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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Experimental Investigation of Applicability of Sand Tire Chip Mixtures as Retaining Wall Backfill

17 Mar 2015-pp 1420-1429
Abstract: This paper explains the behavior of a cantilever retaining wall (CRW) backfilled with light weight fill material through small scale model wall tests. CRW model of height 60 cm and base width 50 cm was built with hollow aluminum sections. The model wall was installed in a Perspex container, tested under static and seismic loading conditions. Waste tire chips of 1 cm square cross section and 20 mm length mixed with the cohesionless sand in 5%, 10%, and 15% by weight were used as light weight backfill material. Concrete cubes were used as surcharge loading on the backfill during static testing. The lateral wall movements along the height of the wall were monitored during tests using displacement transformers. 1g shaking table tests have been conducted on the selective models to check the behavior of the cantilever wall under seismic loading conditions. It has been observed that the inclusion of tire chips in the backfill soil has led to the reduction of lateral wall movements due to the lesser unit weight of the mixtures. The reduction in the acceleration of the backfill was also observed during seismic testing in sand-tire chip (S-TC) backfill compared to the controlled case (only sand).
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Underground structures play an important role in achieving the requirements of rapid urban development such as tunnels, parking garages, facilities, etc. To achieve what is needed, new transportation methods have been proposed to solve traffic congestion problems by using of high-speed railway and subway tunnels. One of the issues in urban spaces due to tunnel excavation is considerable surface settlements that also induce problems for surface structures. There are a variety of published relationships concerned with field measurements and theoretical approaches to evaluating the amount of the maximum surface settlement value due to tunneling. This paper studies the ground surface settlement caused by the Greater Cairo Metro – Line 3 - Phase-1. This project was constructed by a slurry shield Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM). Therefore, this work consists of two parts. The first part presents the details of the project and monitoring results field and laboratory geotechnical investigations in order to determine the soil properties. The second part is to the comparison between the field measurements and theoretical approaches for surface settlement due to tunneling construction. At the end of the works, the results show that the more convenient methods which approach the field measurements, and the major transverse settlement occurs within the area about 2.6 times the diameter of the tunnel excavation. Doi: 10.28991/cej-2020-03091617 Full Text: PDF

27 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Use of scrap tire derived (STD) geomaterials in geotechnical engineering applications has received growing interest to prevent creation of wastes and conserve natural resources towards achieving sustainability. STD geomaterials and their mixtures with soils are being used in highway embankments, retaining walls, landfills and other applications as lightweight fill, backfill, compressible inclusion, vibration absorber, and drainage material. The use of STD geomaterials in these applications has been affirmed by characterization of the engineering properties based on laboratory tests and performance assessment based on physical model studies. This paper provides a review of engineering properties of STD geomaterials and their mixtures with soil (predominantly sand) based on published studies. Further, laboratory model and field studies on typical applications of STD geomaterials/mixtures such as retaining walls, foundations, embankments, and landfills are discussed. Overall, STD geomaterial alone or sand mixed with optimal STD content of 30–40% by weight has been shown to be effective for geoengineering applications.

15 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper presents a set of results of plate load tests that imposed incremental cyclic loading to a sandy soil bed containing multiple layers of granulated rubber-soil mixture (RSM) at large model scale. Loading and unloading cycles were applied with amplitudes incrementally increasing from 140 to 700 kPa in five steps. A thickness of the RSM layer of approximately 0.4 times the footing diameter was found to deliver the minimum total and residual settlements, irrespective of the level of applied cyclic load. Both the total and residual settlements decrease with increase in the number of RSM layers, regardless of the level of applied cyclic load, but the rate of reduction in both settlements reduces with increase in the number of RSM layers. When the thickness of the RSM layer is smaller, or larger, settlements increase and, at large thicknesses may even exceed those of untreated soil. Layers of the RSM reduced the vertical stress transferred through the foundation depth by distributing the load over a wider area. With the inclusion of RSM layers, the coefficient of elastic uniform compression decreases by a factor of around 3-4. A softer response was obtained when more RSM layers were included beneath the footing damping capacity improves appreciably when the sand bed incorporates RSM layers. Numerical modeling using “FLAC-3D” confirms that multiple RSM layers will improve the performance of a foundation under heavy loading.

9 citations


Cites background from "Experimental Investigation of Appli..."

  • ...…(as a single layer or as a large mass of rubber-soil mixture) in construction of foundations bed, embankments and retaining wall (Bosscher et al. 1997; Yoon et al., 2006; Hataf and Rahimi, 2005; Moghaddas Tafreshi and Norouzi, 2012; 2015; Dammala et al., 2015; Reddy and Murali Krishna, 2015; 2016)....

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  • ...Several investigations have highlighted the beneficial use of rubber-soil mixture (as a single layer or as a large mass of rubber-soil mixture) in construction of foundations bed, embankments and retaining wall (Bosscher et al. 1997; Yoon et al., 2006; Hataf and Rahimi, 2005; Moghaddas Tafreshi and Norouzi, 2012; 2015; Dammala et al., 2015; Reddy and Murali Krishna, 2015; 2016)....

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Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2017-
Abstract: The applications of scrap tire-derived recycled materials in civil engineering applications have been increasing largely because of their potential economic and environmental benefits. This paper first evaluates sand–tire chip (STC) mixture properties and then discusses about the application of STC mixtures in geoengineering applications through laboratory model studies. Locally available sand and tire chips of 20 mm long with 10 mm square cross section are adopted for preparing the STC mixtures. Tire chips are mixed with sand in various percentages, ranging from 10 to 70 % with an increment of 10 %. Index and mechanical properties of sand–tire chip mixtures are determined for different proportions. Based on large direct shear tests, it was found that internal friction angle values are increased with TC contents up to 30 %. The study indicates that the optimum percentage of tire chips of the selected size is in the range of 30–40 % by weight, which is the equivalent of 50–60 % by volume. Model tests on retaining wall models by using various STC mixtures ranging from 10 to 50 % were discussed. The paper concluded that the STC mixture at the optimum ratio results in lightweight material with 20 % less unit weight with better strength parameters and compressibility behavior, which can effectively be used for geoengineering applications.

6 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Previous research has shown that the backfill behind a retaining wall can be constructed with sand–tire chips (STC) mixture; this can lead to reduced horizontal displacements and earth pressures on...

5 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The growing interest in utilizing waste materials in civil engineering applications has opened the possibility of constructing reinforced soil structures with unconventional backfills. Scrap tires are a high-profile waste material for which several uses have been studied, including the use of shredded tires as backfill. A triaxial testing program was conducted to investigate the stress-strain relationship and strength of tire chips and a mixture of sand and tire chips. The test results and additional information from the literature were used in the numerical modeling of wall backfills, both unreinforced and reinforced with geosynthetics. The numerical modeling results suggest tire shreds, particularly when mixed with sand, may be effectively used as backfill.

293 citations


"Experimental Investigation of Appli..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The sand tire chip mixtures contract initially on triaxial testing and then dilates but the amount of dilation is much less than that of dense sand (Lee et al. 1999)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using shredded waste tires to reinforce sand. Direct shear tests were conducted on mixtures of dry sand and shredded waste tires. The following factors were studied to evaluate their influence on shear strength: normal stress, sand matrix unit weight, shred content, shred length, and shred orientation. From results of the tests, three significant factors affecting shear strength were identified: normal stress, shred content, and sand matrix unit weight. A model for estimating the strength of reinforced soils was also evaluated to determine its applicability to mixtures of sand and tire shreds. When the model is calibrated using results from one shred content, it may be useful for estimating the friction angle for other shred contents. In all cases, adding shredded tires increased the shear strength of sand, with an apparent friction angle (ϕ′) as large as 67° being obtained. Shred content and sand matrix unit weight were the most significan...

275 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper describes research undertaken to develop design procedures for using shredded scrap tires as a lightweight fill material in highway construction. The benefits of using scrap tires are particularly enhanced if they can be used to replace virgin construction materials made from nonrenewable resources. This paper addresses the use of tire chips as a highway embankment material. Design parameters for embankments constructed using discarded shredded tires are presented based on laboratory model studies, numerical analyses, and field performance of test fills. The conclusions of this report support the use of tire chips as an environmentally acceptable lightweight fill in highway applications if properly confined. Recommendations for design procedures and construction specifications for the use of tire chips in highway fills are provided.

222 citations


Journal Article
Abstract: Scrap tires that have been cut into chips are coarse grained, free draining, and have a low compacted density, thus offering significant advantages for use as lightweight fill and retaining wall backfill. The engineering properties needed to put tire chips into use are presented. The properties determined for tire chips, from three suppliers, are gradation, specific gravity, compacted density, shear strength, compressibility, and coefficient of lateral earth pressure at rest. The 76-mm (3-in.) maximum size and high compressibility of the tire chips necessitated design and fabrication of custom-made testing equipment. The tests showed that the tire chips are composed of uniformly graded, gravel-sized particles that absorb only a small amount of water. Their compacted density is 0.618 to 0.642 Mg/cu m (38.6 to 40.1 pcf), which is about one-third that of compacted soils. The shear strength was measured in a large-scale direct shear apparatus. The friction angle and cohesion intercept ranged from 19 to 25 degrees and 8 to 11 kPa (160 to 240 psf), respectively. The compressibility tests showed that tire chips are highly compressible on initial loading, but that the compressibility on subsequent unloading and reloading cycles is less. The horizontal stress was measured during these tests and showed that the coefficient of lateral earth pressure at rest varied from 0.26 for tire chips with a large amount of steel belt exposed at the cut edges to 0.47 for tire chips composed entirely of glass-belted tires.

127 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Scrap tyres can be shredded into chips and can easily be mixed with granular soils. To assess the behaviour of the admixtures, compressibility and triaxial compression tests were carried out by varying chip size and chip content. The results demonstrated that sand–tyre chip mixtures up to 20% could be a potential material for highway construction and embankment construction up to around 10 m height.

125 citations