TL;DR: The important effects of the long-range target dipole moment and the target dipoles polarizability, on the scattering dynamics of this system, are evident from the present results.
Abstract: We report on differential and integral cross section measurements for the electron impact excitation of the three lowest lying Rydberg bands of electronic states in tetrahydrofuran. The energy range of the present experiments was 15–50 eV with the angular range of the differential cross section measurements being 15°–90°. The important effects of the long-range target dipole moment and the target dipole polarizability, on the scattering dynamics of this system, are evident from the present results. To the best of our knowledge, there are no other theoretical or experimental data against which we can compare the cross section results from this study.
Abstract: We review a selection of recent experimental and theoretical cross section results for electron scattering from a range of biofuels (methanol, ethanol), biomolecules (water, tetrahydrofuran, pyrimidine, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and para-benzoquinone) and molecular fragments that are formed from the action of atmospheric-pressure plasmas on biomass (phenol, furfural). Where possible, the implications of those cross sections, on simulating the transport of electrons through such a species under the influence of an applied external electric field or in the context of charged-particle track behaviour and radiation damage in matter, will also be examined.
TL;DR: The methods and techniques used in the investigation of low energy electron collisions with biologically relevant molecules and molecular clusters are described and the results obtained so far for DNA constituents and their model compounds, amino acids, peptides and other biomolecules are summarized.
Abstract: In this Topical Review we survey the current state of the art in the study of low energy electron collisions with biologically relevant molecules and molecular clusters. We briefly describe the methods and techniques used in the investigation of these processes and summarise the results obtained so far for DNA constituents and their model compounds, amino acids, peptides and other biomolecules. The applications of the data obtained is briefly described as well as future required developments.
Cites background from "Excitation of electronic states in ..."
...Do et al. (2011) measured integral and differential electronic excitation cross sections for energies between 15 and 50 eV....
Abstract: This colloquium describes an approach to incorporate into radiation damage models the effect of low and intermediate energy (0-100 eV) electrons and positrons, slowing down in biologically relevant ma- terials (water and representative biomolecules). The core of the modelling procedure is a C++ computing programme named "Low Energy Particle Track Simulation (LEPTS)", which is compatible with available general purpose Monte Carlo packages. Input parameters are carefully selected from theoretical and ex- perimental cross section data and energy loss distribution functions. Data sources used for this purpose are reviewed showing examples of electron and positron cross section and energy loss data for interactions with different media of increasing complexity: atoms, molecules, clusters and condense matter. Finally, we show how such a model can be used to develop an effective dosimetric tool at the molecular level (i.e. nanodosimetry). Recent experimental developments to study the fragmentation induced in biologically material by charge transfer from neutrals and negative ions are also included.
TL;DR: While the authors' integral and differential positron cross sections are the first of their kind, they are compared with previous literature values for this species in order to uncover any differences or similarities in the scattering dynamics with these two different projectiles.
Abstract: This work provides the first cross section data set of DNA constituents for an impact of electrons in the energy range between about 10 eV and 1 keV on a DNA target. The data set is designed for an implementation in Monte Carlo simulations and consists of model functions, taking into account elastic scattering, ionization and excitation interactions with the DNA constituents tetrahydrofuran, trimethylphosphate, pyrimidine and purine. It was developed on the basis of experimentally determined absolute differential and total scattering cross sections in accordance with the available literature data. The data set will be available in the Geant4-DNA toolkit to allow secondary electron transport in a DNA-like medium down to the ionization threshold.
TL;DR: It is shown that reactions of such electrons, even at energies well below ionization thresholds, induce substantial yields of single- and double-strand breaks in DNA, which are caused by rapid decays of transient molecular resonances localized on the DNA's basic components.
Abstract: Most of the energy deposited in cells by ionizing radiation is channeled into the production of abundant free secondary electrons with ballistic energies between 1 and 20 electron volts. Here it is shown that reactions of such electrons, even at energies well below ionization thresholds, induce substantial yields of single- and double-strand breaks in DNA, which are caused by rapid decays of transient molecular resonances localized on the DNA's basic components. This finding presents a fundamental challenge to the traditional notion that genotoxic damage by secondary electrons can only occur at energies above the onset of ionization, or upon solvation when they become a slowly reacting chemical species.
TL;DR: It is shown that below 15 eV such low-energy electrons induce single (SSB) and double (DSB) strand breaks in plasmid DNA exclusively via formation and decay of molecular resonances involving DNA components (base, sugar, hydration water, etc.).
Abstract: Nonthermal secondary electrons with initial kinetic energies below 100 eV are an abundant transient species created in irradiated cells and thermalize within picoseconds through successive multiple energy loss events. Here we show that below 15 eV such low-energy electrons induce single (SSB) and double (DSB) strand breaks in plasmid DNA exclusively via formation and decay of molecular resonances involving DNA components (base, sugar, hydration water, etc.). Furthermore, the strand break quantum yields (per incident electron) due to resonances occur with intensities similar to those that appear between 25 and 100 eV electron energy, where nonresonant mechanisms related to excitation/ionizations/dissociations are shown to dominate the yields, although with some contribution from multiple scattering electron energy loss events. We also present the first measurements of the electron energy dependence of multiple double strand breaks (MDSB) induced in DNA by electrons with energies below 100 eV. Unlike the SSB and DSB yields, which remain relatively constant above 25 eV, the MDSB yields show a strong monotonic increase above 30 eV, however with intensities at least 1 order of magnitude smaller than the combined SSB and DSB yields. The observation of MDSB above 30 eV is attributed to strand break clusters (nano-tracks) involving multiple successive interactions of one single electron at sites that are distant in primary sequence along the DNA double strand, but are in close contact; such regions exist in supercoiled DNA (as well as cellular DNA) where the double helix crosses itself or is in close proximity to another part of the same DNA molecule.
TL;DR: It is proposed to carry out radiotherapy and radiosurgery for brain lesions by crossfiring an array of parallel, closely spaced microbeams of synchrotron-generated x rays several times through an i-modelling system.
Abstract: It is proposed to carry out radiotherapy and radiosurgery for brain lesions by crossfiring an array of parallel, closely spaced microbeams of synchrotron-generated x rays several times through an isocentric target, each microbeam in the array having an approximately 25-microns-wide adjustable-height rectangular cross section. The following inferences from the known tissue sparing of 22-MeV deuteron microbeams in the mouse brain and the following exemplary Monte Carlo computations indicate that endothelial cells in the brain that are lethally irradiated by any microbeam in an array of adequately spaced microbeams outside an isocentric target will be replaced by endothelial cells regenerated from microscopically contiguous, minimally irradiated endothelium in intermicrobeam segments of brain vasculature. Endothelial regeneration will prevent necrosis of the nontargeted parenchymal tissue. However, neoplastic and/or nonneoplastic targeted tissues at the isocenter will be so severely depleted of potentially mitotic endothelial and parenchymal cells by multiple overlapping microbeams that necrosis will ensue. The Monte Carlo computations simulate microbeam irradiations of a 16-cm diameter, 16-cm-long cylindrical human head phantom using 50-, 100-, and 150-keV monochromatic x rays.
Abstract: Procedures and calibration techniques for measuring the absolute elastic and inelastic differential cross sections (DCS) for electron impact on molecular (atomic) species are described and illustrated by examples. The elastic DCS for the molecule under study is first determined by calibration against helium using the relative flow technique. The second step involves the production of energy-loss spectra for the instrument response function, the unfolding of overlapping inelastic structures and the normalization of inelastic intensities to the elastic cross sections. It is concluded that this method of determining absolute differential electron-molecule (atom) scattering cross sections is generally applicable and provides reliable results.