diesel generator sets, and 4–17% brick kilns. Finally, we present some thoughts on technological, institutional, and behavioral interventions that might help the Government of Delhi to develop an action plan encompassing multiple sources and include interventions to reduce health impacts in the future years.
TL;DR: In an effort to reduce air pollution and congestion, Latin American cities have experimented with different policies to persuade drivers to give up their cars in favor of public transport as mentioned in this paper, based on hourly concentration records of carbon monoxide, which comes primarily from vehicles exhaust.