Experimental Investigation on a Compression Ignition Engine with Blends of Plastic Oil and Diesel as Fuel
01 Nov 2019-pp 85-97
Abstract: Waste plastic is a conventional source of energy. It can be transformed into oil by thermal degradation method such as pyrolysis. In this work, pyrolysis plastic oil (PPO) was prepared by microwave pyrolysis method using waste plastic. The plastic oil was analysed, tested and used as the properties of it were similar to that of diesel. The single cylinder direct injection diesel engine was fuelled with different blends at different loads from no load to full load condition. The performance, combustion characteristics and emissions were recorded and compared with that of diesel. Based on the results, it is found that the brake thermal efficiency for blends PPO20, PPO40, PPO60, PPO80 and PPO100 at 90% of full load condition were lower by 3.9, 6.8, 8.3, 9 and 9.7%, respectively, with respect to diesel when the engine was operated at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. Specific fuel consumption for blends PPO20, PPO40, PPO60, PPO80 and PPO100 at 90% of full load were higher by 0.4, 1.2, 2, 3.6 and 6%, respectively, as compared to diesel at constant speed (1500 rpm). The NOx emissions for blends PPO20, PPO40, PPO60, PPO80 and PPO100 at 90% of full load were higher by 7.65, 13, 17, 23 and 24.2%, respectively, as compared to diesel while engine was running in constant speed (1500 rpm). The CO emissions for PPO blends PPO20, PPO40, PPO60, PPO80 and PPO100 at 90% of full load were lower by 6.5, 17.4, 26, 30.4 and 7.6%, respectively, as compared to diesel at constant speed (1500 rpm). The UHC emissions for PPO blends PPO20, PPO40, PPO60, PPO80 and PPO100 at 90% of full load were lower by 6.5, 17.4, 26, 30 and 39%, respectively, as compared to diesel at constant speed (1500 rpm). It can be concluded that the plastic oil could be used as a substitute fuel in diesel engine.
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on four stroke, single cylinder, direct injection (DI) diesel engine using 100% waste plastic oil was investigated.
Abstract: Environmental degradation and depleting oil reserves are matters of great concern around the globe. Developing countries like India depend heavily on oil import of about 125 Mt per annum (7:1 diesel/gasoline). Diesel being the main transport fuel in India, finding a suitable alternative to diesel is an urgent need. In this context, waste plastic solid is currently receiving renewed interest. Waste plastic oil is suitable for compression ignition engines and more attention is focused in India because of its potential to generate large-scale employment and relatively low environmental degradation. The present investigation was to study the effect of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on four stroke, single cylinder, direct injection (DI) diesel engine using 100% waste plastic oil. Experimental results showed higher oxides of nitrogen emissions when fueled with waste plastic oil without EGR. NOx emissions were reduced when the engine was operated with cooled EGR. The EGR level was optimized as 20% based on significant reduction in NOx emissions, minimum possible smoke, CO, HC emissions and comparable brake thermal efficiency. Smoke emissions of waste plastic oil were higher at all loads. Combustion parameters were found to be comparable with and without EGR. Compression ignition engines run on waste plastic oil are found to emit higher oxides of nitrogen.
TL;DR: In this article, a comparison of the use of pyrolysis oils which are the tire, plastic, and diesel oils in the assessment of engine performance and feasibility analysis is presented.
Abstract: Creating a sustainable energy and environment, alternative energy is needed to be developed instead of using fossil fuels. This research describe a comparison of the use of pyrolysis oils which are the tire pyrolysis oil, plastic pyrolysis oil and diesel oil in the assessment of engine performance, and feasibility analysis. Pyrolysis oils from waste tire and waste plastic are studied to apply with one cylinder multipurpose agriculture diesel engine. It is found that without engine modification, the tire pyrolysis offers better engine performance whereas the heating value of the plastic pyrolysis oil is higher. The plastic pyrolysis oil could improve performance by modifying engine. The economic analysis shows that the pyrolysis oil is able to replace diesel in terms of engine performance and energy output if the price of pyrolysis oil is not greater than 85% of diesel oil.
TL;DR: In this article, polypropylene was cracked thermally and catalytically in the presence of kaoline and silica alumina in a semi-batch reactor in the temperature range 400-550°C in order to obtain suitable liquid fuels.
Abstract: Polypropylene was cracked thermally and catalytically in the presence of kaoline and silica alumina in a semi batch reactor in the temperature range 400–550°C in order to obtain suitable liquid fuels. The dependencies between process temperatures, types of catalyst, feed compositions and product yields of the obtained fuel fractions were found. It was observed that up to 450°C thermal cracking temperature, the major product of pyrolysis was liquid oil and the major product at other higher temperatures (475–550°C) are viscous liquid or wax and the highest yield of pyrolysis product is 82.85% by weight at 500°C. Use of kaoline and silica alumina decreased the reaction time and increased the yield of liquid fraction. Again the major pyrolysis product in catalytic pyrolysis at all temperatures was low viscous liquid oil. Silica alumina was found better as compared to kaoline in liquid yield and in reducing the reaction temperature. The maximum oil yield using silica alumina and kaoline catalyst are 91% and 89.5% respectively. On the basis of the obtained results hypothetical continuous process of waste polypropylene plastics processing for engine fuel production can be presented.
TL;DR: In this paper, the pore shape of the zeolites was investigated in liquid-phase catalytic degradation of HDPE, and the effect of pore shapes on their catalytic performance was investigated.
Abstract: The liquid-phase catalytic degradation of HDPE was studied on BEA, FAU, MWW, MOR and MFI zeolites with different pores to illustrate the effect of pore shape on their catalytic activities. High conversions of HDPE were obtained on BEA and MFI zeolites, because bent pores retarded catalytic deactivation due to carbon deposit suppressing the formation of longer molecules. On the other hand, rapid blocking of linear pores even by a small amount of carbon deposit decreased the activity of MOR zeolite. Large pores of FAU zeolite connected through supercages enhanced mass transfer, resulting in a high yield of liquid product. The slow diffusion of cracked products in MWW zeolite due to its repeated larger spaces, brought about further cracking, enhancing the yield of small hydrocarbons. The pore shape of the zeolites was important in determining activity and product selectivity in the degradation of polymers by influencing the diffusion rate of cracked products and suppressing the formation of large molecules.