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Journal ArticleDOI

Experimental Investigation on Usage of Palm Oil as a Lubricant to Substitute Mineral Oil in CI Engines

14 Jan 2014-Chinese journal of engineering (Hindawi)-Vol. 2014, pp 1-5
TL;DR: In this article, the substitution of mineral oil with vegetable oil as a base stock for an environment friendly lubricant in a CI engine is explored in a study without adding any additives.
Abstract: Due to growing environmental concerns, vegetable oils are finding their way into lubricants for industrial and transportation applications. The substitution of mineral oil with vegetable oil as a base stock for an environment friendly lubricant in a CI engine is explored in this study without adding any additives. The experiments have been conducted with a mixture of palm oil and mineral oil, at different compositions. Blends of palm oil and mineral oil in different compositions, 0, 25, and 50 (by vol %) were added to base SAE20W40 mineral oil to obtain different lubricant blends. The parameters evaluated include brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, volumetric efficiency, and mechanical efficiency and exhaust emissions. The engine performance and emission tests were carried out on a single cylinder, water cooled, 4-stroke CI engine. Compared to mineral oil, the palm oil-based lubricant revealed appreciable expedience on engine and emission performance.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors highlight the potential of bio-based lubricants for a broad range of applications based upon the published researches over the past decade and highlight the correlation between molecular structures, physicochemical properties and lubrication performance of natural oil which is essential for lubricant development and selection.

210 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
25 Feb 2020
TL;DR: An overview of the types, production routes, properties, and applications of biolubricants can be found in this paper, where the authors provide an overview of different types, routes, and properties of these oils.
Abstract: The term biolubricant applies to all lubricants that are easily biodegradable and non-toxic to humans and the environment. The uses of biolubricant are still very limited when compared to those of mineral oils, although this trend is increasing and depends on investment in research and development (R&D). The increase in demand for biodegradable lubricants is related to the evolution of environmental regulations, with more restrictive rules being implemented to minimize environmental impact caused by inappropriate disposal. This study provides an overview of the types, production routes, properties, and applications of biolubricants. Biolubricants are classified as either natural or synthetic oils according to chemical composition. Natural oils are of animal or vegetable origin and are rarely used because they are unstable at high temperatures and form compounds that are harmful to equipment and machines. Synthetic oils are obtained from chemical reactions and are the best lubricants for demanding applications. They are obtained by various routes, mainly by obtaining straight or branched-chain monoesters, diesters, triesters, and polyol esters from vegetable oils. The conversion of triglyceride to esters can be followed or preceded by one or more reactions to improve reactions such as epoxidation and hydrogenation.

88 citations


Cites background from "Experimental Investigation on Usage..."

  • ...[100] also reported that palm oil was a renewable and non-hazardous biolubricant, obtaining hopeful results in four-stroke engine oils....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an additive-free version of palm trimethylolpropane ester (TMP) and formulated versions of bio-lubricant are tested for the cam/tappet interface of a commercial passenger car diesel engine for the very test time.
Abstract: Purpose There is a continuous drive in automotive sector to shift from conventional lubricants to environmental friendly ones without adversely affecting critical tribological performance parameters. Because of their favorable tribological properties, chemically modified vegetable oils such as palm trimethylolpropane ester (TMP) are one of the potential candidates for the said role. To prove the suitability of TMP for applications involving boundary-lubrication regime such as cam/tappet interface of direct acting valve train system, a logical step forward is to investigate their compatibility with conventional lubricant additives. Design/methodology/approach In this study, extreme pressure and tribological characteristics of TMP, formulated with glycerol mono-oleate (GMO), molybdenum dithiocarbamate (MoDTC) and zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP), has been investigated using four-ball wear tester and valve train test rig. For comparison, additive-free and formulated versions of polyalphaolefin (PAO) were used as reference. Moreover, various surface characterization techniques were deployed to investigate mechanisms responsible for a particular tribological behavior. Findings In additive-free form, TMP demonstrated better extreme pressure characteristics compared to PAO and lubricant additives which are actually optimized for conventional base-oils such as PAO, are also proved to be compatible with TMP to some extent, especially ZDDP. During cylinder head tests, additive-free TMP proved to be more effective compared to PAO in reducing friction of cam/tappet interface, but opposite behavior was seen when formulated lubricants were used. Therefore, there is a need to synthesize specialized friction modifiers, anti-wear and extreme pressure additives for TMP before using it as engine lubricant base-oil. Originality/value In this study, additive-free and formulated versions of bio-lubricant are tested for cam/tappet interface of direct acting valve train system of commercial passenger car diesel engine for the very test time. Another important aspect of this research was comparison of important tribological performance parameters (friction torque, wear, rotational speed of tappet) of TMP-based lubricants with conventional lubricant base oil, that is, PAO and its formulated version.

9 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the use of vegetable oil-based nano lubricants prepared by dispersing molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoparticles with the raw castor and olive oils, without adding surfactants or property modifiers.

9 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a comparative study of wear, friction, viscosity, lubricant degradation and exhaust emissions was carried out on a palm oil and a mineral oil-based commercial lubricating oil.

154 citations


"Experimental Investigation on Usage..." refers background in this paper

  • ...[2] carried out a comparative study of wear, friction, viscosity, lubricant degradation, and exhaust emissions with palm oil and commercial lubricating oil....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the substitution of mineral oil with vegetable oil as a lubricant in a CI engine is explored, and experiments have been conducted with neat pongamia oil, blend of pongamias oil and mineral oil (50% V/V), and neat mineral oil as lubricants.
Abstract: The substitution of mineral oil with vegetable oil as a lubricant in a CI engine is explored in this study. The experiments have been conducted with neat pongamia oil, blend of pongamia oil and mineral oil (50% V/V), and neat mineral oil as lubricants; and neat pongamia oil, blends of pongamia oil, and diesel in proportions of 20, 40, and 100, neat pongamia ester, and blends of pongamia ester and diesel in proportions of 20, 40, and 100 as fuel. For various combinations of fuel and lubricant, NOx, smoke, CO, HC, BSEC, EGT, and friction power were compared. It was found that there was no difficulty in operating the engine using the lubricants considered in this work. Further, it was found that the best results were recorded for the fuel-lubricant combination of neat pongamia as both fuel and lubricant.

65 citations


"Experimental Investigation on Usage..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Bekal and Bhat [5] investigated the substitution of mineral oil with vegetable oil as a lubricant in a CI engine....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2010-Energy
TL;DR: In this article, the use of palm oil as a base stock for an environmentally friendly lubricant for small four-stroke motorcycle engines is investigated, and a liquid additive package was added to improve the viscosity of the lubricant.

52 citations


"Experimental Investigation on Usage..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Cheenkachorn and Fungtammasan [1] investigated the use of palm oil as base oil for an environmentally friendly lubricant for small four-stroke motorcycle engines....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of additives in mineral oils was carried out using a specially designed experimental system to compare lubricating oil candidates and high temperatures using engine journal bearings under statically loaded.
Abstract: Today's worries and doubts related to the use of mineral oils increased because of the worldwide interest in environmental issues. This issue has increased the use of vegetable oils as an alternative lubricating oil candidate, environment‐friendly lubricant and their additives. In this study, rapeseed oil (RSO) in different concentrations, 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 (by volume percent), was added to base oil to obtain a lubricating oil candidate. Turkish originated RSO was studied as an additive candidate in this paper. The study of the effect of additives in mineral oils was carried out using a specially designed experimental system to compare lubricating oil candidates and high temperatures using engine journal bearings under statically loaded.

34 citations


"Experimental Investigation on Usage..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Durak [6] carried out experiment onusing vegetable oil as alternative lubricating oil candidate, using Turkish originated rapeseed oil in different concentrations by volume percent with base oil....

    [...]

01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: In this paper, the possibility of producing lubricating oil from vegetable oil with palm olein as a case study was discussed, and the results showed that the crude olein and the bleached sample exhibit a good base as a good lubricant.
Abstract: The research work is on the possibility of producing lubricating oil from vegetable oil with palm olein as a case study. The sample analysed was obtained from Vandeikya Local Government Area of Benue State. Some of the physical and chemical properties such as viscosity, flash/fire point, pour point and specific gravity were analysed. This sample was bleached to remove the red colour (carotene) and gummy materials. The bleached sample was tested to determine the above mentioned properties. Comparison of the crude palm olein and the bleached sample with the conventional lubricants obtained from Elf Plc, Kaduna and Unipetrol Plc, Kaduna was made. Finally, it was discovered that the crude palm olein and the bleached sample exhibit a good base as a

17 citations