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Journal ArticleDOI

Evaluation of Superpave mixtures for perpetual asphalt pavements

TL;DR: Early deterioration of flexible pavements, due to increased traffic volume, environmental conditions, poor maintenance and construction quality, causes difficulties to road users, all around the world as discussed by the authors, causing difficulties to all road users.
Abstract: Early deterioration of flexible pavements, due to increased traffic volume, environmental conditions, poor maintenance and construction quality, causes difficulties to road users, all around the wo...
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the PaLATE computational tool was used to carry out the environmental assessment of PPs and the results indicated that the pavement alternative with the slightest environmental damage is the PP structure.
Abstract: Unlike conventional pavements with a service life of 20~30 years, perpetual pavements (PPs) are designed to have a 50-year service life without requiring major maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R) activities. In this way, PPs are more cost-effective than conventional rigid pavements (CRPs) and conventional flexible pavements (CFPs). Nonetheless, even though the economic and mechanical aspects of PPs have been widely studied and well documented, the literature is limited regarding the environmental assessment of PPs. Consequently, this research estimated the environmental burden associated with five pavement structures (one CRP, one CFP, and three PP structures) through the life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Notably, the PaLATE computational tool was used to carry out the LCAs. The results indicated that for CFP, most of the environmental impacts are generated by the M&R activities. Otherwise, for CRP and PP structures, the most impact occurred during the initial construction stage. The study results also revealed that materials production is the sub-stage that most contributed to the generation of environmental detriments. Overall, this comparative case study concluded that the pavement alternative with the slightest environmental damage is the PP structure.

27 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Yingjun Jiang1, Changqing Deng1, Jinshun Xue1, Haipeng Liu1, Zhejiang Chen 
TL;DR: In this article, the flexural tensile fatigue behaviors of AC-20 asphalt mixtures were studied using beams, which were designed by the vertical vibration method (VVTM) and the Marshall method.
Abstract: In this work, the flexural tensile fatigue behaviours of AC-20 asphalt mixtures were studied using beams, which were designed by the vertical vibration method (VVTM) and Marshall method. Then an an...

24 citations

01 Jan 1979
TL;DR: In this article, a set of judgement criteria for material testing are presented and currently available testing techniques are categorised and discussed with the basic features of the more common techniques described, including the static and repeated-load indirect tensile test which has been used during the past few years to evaluate the engineering properties of asphalt and other pavement mixtures.
Abstract: This paper was presented at session 14 - materials testing. It describes the elastic and visco-elastic techniques for structural layer analysis and the basic tests for characterising the materials required as inputs to these analyses. A set of judgement criteria for material testing are presented and currently available testing techniques are categorised and discussed with the basic features of the more common techniques described. Special emphasis is placed on the static and repeated-load indirect tensile test which has been used during the past few years to evaluate the engineering properties of asphalt and other pavement mixtures. Because of this increasing interest in and use of the indirect tensile test, this paper summarises the techniques and procedures for obtaining the needed properties using the test. (TRRL)

5 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An ultrathin wearing course (UTWC) is a preventive maintenance treatment method for a road surface which can improve the safety and comfort of driving by providing superior skid resistance as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: An ultrathin wearing course (UTWC) is a preventive maintenance treatment method for a road surface which can improve the safety and comfort of driving by providing superior skid resistance

4 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reviewed all the award-winning roadways in Minnesota to determine common material, design factors and considerations which may have contributed to the roadways extended life, often exceeding 50 years, despite the harsh Minnesota climate.
Abstract: Asphalt Pavement Alliance (APA) created the Perpetual Pavement Award program in 2001. This program requires that the roadway has at least 35 years of service at the time of award and had experienced no structural failures. In addition, the program limits candidate roadways to those that have not received more than 100 mm of new asphalt nor have been resurfaced at a frequency exceeding 13 years. Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) currently owns the record for the most award winners and has received an award every year from 2002 through 2017. This study reviews all the award-winning roadways in Minnesota to determine common material, design factors and considerations which may have contributed to the roadways extended life, often exceeding 50 years, despite the harsh Minnesota climate. For these projects, all the available information and any pertinent supporting information were reviewed. Findings from this review showed that a combination of many different factors including large-scale subgrade correction, utilizing non-frost susceptible base and subbase materials, bituminous treatment of the granular layers, utilization of prime coat, and staged construction may have contributed to the outstanding performance of these award-winning roadways. In addition, a more in-depth analysis was performed on the four project locations within the Minnesota Metro District. To further investigate and characterize these sites, coring and hand auger borings were performed in cracked and un-cracked areas along with Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) test which the results indicated that the in-situ materials were strong in all the projects. The cores were then used to measure thicknesses, densities, asphalt contents, extracted gradations, and also to perform resilient modulus testing at low and intermediate temperatures. Resilient Modulus testing showed that the asphalt mixtures from different projects perform differently at intermediate temperatures, but this difference is much less pronounced at low temperatures. This could be one reason for the similar long-life behavior of these pavements, as they have been subjected to the low temperature condition in a substantial portion of their service life in the state of Minnesota.

3 citations

References
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Book
01 Nov 1992
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the theory of pavement design and review the methods developed by several organizations, such as the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), the Asphalt Institute (AI), and the Portland Cement Association (PCA).
Abstract: This is a textbook on the structural analysis and design of highway pavements. It presents the theory of pavement design and reviews the methods developed by several organizations, such as the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), the Asphalt Institute (AI), and the Portland Cement Association (PCA). It can be used for an undergraduate course by skipping the appendices or as an advanced graduate course by including them. The book is organized in 13 chapters. Chapter 1 introduces the historical development of pavement design, the major road tests, the various design factors, and the differences in design concepts among highway pavements, airport pavements, and railroad trackbeds. Chapter 2 discusses stresses and strains in flexible pavements. Chapter 3 presents the KENLAYER computer program, based on Burmister's layered theory, including theoretical developments, program description, comparison with available solutions, and sensitivity analysis on the effect of various factors on pavement responses. Chapter 4 discusses stresses and deflections in rigid pavements due to curling, loading, and friction, as well as the design of dowels and joints. Influence charts for determining stresses and deflections are also presented. Chapter 5 presents the KENSLABS computer program, based on the finite element method, including theoretical developments, program description, comparison with available solutions, and sensitivity analysis. Chapter 6 discusses the concept of equivalent single-wheel and single-axle loads and the prediction of traffic. Chapter 7 describes the material characterization for mechanistic-empirical methods of pavement design including the determination of resilient modulus, fatigue and permanent deformation properties, and the modulus of subgrade reaction. Chapter 8 outlines the subdrainage design including general principles, drainage materials, and design procedures. Chapter 9 discusses pavement performance including distress, serviceability, skid resistance, nondestructive testing, and the evaluation of pavement performance. Chapter 10 illustrates the reliability concept of pavement design in which the variabilities of traffic, material, and geometric parameters are all taken into consideration. A probabilistic procedure, developed by Rosenblueth, is described and two probabilistic computer programs including VESYS for flexible pavements and PMRPD for rigid pavements are discussed. Chapter 11 outlines an idealistic mechanistic method of flexible pavement design and presents in detail the AI method and the AASHTO method, as well as the design of flexible pavement shoulders. Chapter 12 outlines an idealistic mechanistic method of rigid pavement design and presents in detail the PCA method and the AASHTO method. The design of continuous reinforced concrete pavements and rigid pavement shoulders is also included. Chapter 13 outlines the design of overlay on both flexible and rigid pavements including the AASHTO, AI, and PCA procedures. An Author Index and a Subject Index are provided.

2,667 citations


"Evaluation of Superpave mixtures fo..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...In the analysis carried out using KENPAVE software (Yang, 2004), mainly three pavement sections (Section 1, Section 2 and Section 3) were considered and are shown in Figure 5....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, Crumb rubber (CR) was used to modify 80/100 penetration grade asphalt cement and a static indentation test was adopted for assessing the relative permanent deformation characteristics of different mixes.
Abstract: The paper presents the details of various investigations conducted for the laboratory evaluation of the performance of crumb–rubber modified asphalt mixes. Crumb rubber (CR) obtained from discarded truck and bus tires was used to modify 80/100 penetration grade asphalt cement. Fatigue and permanent deformation characteristics, temperature and moisture susceptibility, and oxidative aging are some of the performance indicators of mixes evaluated. A static indentation test was adopted for assessing the relative permanent deformation characteristics of different mixes. Three aggregate gradations: (1) superpave; (2) gradation specified by the Ministry of Surface Transport, India for asphalt concrete; and (3) one gap gradation, were considered in the investigation. Compared to normal mixes, CR modified mixes were found to have improved fatigue and permanent deformation characteristics. They also showed lower temperature susceptibility and greater resistance to moisture damage compared to normal mixes. Superpave mixes gave better overall performance compared to the mixes having other aggregate gradations.

145 citations


"Evaluation of Superpave mixtures fo..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...This repeated load indirect tension test was carried out using the RLT machine in three specimens of each Superpave mixture (Palit et al., 2004; Panda & Mazumdar, 2002; Panda, Suchismita, & Giri, 2013)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the results of laboratory and full scale performance tests for a high modulus asphalt binder (HMAB) and mixes (HMAM) developed in this study for long life asphalt pavements.

93 citations


"Evaluation of Superpave mixtures fo..." refers background in this paper

  • ...However, non-availability of resources and expense demand the construction of pavements with extended life (Al-Khateeb et al., 2018; Lee et al., 2007)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, reclaimed polyethylene (PE) obtained from LDPE carry bags was used to modify asphalt cement and the basic properties of modified binder and mixes containing such binders were studied and compared with those of asphalt cement.
Abstract: Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) has been used by many to modify asphalt cement and to improve the properties of bituminous mixes (hot-mix asphalt). In this investigation, reclaimed polyethylene (PE) obtained from LDPE carry bags was used to modify asphalt cement. The basic properties of modified binder and mixes containing such binders were studied and compared with those of asphalt cement. It was observed that the optimum requirement of PE is 2.5%. Marshall stability, resilient modulus, fatigue life, and moisture susceptibility of mixes were improved as a result of modification of asphalt cement by reclaimed polyethylene.

84 citations


"Evaluation of Superpave mixtures fo..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...The following expressions (Gupta & Veeraragavan, 2009; Kennedy, 1978; Panda & Mazumdar, 2002) were used for determining Poisson’s ratio (µ) and resilient modulus (MR) from experimental data....

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  • ...This repeated load indirect tension test was carried out using the RLT machine in three specimens of each Superpave mixture (Palit et al., 2004; Panda & Mazumdar, 2002; Panda, Suchismita, & Giri, 2013)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the combined effect of the loading frequency, temperature, and stress level on the fatigue life of asphalt paving mixtures, and found that the increase in loading frequency resulted in an increase in fatigue life at the two test temperatures 20 and 30 ÂC.

69 citations


"Evaluation of Superpave mixtures fo..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The fatigue life values given in Table 5 show that as the applied load on the specimen increases, its fatigue life decreases (Al-Khateeb & Ghuzlan, 2014)....

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