scispace - formally typeset

Proceedings ArticleDOI

Experimental Implementation of Molecular Communication System using Sampling based Adaptive Threshold Variation Demodulation Algorithm

01 Dec 2018-pp 1-5

TL;DR: A demodulation algorithm using Sampling based Adaptive Threshold Variation (S-ATV) for Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) and ON/OFF keying (OOK) based modulation techniques is proposed.

AbstractIn this paper, we consider a tabletop molecular communication (MC) system for exchange of information through flow assisted diffusion of ethanol chemical molecules. Designing modulation and demodulation algorithms for such setup is an important research problem. We propose a demodulation algorithm using Sampling based Adaptive Threshold Variation (S-ATV) for Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) and ON/OFF keying (OOK) based modulation techniques. The performance of BER with bit duration is plotted for proposed demodulation algorithm as well as Increase detection algorithm (IDA). It is found that the proposed S-ATV demodulation algorithm has better performance than IDA for smaller bit durations.

...read more


Citations
More filters
Journal Article
Abstract: Author(s): Requicha, Ari | Abstract: Nanorobotics encompasses the design, fabrication, and programming of robots with overall dimensions below a few micrometers, and the programmable assembly of nanoscale objects. Nanorobots are quintessential nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and raise all the important issues that must be addressed in NEMS design: sensing, actuation, control, communications, power, and interfacing across spatial scales and between the organic/inorganic and biotic/abiotic realms. Nanorobots are expected to have revolutionary applications in such areas as environmental monitoring and health care.This paper begins by discussing nanorobot construction, which is still at an embryonic stage. The emphasis is on nanomachines, an area which has seen a spate of rapid progress over the last few years. Nanoactuators will be essential components of future NEMS.The paper's focus then changes to nanoassembly by manipulation with scanning probe microscopes (SPMs), which is a relatively well established process for prototyping nanosystems. Prototyping of nanodevices and systems is important for design validation, parameter optimization and sensitivity studies. Nanomanipulation also has applications in repair and modification of nanostructures built by other means. High-throughput SPM manipulation may be achieved by using multitip arrays.Experimental results are presented which show that interactive SPM manipulation can be used to accurately and reliably position molecular-sized components. These can then be linked by chemical or physical means to form subassemblies, which in turn can be further manipulated. Applications in building wires, single-electron transistors, and nanowaveguides are presented.

199 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This method and data paper sets out the macro-scale experimental techniques to acquire fluid dynamic knowledge to inform molecular communication performance and design and two powerful fluid dynamical measurement methodologies that can be applied beneficially in the context of molecular signal tracking and detection techniques.
Abstract: This method and data paper sets out the macro-scale experimental techniques to acquire fluid dynamic knowledge to inform molecular communication performance and design. Fluid dynamic experiments capture latent features that allow the receiver to detect coherent signal structures and infer transmitted parameters for optimal decoding. This paper reviews two powerful fluid dynamical measurement methodologies that can be applied beneficially in the context of molecular signal tracking and detection techniques. The two methods reviewed are Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF). Step-by-step procedures for these techniques are outlined as well as comparative evaluation in terms of performance accuracy and practical complexity is offered. The relevant data is available on IEEE DataPort to help in better understanding of these methods.

3 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
21 Sep 2020
TL;DR: This study reveals two key new characteristics of the molecular communication channel that have been overlooked by past work, including non-causal inter-symbol-interference and a long delay spread, that extends beyond the channel coherence time, which limit decoding performance.
Abstract: Molecular communication has recently gained a lot of interest due to its potential to enable micro-implants to communicate by releasing molecules into the bloodstream. In this paper, we aim to explore the molecular communication channel through theoretical and empirical modeling in order to achieve a better understanding of its characteristics, which tend to be more complex in practice than traditional wireless and wired channels. Our study reveals two key new characteristics that have been overlooked by past work. Specifically, the molecular communication channel exhibits non-causal inter-symbol-interference and a long delay spread, that extends beyond the channel coherence time, which limit decoding performance. To address this, we design, μ-Link a molecular communication protocol and decoder that accounts for these new insights. We build a testbed to experimentally validate our findings and show that μ-Link can improve the achievable data rates with significantly lower bit error rates.

3 citations


Cites background from "Experimental Implementation of Mole..."

  • ...Most MC testbeds are for airborne molecular communication where the molecules are released in air [25, 32, 33, 39, 48, 50]....

    [...]


References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: With much advancement in the field of nanotechnology, bioengineering, and synthetic biology over the past decade, microscales and nanoscales devices are becoming a reality. Yet the problem of engineering a reliable communication system between tiny devices is still an open problem. At the same time, despite the prevalence of radio communication, there are still areas where traditional electromagnetic waves find it difficult or expensive to reach. Points of interest in industry, cities, and medical applications often lie in embedded and entrenched areas, accessible only by ventricles at scales too small for conventional radio waves and microwaves, or they are located in such a way that directional high frequency systems are ineffective. Inspired by nature, one solution to these problems is molecular communication (MC), where chemical signals are used to transfer information. Although biologists have studied MC for decades, it has only been researched for roughly 10 year from a communication engineering lens. Significant number of papers have been published to date, but owing to the need for interdisciplinary work, much of the results are preliminary. In this survey, the recent advancements in the field of MC engineering are highlighted. First, the biological, chemical, and physical processes used by an MC system are discussed. This includes different components of the MC transmitter and receiver, as well as the propagation and transport mechanisms. Then, a comprehensive survey of some of the recent works on MC through a communication engineering lens is provided. The survey ends with a technology readiness analysis of MC and future research directions.

646 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
05 Jun 2011
TL;DR: Novel modulation techniques are proposed for coding and decoding information of the so-called messenger molecule concentration waves in nanonetworks that achieve high channel capacity values and exhibits more robustness against noise and requires less power.
Abstract: Communication via diffusion of molecules is an effective method for transporting information in nanonetworks. In this paper, novel modulation techniques called Concentration Shift Keying (CSK) and Molecule Shift Keying (MSK) are proposed for coding and decoding information of the so-called messenger molecule concentration waves in nanonetworks. The first technique, CSK, modulates the information via the variation in the concentration of the messenger molecules whereas MSK utilizes different types of messenger molecules to represent the information. Using simulation, the performance of these modulation techniques is evaluated in terms of susceptibility to noise and transmission power requirements. The new techniques achieve high channel capacity values, in particular, the MSK technique exhibits more robustness against noise and requires less power.

340 citations


"Experimental Implementation of Mole..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...The receiver in this method has lower complexity but it is more susceptible to Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) effect [7], [8]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work proposes four methods for a receiver in the MC to recover the transmitted information distorted by both ISI and noise, and introduces sequence detection methods based on maximum a posteriori and maximum likelihood criterions, a linear equalizer based on minimum mean-square error (MMSE) criterion, and a decision-feedback equalizer (DFE) which is a nonlinear equalizer.
Abstract: In the Molecular Communication (MC), molecules are utilized to encode, transmit, and receive information. Transmission of the information is achieved by means of diffusion of molecules and the information is recovered based on the molecule concentration variations at the receiver location. The MC is very prone to intersymbol interference (ISI) due to residual molecules emitted previously. Furthermore, the stochastic nature of the molecule movements adds noise to the MC. For the first time, we propose four methods for a receiver in the MC to recover the transmitted information distorted by both ISI and noise. We introduce sequence detection methods based on maximum a posteriori (MAP) and maximum likelihood (ML) criterions, a linear equalizer based on minimum mean-square error (MMSE) criterion, and a decision-feedback equalizer (DFE) which is a nonlinear equalizer. We present a channel estimator to estimate time varying MC channel at the receiver. The performances of the proposed methods based on bit error rates are evaluated. The sequence detection methods reveal the best performance at the expense of computational complexity. However, the MMSE equalizer has the lowest performance with the lowest computational complexity. The results show that using these methods significantly increases the information transmission rate in the MC.

252 citations


"Experimental Implementation of Mole..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...The demodulation algorithms used in literature can also be broadly classified into two categories [11], [12]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
18 Dec 2013-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: This work describes the first modular, and programmable platform capable of transmitting a text message using chemical signalling – a method also known as molecular communication, and shows that despite the nonlinearity, reliable communication is still possible.
Abstract: In this work, we describe the first modular, and programmable platform capable of transmitting a text message using chemical signalling – a method also known as molecular communication. This form of communication is attractive for applications where conventional wireless systems perform poorly, from nanotechnology to urban health monitoring. Using examples, we demonstrate the use of our platform as a testbed for molecular communication, and illustrate the features of these communication systems using experiments. By providing a simple and inexpensive means of performing experiments, our system fills an important gap in the molecular communication literature, where much current work is done in simulation with simplified system models. A key finding in this paper is that these systems are often nonlinear in practice, whereas current simulations and analysis often assume that the system is linear. However, as we show in this work, despite the nonlinearity, reliable communication is still possible. Furthermore, this work motivates future studies on more realistic modelling, analysis, and design of theoretical models and algorithms for these systems.

221 citations


"Experimental Implementation of Mole..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...In the paper, we propose a Sampling based Adaptive Threshold Algorithm (S-ATV) for a tabletop setup developed in [18]....

    [...]

  • ...The experimental setup in this paper is similar to [18]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Analytical and numerical results confirm that the proposed modulation techniques using isomers achieve higher data transmission rate performance than the insulin based concepts.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose three novel modulation techniques, i.e., concentration-based, molecular-type-based, and molecular-ratio-based, using isomers as messenger molecules for nano communication networks via diffusion. To evaluate achievable rate performance, we compare the proposed techniques with conventional insulin-based concepts under practical scenarios. Analytical and numerical results confirm that the proposed modulation techniques using isomers achieve higher data transmission rate performance than the insulin based concepts. We also investigate the tradeoff between messenger sizes and modulation orders and provide guidelines for selecting from among several possible candidates.

217 citations


"Experimental Implementation of Mole..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...The receiver in this method has lower complexity but it is more susceptible to Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) effect [7], [8]....

    [...]