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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3892/OR.2021.7964

Exosome-mediated radiosensitizing effect on neighboring cancer cells via increase in intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species.

02 Mar 2021-Oncology Reports (Spandidos Publications)-Vol. 45, Iss: 4, pp 1-1
Abstract: The precise mechanism of intercellular communication between cancer cells following radiation exposure is unclear Exosomes are membrane‑enclosed small vesicles comprising lipid bilayers and are mediators of intercellular communication that transport a variety of intracellular components, including microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) The present study aimed to identify novel roles of exosomes released from irradiated cells to neighboring cancer cells In order to confirm the presence of exosomes in the human pancreatic cancer cell line MIAPaCa‑2, ultracentrifugation was performed followed by transmission electron microscopy and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NanoSight) using the exosome‑specific surface markers CD9 and CD63 Subsequent endocytosis of exosomes was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy Cell survival following irradiation and the addition of exosomes was evaluated by colony forming assay Expression levels of miRNAs in exosomes were then quantified by microarray analysis, while protein expression levels of Cu/Zn‑ and Mn‑superoxide dismutase (SOD1 and 2, respectively) enzymes in MIAPaCa‑2 cells were evaluated by western blotting Results showed that the uptake of irradiated exosomes was significantly higher than that of non‑irradiated exosomes Notably, irradiated exosomes induced higher intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a higher frequency of DNA damage in MIAPaCa‑2 cells, as determined by fluorescent microscopy and immunocytochemistry, respectively Moreover, six up‑ and five downregulated miRNAs were identified in 5 and 8 Gy‑irradiated cells using miRNA microarray analyses Further analysis using miRNA mimics and reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR identified miR‑6823‑5p as a potential candidate to inhibit SOD1, leading to increased intracellular ROS levels and DNA damage To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate that irradiated exosomes enhance the radiation effect via increasing intracellular ROS levels in cancer cells This contributes to improved understanding of the bystander effect of neighboring cancer cells

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Topics: Exosome (69%), Cancer cell (55%), Microvesicles (55%) ... show more
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7 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CANCERS13123040
18 Jun 2021-Cancers
Abstract: Deciphering the interactions between tumor and stromal cells is a growing field of research to improve pancreatic cancer-associated therapies and patients' care. Indeed, while accounting for 50 to 90% of the tumor mass, many pieces of evidence reported that beyond their structural role, the non-tumoral cells composing the intra-tumoral microenvironment influence tumor cells' proliferation, metabolism, cell death and resistance to therapies, among others. Simultaneously, tumor cells can influence non-tumoral neighboring or distant cells in order to shape a tumor-supportive and immunosuppressive environment as well as influencing the formation of metastatic niches. Among intercellular modes of communication, extracellular vesicles can simultaneously transfer the largest variety of signals and were recently reported as key effectors of cell-cell communication in pancreatic cancer, from its development to its evolution as well as its ability to resist available treatments. This review focuses on extracellular vesicles-mediated communication between different cellular components of pancreatic tumors, from the modulation of cellular activities and abilities to their biological and physiological relevance. Taking into consideration the intra-tumoral microenvironment and its extracellular-mediated crosstalk as main drivers of pancreatic cancer development should open up new therapeutic windows.

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Topics: Pancreatic cancer (56%), Stromal cell (51%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S13045-021-01149-4
Abstract: Pancreatic cancer has the worst prognosis among common tumors which is attributed to its aggressive phenotype, diagnosis at advanced, inoperable stages, and resistance to systemic therapy. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and circular RNAs have been established as important regulators of gene expression and their deregulation has been implicated in multiple diseases and foremost cancer. In the tumor microenvironment, non-coding RNAs can be distributed among cancer cells, stromal cells, and immune cells via small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), thereby facilitating intercellular communication and influencing major cancer hallmarks such as angiogenesis, evasion of the immune system, and metastatic dissemination. Furthermore, sEV-ncRNAs have shown promising potential as liquid biopsies with diagnostic and prognostic significance. In this review, we summarize the role of sEVs as carriers of ncRNAs and underlying molecular mechanisms in pancreatic cancer. Moreover, we review the potential of sEV-ncRNAs as biomarkers and highlight the suitability of sEVs as delivery vehicles for ncRNA-based cancer therapy.

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Topics: Long non-coding RNA (63%), Cancer (56%), Extracellular vesicle (55%) ... show more

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MICROC.2021.106772
Zenghui Liu1, Hesen Wang1, Jinge Li1, Mengli Wang1  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: As a new serum biomarker, the sensitive detection of exosomes is significant for the early diagnosis of diseases. In this paper, a novel electrochemical biosensor for the sensitive detection of exosomes was constructed utilizing a novel C60 hybrid as a tracer. Firstly, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody was immobilized on the electrode surface via Au-NH2 bonding with Nafion AuNPs substrate. After specific capture of exosomes, C60-Au-Tb was grafted onto the surface of exosomes through “carboxyl-Zr4+-phosphate” chemistry, causing a change in the current signal. Under the optimal conditions, there was a linear relationship between the SWV signal and the logarithm of exosomes concentration from 5 × 104 exosomes/mL to 5 × 109 exosomes/mL, and the detection limit was 2.67 × 104 exosomes/mL. In addition, the biosensor had the advantages of high specificity, strong anti-interference ability, good repeatability, and stability. In conclusion, this method had great potential in diagnosing early cancers associated with exosomes.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/GENES12101475
Annabelle Shaw1, Monika Gullerova1Institutions (1)
23 Sep 2021-Genes
Abstract: Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) has recently emerged as a vital component of the DNA damage response (DDR), which was previously believed to be solely regulated by proteins. Many species of ncRNA can directly or indirectly influence DDR and enhance DNA repair, particularly in response to double-strand DNA breaks, which may hold therapeutic potential in the context of cancer. These include long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), microRNA, damage-induced lncRNA, DNA damage response small RNA, and DNA:RNA hybrid structures, which can be categorised as cis or trans based on the location of their synthesis relative to DNA damage sites. Mechanisms of RNA-dependent DDR include the recruitment or scaffolding of repair factors at DNA break sites, the regulation of repair factor expression, and the stabilisation of repair intermediates. DDR can also be communicated intercellularly via exosomes, leading to bystander responses in healthy neighbour cells to generate a population-wide response to damage. Many microRNA species have been directly implicated in the propagation of bystander DNA damage, autophagy, and radioresistance, which may prove significant for enhancing cancer treatment via radiotherapy. Here, we review recent developments centred around ncRNA and their contributions to intracellular and intercellular DDR mechanisms.

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Topics: DNA damage (62%), DNA repair (62%), Small RNA (56%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FONC.2021.758884
Weijian Lin1, Xing-Dong Cai1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Cancer cell-derived extracellular vesicles (CEVs), a novel type of therapeutic agent in cancer treatment, can be prepared from the autocrine secretion of various cancer cells, the direct extraction of cancer cells and the combination of cancer cell-derived membranes with advanced materials. With various bioactive molecules, exosomes are produced by cells for intercellular communication. Although cancer cell-derived exosomes are known to inhibit tumor apoptosis and promote the progression of cancer, researchers have developed various innovative strategies to prepare anti-tumor vesicles from cancer cells. With current strategies for anti-tumor vesicles, four different kinds of CEVs are classified including irradiated CEVs, advanced materials combined CEVs, chemotherapeutic drugs loaded CEVs and genetically engineered CEVs. In this way, CEVs can not only be the carriers for anti-tumor drugs to the target tumor area but also act as immune-active agents. Problems raised in the strategies mainly concerned with the preparation, efficacy and application. In this review, we classified and summarized the current strategies for utilizing the anti-tumor potential of CEVs. Additionally, the challenges and the prospects of this novel agent have been discussed.

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References
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62 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1006/METH.2001.1262
01 Dec 2001-Methods
Abstract: The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated control. The 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method is a convenient way to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments. The purpose of this report is to present the derivation, assumptions, and applications of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. In addition, we present the derivation and applications of two variations of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method that may be useful in the analysis of real-time, quantitative PCR data.

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Topics: MicroRNA 34a (52%), Cell wall organization (50%)

116,500 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CBI.2005.12.009
Abstract: Oxygen-free radicals, more generally known as reactive oxygen species (ROS) along with reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are well recognised for playing a dual role as both deleterious and beneficial species. The “two-faced” character of ROS is substantiated by growing body of evidence that ROS within cells act as secondary messengers in intracellular signalling cascades, which induce and maintain the oncogenic phenotype of cancer cells, however, ROS can also induce cellular senescence and apoptosis and can therefore function as anti-tumourigenic species. The cumulative production of ROS/RNS through either endogenous or exogenous insults is termed oxidative stress and is common for many types of cancer cell that are linked with altered redox regulation of cellular signalling pathways. Oxidative stress induces a cellular redox imbalance which has been found to be present in various cancer cells compared with normal cells; the redox imbalance thus may be related to oncogenic stimulation. DNA mutation is a critical step in carcinogenesis and elevated levels of oxidative DNA lesions (8-OH-G) have been noted in various tumours, strongly implicating such damage in the etiology of cancer. It appears that the DNA damage is predominantly linked with the initiation process. This review examines the evidence for involvement of the oxidative stress in the carcinogenesis process. Attention is focused on structural, chemical and biochemical aspects of free radicals, the endogenous and exogenous sources of their generation, the metal (iron, copper, chromium, cobalt, vanadium, cadmium, arsenic, nickel)-mediated formation of free radicals (e.g. Fenton chemistry), the DNA damage (both mitochondrial and nuclear), the damage to lipids and proteins by free radicals, the phenomenon of oxidative stress, cancer and the redox environment of a cell, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis and the role of signalling cascades by ROS; in particular, ROS activation of AP-1 (activator protein) and NF-B (nuclear factor kappa B) signal transduction pathways, which in turn lead to the transcription of genes involved in cell growth regulatory pathways. The role of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (Vitamin C, Vitamin E, carotenoids, thiol antioxidants (glutathione, thioredoxin and lipoic acid), flavonoids, selenium and others) in the process of carcinogenesis as well as the antioxidant interactions with various regulatory factors, including Ref-1, NF-B, AP-1 are also reviewed. © 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Topics: Oxidative stress (65%), Free-radical theory of aging (64%), DNA damage (57%) ... show more

5,396 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.7554/ELIFE.05005
Vikram Agarwal1, George W. Bell1, Jin Wu Nam2, Jin Wu Nam1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
12 Aug 2015-eLife
Abstract: Proteins are built by using the information contained in molecules of messenger RNA (mRNA). Cells have several ways of controlling the amounts of different proteins they make. For example, a so-called ‘microRNA’ molecule can bind to an mRNA molecule to cause it to be more rapidly degraded and less efficiently used, thereby reducing the amount of protein built from that mRNA. Indeed, microRNAs are thought to help control the amount of protein made from most human genes, and biologists are working to predict the amount of control imparted by each microRNA on each of its mRNA targets. All RNA molecules are made up of a sequence of bases, each commonly known by a single letter—‘A’, ‘U’, ‘C’ or ‘G’. These bases can each pair up with one specific other base—‘A’ pairs with ‘U’, and ‘C’ pairs with ‘G’. To direct the repression of an mRNA molecule, a region of the microRNA known as a ‘seed’ binds to a complementary sequence in the target mRNA. ‘Canonical sites’ are regions in the mRNA that contain the exact sequence of partner bases for the bases in the microRNA seed. Some canonical sites are more effective at mRNA control than others. ‘Non-canonical sites’ also exist in which the pairing between the microRNA seed and mRNA does not completely match. Previous work has suggested that many non-canonical sites can also control mRNA degradation and usage. Agarwal et al. first used large experimental datasets from many sources to investigate microRNA activity in more detail. As expected, when mRNAs had canonical sites that matched the microRNA, mRNA levels and usage tended to drop. However, no effect was observed when the mRNAs only had recently identified non-canonical sites. This suggests that microRNAs primarily bind to canonical sites to control protein production. Based on these results, Agarwal et al. further developed a statistical model that predicts the effects of microRNAs binding to canonical sites. The updated model considers 14 different features of the microRNA, microRNA site, or mRNA—including the mRNA sequence around the site—to predict which sites within mRNAs are most effectively targeted by microRNAs. Tests showed that Agarwal et al.'s model was as good as experimental approaches at identifying the effective target sites, and was better than existing computational models. The model has been used to power the latest version of a freely available resource called TargetScan, and so could prove a valuable resource for researchers investigating the many important roles of microRNAs in controlling protein production.

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Topics: Lin-4 microRNA precursor (60%), PAR-CLIP (53%), microRNA (51%)

3,955 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/0471143030.CB0322S30
Abstract: Exosomes are small membrane vesicles found in cell culture supernatants and in different biological fluids. Exosomes form in a particular population of endosomes, called multivesicular bodies (MVBs), by inward budding into the lumen of the compartment. Upon fusion of MVBs with the plasma membrane, these internal vesicles are secreted. Exosomes possess a defined set of membrane and cytosolic proteins. The physiological function of exosomes is still a matter of debate, but increasing results in various experimental systems suggest their involvement in multiple biological processes. Because both cell-culture supernatants and biological fluids contain different types of lipid membranes, it is critical to perform high-quality exosome purification. This unit describes different approaches for exosome purification from various sources, and discusses methods to evaluate the purity and homogeneity of the purified exosome preparations.

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Topics: Exosome (69%), Exosomal secretion (52%), Circulating microvesicle (52%) ... show more

3,640 Citations


Open accessJournal Article
Ted P. Szatrowski1, Carl NathanInstitutions (1)
01 Feb 1991-Cancer Research
Abstract: Few nonphagocytic cells are known to generate reactive oxygen intermediates. Based on horseradish peroxidase-dependent, catalase-inhibitable oxidation of fluorescent scopoletin, seven human tumor cell lines constitutively elaborated H2O2 at rates (up to 0.5 nmol/10(4) cells/h) large enough that cumulative amounts at 4 h were comparable to the amount of H2O2 produced by phorbol ester-triggered neutrophils. Superoxide dismutase-inhibitable ferricytochrome c reduction was detectable at much lower rates. H2O2 production was inhibited by diphenyleneiodonium, a flavoprotein binder (concentration producing 50% inhibition, 0.3 microM), and diethyldithiocarbamate, a divalent cation chelator (concentration producing 50% inhibition, 3 microM), but not by cyanide or azide, inhibitors of electron transport, or by agents that inhibit xanthine oxidase, polyamine oxidase, or cytochrome P450. Cytochrome b559, present in human phagocytes and lymphocytes, was undetectable in these tumor cells by a sensitive spectrophotometric method. Mouse fibroblasts transfected with human tyrosinase complementary DNA made melanin, but not H2O2. Constitutive generation of large amounts of reactive oxygen intermediates, if it occurs in vivo, might contribute to the ability of some tumors to mutate, inhibit antiproteases, injure local tissues, and therefore promote tumor heterogeneity, invasion, and metastasis.

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Topics: Superoxide (55%), Cytochrome b559 (55%), Xanthine oxidase (54%) ... show more

2,279 Citations


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