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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Expanding the Go/NoGo depiction of the action of Basal Ganglia pathways

TL;DR: Simulations reveal that between the Go and NoGo regimes, exhibited at extreme values of dopamine, the system displays a new Explore regime, which enables it to explore the space of action alternatives.
Abstract: We present a neuronal network model of Basal Ganglia that departs from the classical Go/NoGo picture of the function of its key pathways - the direct and indirect pathways (DP & IP). The model is instantiated in a simple action selection task. Striatal dopamine is assumed to switch between DP and IP activation. Simulations reveal that between the Go and NoGo regimes, exhibited at extreme values of dopamine, the system displays, at intermediate values of dopamine, a new Explore regime, which enables it to explore the space of action alternatives. The exploratory dynamics originates from the chaotic dynamics of pallido-subthalamic loop. Following the tradition of applying reinforcement learning (RL) concepts to BG function, we associate this new regime with the Explorer, a key component in Actor-Critic framework.
References
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Book
01 Jan 1993
TL;DR: The structure of rugged fitness landscapes and the structure of adaptive landscapes underlying protein evolution, and the architecture of genetic regulatory circuits and its evolution.
Abstract: 1. Conceptual outline of current evolutionary theory PART I: ADAPTATION ON THE EDGE OF CHAOS 2. The structure of rugged fitness landscapes 3. Biological implications of rugged fitness landscapes 4. The structure of adaptive landscapes underlying protein evolution 5. Self organization and adaptation in complex systems 6. Coevolving complex systems PART II: THE CRYSTALLIZATION OF LIFE 7. The origins of life: a new view 8. The origin of a connected metabolism 9. Autocatalytic polynucleotide systems: hypercycles, spin glasses and coding 10. Random grammars PART III: ORDER AND ONTOGENY 11. The architecture of genetic regulatory circuits and its evolution 12. Differentiation: the dynamical behaviors of genetic regulatory networks 13. Selection for gene expression in cell type 14. Morphology, maps and the spatial ordering of integrated tissues

7,835 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A model in which specific types of basal ganglia disorders are associated with changes in the function of subpopulations of striatal projection neurons is proposed, which suggests that the activity of sub Populations of Striatal projections neurons is differentially regulated by striatal afferents and that different striatal projections may mediate different aspects of motor control.

5,094 citations


"Expanding the Go/NoGo depiction of ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Dopaminergic projections from SNc modulate the firing rates of the STN and GPe neurons [21], which predominantly express D2 receptors [2]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Dopamine systems may have two functions, the phasic transmission of reward information and the tonic enabling of postsynaptic neurons.
Abstract: Schultz, Wolfram. Predictive reward signal of dopamine neurons. J. Neurophysiol. 80: 1–27, 1998. The effects of lesions, receptor blocking, electrical self-stimulation, and drugs of abuse suggest t...

3,962 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work considers dual-action choice systems from a normative perspective, and suggests a Bayesian principle of arbitration between them according to uncertainty, so each controller is deployed when it should be most accurate.
Abstract: A broad range of neural and behavioral data suggests that the brain contains multiple systems for behavioral choice, including one associated with prefrontal cortex and another with dorsolateral striatum. However, such a surfeit of control raises an additional choice problem: how to arbitrate between the systems when they disagree. Here, we consider dual-action choice systems from a normative perspective, using the computational theory of reinforcement learning. We identify a key trade-off pitting computational simplicity against the flexible and statistically efficient use of experience. The trade-off is realized in a competition between the dorsolateral striatal and prefrontal systems. We suggest a Bayesian principle of arbitration between them according to uncertainty, so each controller is deployed when it should be most accurate. This provides a unifying account of a wealth of experimental evidence about the factors favoring dominance by either system.

2,171 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Recent work combining modern behavioural assays and neurobiological analysis of the basal ganglia has begun to yield insights into the neural basis of habit formation.
Abstract: Many organisms, especially humans, are characterized by their capacity for intentional, goal-directed actions. However, similar behaviours often proceed automatically, as habitual responses to antecedent stimuli. How are goal-directed actions transformed into habitual responses? Recent work combining modern behavioural assays and neurobiological analysis of the basal ganglia has begun to yield insights into the neural basis of habit formation.

2,133 citations