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Journal Article

Evidence-based Policy: A Realist Perspective

01 Mar 2007-Nurse Researcher (Royal College of Nursing Publishing Company (RCN))-Vol. 14, Iss: 3, pp 83-85
TL;DR: This book will be essential reading for all those who loved (or loathed) the arguments developed in Realistic Evaluation and offers a complete blueprint for research synthesis, supported by detailed illustrations and worked examples from across the policy waterfront.
Abstract: Author Ray Pawson presents a devastating critique of the dominant approach to systematic review namely the 'meta-analytic' approach as sponsored by the Cochrane and Campbell collaborations. In its place is commended an approach that he terms 'realist synthesis'. On this vision, the real purpose of systematic review is better to understand program theory, so that policies Author Ray Pawson presents a devastating critique of the dominant approach to systematic review namely the 'meta-analytic' approach as sponsored by the Cochrane and Campbell collaborations. In its place is commended an approach that he terms 'realist synthesis'. On this vision, the real purpose of systematic review is better to understand program theory, so that policies can be properly targeted and developed to counter an ever-changing landscape of social problems. The book will be essential reading for all those who loved (or loathed) the arguments developed in Realistic Evaluation (Sage, 1997). It offers a complete blueprint for research synthesis, supported by detailed illustrations and worked examples from across the policy waterfront.
Citations
More filters
Book
23 Sep 2019
TL;DR: The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions is the official document that describes in detail the process of preparing and maintaining Cochrane systematic reviews on the effects of healthcare interventions.
Abstract: The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions is the official document that describes in detail the process of preparing and maintaining Cochrane systematic reviews on the effects of healthcare interventions.

21,235 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article reviews and critically evaluates historical and contemporary research on simulation‐based medical education (SBME) and presents and discusses 12 features and best practices that teachers should know in order to use medical simulation technology to maximum educational benefit.
Abstract: Objectives This article reviews and critically evaluates historical and contemporary research on simulation-based medical education (SBME). It also presents and discusses 12 features and best practices of SBME that teachers should know in order to use medical simulation technology to maximum educational benefit. Methods This qualitative synthesis of SBME research and scholarship was carried out in two stages. Firstly, we summarised the results of three SBME research reviews covering the years 1969–2003. Secondly, we performed a selective, critical review of SBME research and scholarship published during 2003–2009. Results The historical and contemporary research synthesis is reported to inform the medical education community about 12 features and best practices of SBME: (i) feedback; (ii) deliberate practice; (iii) curriculum integration; (iv) outcome measurement; (v) simulation fidelity; (vi) skill acquisition and maintenance; (vii) mastery learning; (viii) transfer to practice; (ix) team training; (x) high-stakes testing; (xi) instructor training, and (xii) educational and professional context. Each of these is discussed in the light of available evidence. The scientific quality of contemporary SBME research is much improved compared with the historical record. Conclusions Development of and research into SBME have grown and matured over the past 40 years on substantive and methodological grounds. We believe the impact and educational utility of SBME are likely to increase in the future. More thematic programmes of research are needed. Simulation-based medical education is a complex service intervention that needs to be planned and practised with attention to organisational contexts. Medical Education 2010: 44: 50–63

1,459 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the adaptability of purposeful sampling strategies to the process of qualitative research synthesis is examined, and the authors make a unique contribution to the literature by examining how different sampling strategies might be particularly suited to constructing multi-perspectival, emancipatory, participatory and deconstructive interpretations of published research.
Abstract: Informed decisions about sampling are critical to improving the quality of research synthesis. Even though several qualitative research synthesists have recommended purposeful sampling for synthesizing qualitative research, the published literature holds sparse discussion on how different strategies for purposeful sampling may be applied to a research synthesis. In primary research, Patton is frequently cited as an authority on the topic of purposeful sampling. In Patton’s original texts that are referred to in this article, Patton does not make any suggestion of using purposeful sampling for research synthesis. This article makes a unique contribution to the literature by examining the adaptability of each of Patton’s 16 purposeful sampling strategies to the process of qualitative research synthesis. It illuminates how different purposeful sampling strategies might be particularly suited to constructing multi‐perspectival, emancipatory, participatory and deconstructive interpretations of published research.

1,414 citations


Cites background or methods from "Evidence-based Policy: A Realist Pe..."

  • ...This strategy would be particularly suitable for ‘realist syntheses’, proposed by Pawson (2006), which investigate how a program is likely to work under particular circumstances by examining successful as well as unsuccessful implementations of the program....

    [...]

  • ...Examples of qualitative methods proposed for synthesizingmethodologically diverse research include qualitative meta-analysis (Kasworm, 1990), exploratory case-study oriented review (Ogawa & Malen, 1991), interpretivist-oriented review (Eisenhart, 1998), meta-synthesis (Bair, 1999) and realist synthesis (Pawson, 2006)....

    [...]

  • ...…methods proposed for synthesizingmethodologically diverse research include qualitative meta-analysis (Kasworm, 1990), exploratory case-study oriented review (Ogawa & Malen, 1991), interpretivist-oriented review (Eisenhart, 1998), meta-synthesis (Bair, 1999) and realist synthesis (Pawson, 2006)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A systematic review of 122 articles and books (1987-2013) of co-creation/co-production with citizens in public innovation is presented in this article, where the authors analyze the objectives and outcomes of the process.
Abstract: This article presents a systematic review of 122 articles and books (1987–2013) of co-creation/co-production with citizens in public innovation It analyses (a) the objectives of co-creation and co-production, (b) its influential factors and (c) the outcomes of co-creation and co-production processes It shows that most studies focus on the identification of influential factors, while hardly any attention is paid to the outcomes Future studies could focus on outcomes of co-creation/co-production processes Furthermore, more quantitative studies are welcome, given the qualitative, case study, dominance in the field We conclude with a research agenda to tackle methodological, theoretical and empirical lacunas

1,257 citations


Cites background from "Evidence-based Policy: A Realist Pe..."

  • ...Hence, we want to establish a more evidence-based understanding of the added value of co-production/co-creation (Pawson 2006)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors provide a catch-all definition for the flipped classroom, and attempt to retrofit it with a pedagogical rationale, which they articulate through six testable propositions, and construct a theoretical argument that flipped approaches might improve student motivation and help manage cognitive load.
Abstract: Flipped classroom approaches remove the traditional transmissive lecture and replace it with active in-class tasks and pre-/post-class work. Despite the popularity of these approaches in the media, Google search, and casual hallway chats, there is very little evidence of effectiveness or consistency in understanding what a flipped classroom actually is. Although the flipped terminology is new, some of the approaches being labelled ‘flipped’ are actually much older. In this paper, we provide a catch-all definition for the flipped classroom, and attempt to retrofit it with a pedagogical rationale, which we articulate through six testable propositions. These propositions provide a potential agenda for research about flipped approaches and form the structure of our investigation. We construct a theoretical argument that flipped approaches might improve student motivation and help manage cognitive load. We conclude with a call for more specific types of research into the effectiveness of the flipped classroom ...

1,239 citations


Cites background from "Evidence-based Policy: A Realist Pe..."

  • ...This leads to the perennial problems of student preparation: how do teachers know if students have prepared, what they know and if the preparation was useful? Despite popular enthusiasm and a somewhat reasonable rationale, flipped classroom approaches could not yet be considered an evidence-based (Pawson, 2006) approach; there is little research on the flipped classroom approach and none of it relies on particularly rigorous designs....

    [...]

  • ...Another caution as we head towards an ‘evidence-based policy’ approach to the implementation of the flipped classroom approach is that we may inadvertently end up with ‘policy-based evidence’ (Pawson, 2006), where university administrators guide positive evaluation research studies....

    [...]

  • ...Despite popular enthusiasm and a somewhat reasonable rationale, flipped classroom approaches could not yet be considered an evidence-based (Pawson, 2006) approach; there is little research on the flipped classroom approach and none of it relies on particularly rigorous designs....

    [...]

References
More filters
Book
23 Sep 2019
TL;DR: The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions is the official document that describes in detail the process of preparing and maintaining Cochrane systematic reviews on the effects of healthcare interventions.
Abstract: The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions is the official document that describes in detail the process of preparing and maintaining Cochrane systematic reviews on the effects of healthcare interventions.

21,235 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article reviews and critically evaluates historical and contemporary research on simulation‐based medical education (SBME) and presents and discusses 12 features and best practices that teachers should know in order to use medical simulation technology to maximum educational benefit.
Abstract: Objectives This article reviews and critically evaluates historical and contemporary research on simulation-based medical education (SBME). It also presents and discusses 12 features and best practices of SBME that teachers should know in order to use medical simulation technology to maximum educational benefit. Methods This qualitative synthesis of SBME research and scholarship was carried out in two stages. Firstly, we summarised the results of three SBME research reviews covering the years 1969–2003. Secondly, we performed a selective, critical review of SBME research and scholarship published during 2003–2009. Results The historical and contemporary research synthesis is reported to inform the medical education community about 12 features and best practices of SBME: (i) feedback; (ii) deliberate practice; (iii) curriculum integration; (iv) outcome measurement; (v) simulation fidelity; (vi) skill acquisition and maintenance; (vii) mastery learning; (viii) transfer to practice; (ix) team training; (x) high-stakes testing; (xi) instructor training, and (xii) educational and professional context. Each of these is discussed in the light of available evidence. The scientific quality of contemporary SBME research is much improved compared with the historical record. Conclusions Development of and research into SBME have grown and matured over the past 40 years on substantive and methodological grounds. We believe the impact and educational utility of SBME are likely to increase in the future. More thematic programmes of research are needed. Simulation-based medical education is a complex service intervention that needs to be planned and practised with attention to organisational contexts. Medical Education 2010: 44: 50–63

1,459 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the adaptability of purposeful sampling strategies to the process of qualitative research synthesis is examined, and the authors make a unique contribution to the literature by examining how different sampling strategies might be particularly suited to constructing multi-perspectival, emancipatory, participatory and deconstructive interpretations of published research.
Abstract: Informed decisions about sampling are critical to improving the quality of research synthesis. Even though several qualitative research synthesists have recommended purposeful sampling for synthesizing qualitative research, the published literature holds sparse discussion on how different strategies for purposeful sampling may be applied to a research synthesis. In primary research, Patton is frequently cited as an authority on the topic of purposeful sampling. In Patton’s original texts that are referred to in this article, Patton does not make any suggestion of using purposeful sampling for research synthesis. This article makes a unique contribution to the literature by examining the adaptability of each of Patton’s 16 purposeful sampling strategies to the process of qualitative research synthesis. It illuminates how different purposeful sampling strategies might be particularly suited to constructing multi‐perspectival, emancipatory, participatory and deconstructive interpretations of published research.

1,414 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A systematic review of 122 articles and books (1987-2013) of co-creation/co-production with citizens in public innovation is presented in this article, where the authors analyze the objectives and outcomes of the process.
Abstract: This article presents a systematic review of 122 articles and books (1987–2013) of co-creation/co-production with citizens in public innovation It analyses (a) the objectives of co-creation and co-production, (b) its influential factors and (c) the outcomes of co-creation and co-production processes It shows that most studies focus on the identification of influential factors, while hardly any attention is paid to the outcomes Future studies could focus on outcomes of co-creation/co-production processes Furthermore, more quantitative studies are welcome, given the qualitative, case study, dominance in the field We conclude with a research agenda to tackle methodological, theoretical and empirical lacunas

1,257 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors provide a catch-all definition for the flipped classroom, and attempt to retrofit it with a pedagogical rationale, which they articulate through six testable propositions, and construct a theoretical argument that flipped approaches might improve student motivation and help manage cognitive load.
Abstract: Flipped classroom approaches remove the traditional transmissive lecture and replace it with active in-class tasks and pre-/post-class work. Despite the popularity of these approaches in the media, Google search, and casual hallway chats, there is very little evidence of effectiveness or consistency in understanding what a flipped classroom actually is. Although the flipped terminology is new, some of the approaches being labelled ‘flipped’ are actually much older. In this paper, we provide a catch-all definition for the flipped classroom, and attempt to retrofit it with a pedagogical rationale, which we articulate through six testable propositions. These propositions provide a potential agenda for research about flipped approaches and form the structure of our investigation. We construct a theoretical argument that flipped approaches might improve student motivation and help manage cognitive load. We conclude with a call for more specific types of research into the effectiveness of the flipped classroom ...

1,239 citations