Experimental Investigation on a Compression Ignition Engine with Blends of Plastic Oil and Diesel as Fuel
01 Nov 2019-pp 85-97
Abstract: Waste plastic is a conventional source of energy. It can be transformed into oil by thermal degradation method such as pyrolysis. In this work, pyrolysis plastic oil (PPO) was prepared by microwave pyrolysis method using waste plastic. The plastic oil was analysed, tested and used as the properties of it were similar to that of diesel. The single cylinder direct injection diesel engine was fuelled with different blends at different loads from no load to full load condition. The performance, combustion characteristics and emissions were recorded and compared with that of diesel. Based on the results, it is found that the brake thermal efficiency for blends PPO20, PPO40, PPO60, PPO80 and PPO100 at 90% of full load condition were lower by 3.9, 6.8, 8.3, 9 and 9.7%, respectively, with respect to diesel when the engine was operated at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. Specific fuel consumption for blends PPO20, PPO40, PPO60, PPO80 and PPO100 at 90% of full load were higher by 0.4, 1.2, 2, 3.6 and 6%, respectively, as compared to diesel at constant speed (1500 rpm). The NOx emissions for blends PPO20, PPO40, PPO60, PPO80 and PPO100 at 90% of full load were higher by 7.65, 13, 17, 23 and 24.2%, respectively, as compared to diesel while engine was running in constant speed (1500 rpm). The CO emissions for PPO blends PPO20, PPO40, PPO60, PPO80 and PPO100 at 90% of full load were lower by 6.5, 17.4, 26, 30.4 and 7.6%, respectively, as compared to diesel at constant speed (1500 rpm). The UHC emissions for PPO blends PPO20, PPO40, PPO60, PPO80 and PPO100 at 90% of full load were lower by 6.5, 17.4, 26, 30 and 39%, respectively, as compared to diesel at constant speed (1500 rpm). It can be concluded that the plastic oil could be used as a substitute fuel in diesel engine.
01 Jan 1988
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe real engine flow and combustion processes, as well as engine operating characteristics and their operation, including engine design and operating parameters, engine characteristics, and operating characteristics.
Abstract: 1 Engine Types and Their Operations 2 Engine Design and Operating Parameters 3 Thermochemistry of Fuel-Air Mixtures 4 Properties of Working Fluids 5 Ideal Models of Engine Cycles 6 Gas Exchange Processes 7 SI Engine Fuel Metering and Manifold Phenomena 8 Charge Motion within the Cylinder 9 Combustion in Ignition Engines 10 Combustion in Compression Ignition Engines 11 Pollutant Formation and Control 12 Engine Heat Transfer 13 Engine Friction and Lubrication 14 Modeling Real Engine Flow and Combustion Processes 15 Engine Operating Characteristics Appendixes
TL;DR: It is concluded that it is possible to use tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines as an alternate fuel in the future.
Abstract: Tests have been carried out to evaluate the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled with 10%, 30%, and 50% of tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) blended with diesel fuel (DF). The TPO was derived from waste automobile tyres through vacuum pyrolysis. The combustion parameters such as heat release rate, cylinder peak pressure, and maximum rate of pressure rise also analysed. Results showed that the brake thermal efficiency of the engine fueled with TPO-DF blends increased with an increase in blend concentration and reduction of DF concentration. NO(x), HC, CO, and smoke emissions were found to be higher at higher loads due to the high aromatic content and longer ignition delay. The cylinder peak pressure increased from 71 bars to 74 bars. The ignition delays were longer than with DF. It is concluded that it is possible to use tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines as an alternate fuel in the future.
TL;DR: In this article, the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder, four-stroke, air-cooled DI diesel engine run with waste plastic oil was investigated. And the experimental results have showed a stable performance with brake thermal efficiency similar to that of diesel.
Abstract: Increase in energy demand, stringent emission norms and depletion of oil resources have led the researchers to find alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. On the other hand waste plastic pose a very serious environment challenge because of their disposal problems all over the world. Plastics have now become indispensable materials in the modern world and application in the industrial field is continually increasing. In this context, waste plastic solid is currently receiving renewed interest. The properties of the oil derived from waste plastics were analyzed and compared with the petroleum products and found that it has properties similar to that of diesel. In the present work, waste plastic oil was used as an alternate fuel in a DI diesel engine without any modification. The present investigation was to study the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder, four-stroke, air-cooled DI diesel engine run with waste plastic oil. The experimental results have showed a stable performance with brake thermal efficiency similar to that of diesel. Carbon dioxide and unburned hydrocarbon were marginally higher than that of the diesel baseline. The toxic gas carbon monoxide emission of waste plastic oil was higher than diesel. Smoke reduced by about 40% to 50% in waste plastic oil at all loads.
TL;DR: In this paper, a fluidized sand bed reactor was used to study the production of gases from polyethylene (HDPE) at five nominal temperatures (ranging from 500 to 900°C).
Abstract: A fluidized sand bed reactor was used to study the production of gases from polyethylene (HDPE) at five nominal temperatures (ranging from 500 to 900°C). Both HDPE primary decomposition and wax cracking reactions take place inside the reactor. Yields of 13 pyrolysis products (methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, acetylene, butane, butylene, pentane, benzene, toluene, xylenes, and styrene) were analyzed as a function of the operating conditions. The results are compared with the data obtained by pyrolysis of HDPE in a Pyroprobe 1000, where secondary wax and tar cracking is small. Correlations between the products analyzed with those of methane are discussed.
TL;DR: In this article, a simple pyrolysis reactor system was used to produce high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic as the material for pyrolyses, with the objective of optimizing the liquid product yield at a temperature range of 400oC to 550oC.
Abstract: Thermal degradation of waste plastics in an inert atmosphere has been regarded as a productive method, because this process can convert waste plastics into hydrocarbons that can be used either as fuels or as a source of chemicals. In this work, waste high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic was chosen as the material for pyrolysis. A simple pyrolysis reactor system has been used to pyrolyse waste HDPE with the objective of optimizing the liquid product yield at a temperature range of 400oC to 550oC. Results of pyrolysis experiments showed that, at a temperature of 450oC and below, the major product of the pyrolysis was oily liquid which became a viscous liquid or waxy solid at temperatures above 475oC. The yield of the liquid fraction obtained increased with the residence time for waste HDPE. The liquid fractions obtained were analyzed for composition using FTIR and GC-MS. The physical properties of the pyrolytic oil show the presence of a mixture of different fuel fractions such as gasoline, kerosene and diesel in the oil.