# Experimental and Computational Steady and Unsteady Transonic Flows about a Thick Airfoil

01 Jun 1978-AIAA Journal (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA))-Vol. 16, Iss: 6, pp 564-572

TL;DR: In this paper, an experimental and computational investigation of the steady and unsteady transonic flowfields about a thick airfoil is described, and an operational computer code for solving the two-dimensional, compressible NavierStokes equations for flow over airfoils was modified to include solid-wall, slip-flow boundary conditions to properly assess the code and help guide the development of improved turbulence models.

Abstract: An experimental and computational investigation of the steady and unsteady transonic flowfields about a thick airfoil is described. An operational computer code for solving the two-dimensional, compressible NavierStokes equations for flow over airfoils was modified to include solid-wall, slip-flow boundary conditions to properly assess the code and help guide the development of improved turbulence models. Steady and unsteady fiowfieids about an 18% thick circular arc airfoil at Mach numbers of 0.720, 0.754, and 0.783 and a chord Reynolds number of 11 x 10 are predicted and compared with experiment. Results from comparisons with experimental pressure and skin-friction distributions show improved agreement when including test-section wall boundaries in the computations. Steady-flow results were in good quantitative agreement with experimental data for flow conditions which result in relatively small regions of separated flow. For flows with larger regions of separated flow, improvements in turbulence modeling are required before good agreement with experiment will be obtained. For the first time, computed results for unsteady turbulent flows with separation caused by a shock wave were obtained which qualitatively reproduce the time-dependent aspects of experiments. Features such as the intensity and reduced frequency of airfoil surface-pressure fluctuations, oscillatory regions of trailing-edge and shock-induced separation, and the Mach number range for unsteady flows were all qualitatively reproduced.

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TL;DR: In this article, a review of the physical mechanisms of the periodic shock motion on airfoils at transonic flow conditions are associated with the phenomenon of buffeting, and various modes of shock wave motion for different flow conditions and airfoil configurations are described.

333 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe a new experiment executed in the ONERA S3Ch transonic wind tunnel on shock oscillations over the OAT15A supercritical profile, which has allowed the precise definition of the conditions for buffet onset and the characterization of the properties of the periodic motion from unsteady surface pressure measurements.

Abstract: Shock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction and flow separation may induce self-sustained large-scale oscillations on a profile at transonic Mach number. This phenomenon, known as transonic buffet, is at the origin of intense pressure fluctuations which can have detrimental effects, both in external and internal aerodynamics. The present paper describes a new experiment executed in the ONERA S3Ch transonic wind tunnel on shock oscillations over the OAT15A supercritical profile. These experiments have allowed the precise definition of the conditions for buffet onset and the characterization of the properties of the periodic motion from unsteady surface pressure measurements. The flowfield behavior has been described in great detail thanks to high-speed schlieren cinematography and surveys with a two-component laser Doppler velocimetry along with a conditional sampling technique. The first aim of this study was to provide the computational fluid dynamics community with well-documented test cases to validate advanced computing methods. Concerning the physics of the phenomenon, it is suggested that it is mediated by acoustic waves which are produced at the trailing edge and which travel on the two sides of the airfoil. Also, the experimental results strongly suggest that the phenomenon is essentially two-dimensional, even if three-dimensional effects are also detected.

235 citations

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TL;DR: The current strengths and limitations of CFD are shown and a way of enhancing the usefulness of flow simulation for industrial class problems is suggested.

190 citations

01 Oct 1987

TL;DR: In this paper, a large body of experimental results, obtained in more than 40 wind tunnels on a single, well-known two-dimensional configuration, has been critically examined and correlated.

Abstract: A large body of experimental results, obtained in more than 40 wind tunnels on a single, well-known two-dimensional configuration, has been critically examined and correlated. An assessment of some of the possible sources of error has been made for each facility, and data which are suspect have been identified. It was found that no single experiment provided a complete set of reliable data, although one investigation stands out as superior in many respects. However, from the aggregate of data the representative properties of the NACA 0012 airfoil can be identified with reasonable confidence over wide ranges of Mach number, Reynolds number, and angles of attack. This synthesized information can now be used to assess and validate existing and future wind tunnel results and to evaluate advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics codes.

184 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the accuracy and efficiency of two types of subiterations in both explicit and implicit Navier-Stokes codes are explored for unsteady laminar circular-cylinder flow and unsteby turbulent flow over an 18-percent-thick circular-arc (biconvex) airfoil.

167 citations

##### References

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TL;DR: In this paper, an experimental and theoretical study of transonic flow over a thick airfoil, prompted by a need for adequately documented experiments that could provide rigorous verification of viscous flow simulation computer codes, is reported.

Abstract: An experimental and theoretical study of transonic flow over a thick airfoil, prompted by a need for adequately documented experiments that could provide rigorous verification of viscous flow simulation computer codes, is reported. Special attention is given to the shock-induced separation phenomenon in the turbulent regime. Measurements presented include surface pressures, streamline and flow separation patterns, and shadowgraphs. For a limited range of free-stream Mach numbers the airfoil flow field is found to be unsteady. Dynamic pressure measurements and high-speed shadowgraph movies were taken to investigate this phenomenon. Comparisons of experimentally determined and numerically simulated steady flows using a new viscous-turbulent code are also included. The comparisons show the importance of including an accurate turbulence model. When the shock-boundary layer interaction is weak the turbulence model employed appears adequate, but when the interaction is strong, and extensive regions of separation are present, the model is inadequate and needs further development.

189 citations

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01 Jan 1978TL;DR: In this article, an investigation of the transonic flow over a circular arc airfoil was conducted to obtain basic information for turbulence modeling of shock-induced separated flows and to verify numerical computer codes which are being developed to simulate such flows.

Abstract: An investigation of the transonic flow over a circular arc airfoil was conducted to obtain basic information for turbulence modeling of shock-induced separated flows and to verify numerical computer codes which are being developed to simulate such flows. The investigation included the employment of a laser velocimeter to obtain data concerning the mean velocity, the shear stress, and the turbulent kinetic energy profiles in the flowfield downstream of the airfoil midchord where the flow features are more complex. Depending on the free-stream Mach number, the flowfield developed was either steady with shock-wave-induced separation extending from the foot of the shock wave to beyond the trailing edge or unsteady with a periodic motion also undergoing shock-induced separation. The experimental data were compared with the results of numerical simulations in which a computer code was employed that solved the time-dependent Reynolds' averaged compressible Navier-Stokes equations.

104 citations

01 Jul 1976

TL;DR: In this article, a new numerical method used to drastically reduce the computation time required to solve the Navier-Stokes equations at flight Reynolds numbers is described, which makes it possible and practical to calculate many important three-dimensional, high Reynolds number flow fields on computers.

Abstract: A new numerical method used to drastically reduce the computation time required to solve the Navier-Stokes equations at flight Reynolds numbers is described. The new method makes it possible and practical to calculate many important three-dimensional, high Reynolds number flow fields on computers.

93 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, four different algebraic eddy viscoisity models are tested for viability to achieve turbulence closure for the class of flows considered, ranging from an unmodified boundary-layer mixing-length model to a relaxation model incorporating special considerations for the separation bubble region.

Abstract: The two-dimensional Reynolds averaged compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using MacCormack's second-order accurate explicit finite difference method to simulate the separated transonic tur- bulent flowfield over an airfoil. Four different algebraic eddy viscoisity models are tested for viability to achieve turbulence closure for the class of flows considered. These models range from an unmodified boundary-layer mixing-length model to a relaxation model incorporating special considerations for the separation bubble region. Results of this study indicate the necessity for special attention to the separated flow region and suggest limits of applicability of algebraic turbulence models to these separated flowfield. each of these studies the time-dependent Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations for two-dimensional compressive flow are used and tur- bulence closure is achieved by means of model equations for the Reynolds stresses. Wilcox1'2 used a first-order accurate numerical scheme and the two equation differential tur- bulence model of Saffman 12 to simulate the supersonic shock boundary-layer interaction experiment of Reda and Mur- phy 13 and the compression corner flow of Law.14 Good quan- titative agreement with the Reda and Murphy data was ob- tained, but only the qualitative features of the compression corner flow were well simulated. Using a more sophisticated second-order accurate numerical scheme, Baldwin3'4 con- sidered both the two equation differential model of Saffman and a simpler algebraic mixing-length model to simulate the hypersonic shock boundary-layer interaction experiment of Holden.15 He found the more elaborate model of Saffman to yield somewhat better results than the algebraic model, but at the cost of considerably more computing time. Good quan- titative agreement with experiment was not obtained with either model. Following Baldwin's approach all subsequent investigations have been performed using the more rigorous second-order accurate numerical scheme of Mac- Cormack.17'18 Deiwert5'6'11 considered an algebraic mixing- length model to simulate the transonic airfoil experiment of McDevitt et al. 16 while Horstman et al. 8 used a similar ap- proach to simulate their hypersonic shock boundary-layer ex- periment on an axisymmetric cylinder. In each of these studies, while qualitative features of the flows were described well, good quantitative agreement with experiment in the in- teraction regions was not obtained. Using a relaxing turbulence model Shang and Hankey7 simulated the compression corner flow of Law, and Baldwin and Rose10 simulated the flat plate flow of Reda and Murphy. In each of these studies the relaxing model was found to per- form significantly better than the simpler algebraic model and, according to Shang and Hankey, provided significantly better comparisons with measurements than were obtained by Wilcox using the two equation differential model of Saffman. In each of these studies it was essential that the full Navier- Stokes equations be considered to describe the viscous- inviscid interaction and the elliptic nature of separating-

90 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, an explicit finite-difference method with time splitting is used to solve the time-dependent equations for compressible turbulent flow, and a nonorthogonal computational mesh of arbitrary configuration facilitates the description of the flow field.

Abstract: A code has been developed for simulating high Reynolds number transonic flow fields of arbitrary configuration. An explicit finite-difference method with time splitting is used to solve the time-dependent equations for compressible turbulent flow. A nonorthogonal computational mesh of arbitrary configuration facilitates the description of the flow field. The code is applied to simulate the flow over an 18 percent thick circular-arc biconvex airfoil at zero angle of attack and free-stream Mach number of 0.775. A simple mixing-length model is used to describe the turbulence and chord Reynolds numbers of 1, 2, 4, and 10 million are considered. The solution describes in sufficient detail both the shock-induced and trailing-edge separation regions, and provides the profile and friction drag.

81 citations