# Experience in test generation using multi-level approach

TL;DR: A multi-level approach has been proposed for generating test sequences for the control portion of communication protocols, given the specification, and test sequences generated have a high degree of fault coverage and the capability to recover from errors.

Abstract: A multi-level approach has been proposed for generating test sequences for the control portion of communication protocols, given the specification. Test sequences generated using this approach have a high degree of fault coverage and the capability to recover from errors. The method does not assume the existence of an error-free reset input to move a protocol Finite State Machine (FSM) from any state to an initial state, unlike many other methods. The multi-level approach, thus, can be used to generate test sequences for real-world protocols. The methodology has been used to generate test sequences for a subset of the OSI Class 4 Transport Protocol and results are presented.

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TL;DR: A test sequence generated by the procedure given here tours all state transitions and uses a unique signature for each state, called the Unique Input/Output (UIO) sequence, called an input/output behavior that is not exhibited by any other state.

430 citations

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TL;DR: This paper presents a literature survey of communication protocol testing, focusing on the following five areas: test sequence generation methods, test coverage, fault model and prediction, test tools, and experience reports.

123 citations

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TL;DR: Graph Theory with Applications to Engineering and Computer as mentioned in this paper is an excellent introductory treatment of graph theory and its applications that has had a long life in the instruction of advanced undergraduates and graduate students in all areas that require knowledge of this subject.

Abstract: Graph Theory with Applications to Engineering and Computer ... This outstanding introductory treatment of graph theory and its applications has had a long life in the instruction of advanced undergraduates and graduate students in all areas that require knowledge of this subject. The first nine chapters constitute an excellent overall introduction, requiring only some knowledge of set theory and matrix algebra.

16 citations

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TL;DR: This paper proves that the multilevel method (M method) is capable of diagnosing any number of faults in the higher level subgraph(s), if the basic subgraph is error-free, and compares it with other fault detection and fault diagnostic methods.

Abstract: Conformance testing of protocols is the process of checking whether an implementation under test conforms to the standards. In this paper we prove that the multilevel method (M method) [which splits the specification graph into a basic subgraph and one or more higher level subgraph(s)] is capable of diagnosing any number of faults in the higher level subgraph(s), if the basic subgraph is error-free. Heuristics for obtaining the basic subgraph and higher level subgraphs from the specification graph are also given. The advantage of the M method is that it has error recovery and, in addition, it does not assume the presence of reliable reset in the implementation under test. We additionally propose an incremental test sequence generation method, which produces a shorter test sequence and whose fault coverage is same as that of the M method. Finally, we compare the M method with other fault detection and fault diagnostic methods.

2 citations

##### References

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01 Jan 2010TL;DR: Theories are made easier to understand with 200 illustrative examples, and students can test their understanding with over 350 end-of-chapter review questions.

Abstract: Understand the structure, behavior, and limitations of logic machines with this thoroughly updated third edition. Many new topics are included, such as CMOS gates, logic synthesis, logic design for emerging nanotechnologies, digital system testing, and asynchronous circuit design, to bring students up-to-speed with modern developments. The intuitive examples and minimal formalism of the previous edition are retained, giving students a text that is logical and easy to follow, yet rigorous. Kohavi and Jha begin with the basics, and then cover combinational logic design and testing, before moving on to more advanced topics in finite-state machine design and testing. Theory is made easier to understand with 200 illustrative examples, and students can test their understanding with over 350 end-of-chapter review questions.

1,315 citations

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01 Jan 1974

TL;DR: This outstanding introductory treatment of graph theory and its applications has had a long life in the instruction of advanced undergraduates and graduate students in all areas that require knowledge of this subject.

1,161 citations

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01 Jan 1995

TL;DR: In this paper, a method for the selection of appropriate test case, an important issue for conformance testing of protocol implementations as well as software engineering, is presented, called the partial W-method, which is shown to have general applicability, full fault-detection power, and yields shorter test suites than the W-Method.

Abstract: A method for the selection of appropriate test case, an important issue for conformance testing of protocol implementations as well as software engineering, is presented. Called the partial W-method, it is shown to have general applicability, full fault-detection power, and yields shorter test suites than the W-method. Various other issues that have an impact on the selection of a suitable test suite including the consideration of interaction parameters, various test architectures for protocol testing and the fact that many specifications do not satisfy the assumptions made by most test selection methods (such as complete definition, a correctly implemented reset function, a limited number of states in the implementation, and determinism), are discussed. >

571 citations

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TL;DR: A test sequence generated by the procedure given here tours all state transitions and uses a unique signature for each state, called the Unique Input/Output (UIO) sequence, called an input/output behavior that is not exhibited by any other state.

430 citations