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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.INORGCHEM.1C00073

Experimental and Theoretical Insights into the Electronic Properties of Anionic N-Heterocyclic Dicarbenes through the Rational Synthesis of Their Transition Metal Complexes.

04 Mar 2021-Inorganic Chemistry (American Chemical Society)-Vol. 60, Iss: 6, pp 4015-4025
Abstract: The lithiation of the NHC ligand backbone in Cp(CO)2Mn(IMes) followed by transmetalation on the C4 carbenic position with Cp(CO)2FeI led to the heterobimetallic complex Cp(CO)2Mn(μ-dIMes)Fe(CO)2Cp bearing the anionic ditopic imidazol-2,4-diylidene dIMes ligand. Subsequent treatment of the later with TfOH induced a selective decoordination of the [Cp(CO)2Mn] fragment to form the cationic abnormal NHC complex [Cp(CO)2Fe(aIMes)](OTf), which was further derivatized to the bis(iron) dIMes complex [Cp(CO)2Fe(μ-dIMes)Fe(CO)2Cp](OTf) by reaction with tAmOK and Cp(CO)2FeI. The effect of the metalation at the C4 or C2 position on the imidazole ring on the electronic donation properties of the associated C2 and C4 carbenic centers in the dIMes ligand was quantified through systematic experimental and theoretical studies of IMes, aIMes, and dIMes complexes. The evaluation of the catalytic activity of the series of cationic Fe(II) complexes based on IMes, aIMes, and dIMes ligands in a benchmark ketone hydrosilylation showed the superiority of the bimetallic derivative.

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Topics: Metalation (51%), Transmetalation (51%), Ligand (51%) ... read more
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6 results found



Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.INORGCHEM.1C01316
Abstract: The reaction of readily available imidazolium-phosphonium salt [MesIm(CH2)3PPh3](OTf)2 with PdCl2 in the presence of an excess of Cs2CO3 afforded selectively in one step the cationic Pd(II) complex [(C,C,C)Pd(NCMe)](OTf) exhibiting an LX2-type NHC-ylide-aryl C,C,C-pincer ligand via formal triple C-H bond activation. The replacement of labile MeCN in the latter by CNtBu and CO fragments allowed to estimate the overall electronic properties of this phosphonium ylide core pincer scaffold incorporating three different carbon-based donor ends by IR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and molecular orbital analysis, revealing its significantly higher electron-rich character compared to the structurally close NHC core pincer system with two phosphonium ylide extremities. The pincer complex [(C,C,C)Pd(CO)](OTf) represents a rare example of Pd(II) carbonyl species stable at room temperature and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. The treatment of isostructural cationic complexes [(C,C,C)Pd(NCMe)](OTf) and [(C,C,C)Pd(CO)](OTf) with (allyl)MgBr and nBuLi led to the formation of zwitterionic phosphonium organopalladates [(C,C,C)PdBr] and [(C,C,C)Pd(COnBu)], respectively.

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Topics: Pincer ligand (60%), Phosphonium (52%), Pincer movement (51%) ... read more

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/D1DT02182F
Abstract: Oxidation of the half-sandwich MnI complexes Cp(CO)2Mn(NHC) bearing dialkyl-, arylalkyl- and diarylsubstituted N-heterocyclic carbene ligands (NHC = IMe, IMeMes, IMes) affords the corresponding stable MnII radical cations [Cp(CO)2Mn(NHC)](BF4) isolated in 92–95% yield. Systematic X-ray diffraction studies of the series of MnI and MnII NHC complexes revealed the expected characteristic structural changes upon oxidation, namely the elongation of the Mn–CO and Mn–NHC bonds as well as the diminution of the OC–Mn–CO angle. ESR spectra of [Cp(CO)2Mn(IMes)](BF4) in frozen solution (CH2Cl2/toluene 1 : 1, 70 K) allowed the identification of two conformers for this complex and their structural assignment using DFT calculations. The stability of these NHC complexes in both metal oxidation states, moderate oxidation potentials and the ease of detection of MnII species by a variety of spectroscopic techniques (UV-Vis, IR, paramagnetic 1H NMR, and ESR) make these compounds promising objects for applications as redox-active organometallic fragments.

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Topics: Carbene (51%), IMes (51%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/D1DT02035H
Macarena Poyatos1, Eduardo Peris1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Janus di-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands are a subclass of poly-NHCs that feature coordination to two transition metals in a facially opposed manner. The combination of the structural features of Janus type ligands, with the properties conferred by the NHC ligands, has conferred Janus-di-NHCs with privileged attributes for their use in diverse areas of research, such as homogeneous catalysis, materials chemistry and supramolecular chemistry. In molecular chemistry, Janus di-NHCs constitute one of the most useful chemical platforms for constructing dimetallic structures, and this includes both homo- and hetero-dimetallic compounds. This review aims to cover the most relevant advances in the use of Janus-di-NHCs during the last 15 years, by classifying them according to their specific structural features.

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Topics: Janus (51%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/D1DT03155D
Dmitry A. Valyaev1, Yves Canac1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Among a plethora of σ-donor ligands available, carbon-centered ones have become essential, in particular with the emergence of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs), positioning themselves as credible alternatives to traditional nitrogen- and phosphorus-based systems. Phosphonium ylides representing another class of neutral η1-bonded carbon ligands have also been shown to act as effective Lewis bases. Considering the intrinsic features of the carbene and phosphonium ylide ligands, similar in terms of electronic properties, but different in terms of bonding mode, the design of hybrid systems combining these two types of carbon functionalities appeared to be a natural and exciting challenge. This Perspective comprehensively covers the chemistry of such ligand architectures from synthesis and fundamental aspects to catalytic applications.

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Topics: Ylide (51%), Phosphonium (51%)

References
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94 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1107/S0108767307043930
George M. Sheldrick1Institutions (1)
Abstract: An account is given of the development of the SHELX system of computer programs from SHELX-76 to the present day. In addition to identifying useful innovations that have come into general use through their implementation in SHELX, a critical analysis is presented of the less-successful features, missed opportunities and desirable improvements for future releases of the software. An attempt is made to understand how a program originally designed for photographic intensity data, punched cards and computers over 10000 times slower than an average modern personal computer has managed to survive for so long. SHELXL is the most widely used program for small-molecule refinement and SHELXS and SHELXD are often employed for structure solution despite the availability of objectively superior programs. SHELXL also finds a niche for the refinement of macromolecules against high-resolution or twinned data; SHELXPRO acts as an interface for macromolecular applications. SHELXC, SHELXD and SHELXE are proving useful for the experimental phasing of macromolecules, especially because they are fast and robust and so are often employed in pipelines for high-throughput phasing. This paper could serve as a general literature citation when one or more of the open-source SHELX programs (and the Bruker AXS version SHELXTL) are employed in the course of a crystal-structure determination.

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Topics: Personal computer (55%), Literature citation (53%)

77,177 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/PHYSREVA.38.3098
Axel D. Becke1Institutions (1)
15 Sep 1988-Physical Review A
Abstract: Current gradient-corrected density-functional approximations for the exchange energies of atomic and molecular systems fail to reproduce the correct 1/r asymptotic behavior of the exchange-energy density. Here we report a gradient-corrected exchange-energy functional with the proper asymptotic limit. Our functional, containing only one parameter, fits the exact Hartree-Fock exchange energies of a wide variety of atomic systems with remarkable accuracy, surpassing the performance of previous functionals containing two parameters or more.

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42,343 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/1.3382344
Abstract: The method of dispersion correction as an add-on to standard Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT-D) has been refined regarding higher accuracy, broader range of applicability, and less empiricism. The main new ingredients are atom-pairwise specific dispersion coefficients and cutoff radii that are both computed from first principles. The coefficients for new eighth-order dispersion terms are computed using established recursion relations. System (geometry) dependent information is used for the first time in a DFT-D type approach by employing the new concept of fractional coordination numbers (CN). They are used to interpolate between dispersion coefficients of atoms in different chemical environments. The method only requires adjustment of two global parameters for each density functional, is asymptotically exact for a gas of weakly interacting neutral atoms, and easily allows the computation of atomic forces. Three-body nonadditivity terms are considered. The method has been assessed on standard benchmark sets for inter- and intramolecular noncovalent interactions with a particular emphasis on a consistent description of light and heavy element systems. The mean absolute deviations for the S22 benchmark set of noncovalent interactions for 11 standard density functionals decrease by 15%-40% compared to the previous (already accurate) DFT-D version. Spectacular improvements are found for a tripeptide-folding model and all tested metallic systems. The rectification of the long-range behavior and the use of more accurate C(6) coefficients also lead to a much better description of large (infinite) systems as shown for graphene sheets and the adsorption of benzene on an Ag(111) surface. For graphene it is found that the inclusion of three-body terms substantially (by about 10%) weakens the interlayer binding. We propose the revised DFT-D method as a general tool for the computation of the dispersion energy in molecules and solids of any kind with DFT and related (low-cost) electronic structure methods for large systems.

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22,557 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/PHYSREVB.33.8822
John P. Perdew1Institutions (1)
15 Jun 1986-Physical Review B
Abstract: Langreth and Mehl (LM) and co-workers have developed a useful spin-density functional for the correlation energy of an electronic system. Here the LM functional is improved in two ways: (1) The natural separation between exchange and correlation is made, so that the density-gradient expansion of each is recovered in the slowly varying limit. (2) Uniform-gas and inhomogeneity effects beyond the randomphase approximation are built in. Numerical results for atoms, positive ions, and surfaces are close to the exact correlation energies, with major improvements over the original LM approximation for the ions and surfaces.

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15,448 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/B508541A
Florian Weigend, Reinhart Ahlrichs1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Gaussian basis sets of quadruple zeta valence quality for Rb-Rn are presented, as well as bases of split valence and triple zeta valence quality for H-Rn. The latter were obtained by (partly) modifying bases developed previously. A large set of more than 300 molecules representing (nearly) all elements-except lanthanides-in their common oxidation states was used to assess the quality of the bases all across the periodic table. Quantities investigated were atomization energies, dipole moments and structure parameters for Hartree-Fock, density functional theory and correlated methods, for which we had chosen Moller-Plesset perturbation theory as an example. Finally recommendations are given which type of basis set is used best for a certain level of theory and a desired quality of results.

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13,596 Citations