02 Mar 2021-Physical Review Letters (American Physical Society (APS))-Vol. 126, Iss: 9, pp 095501-095501

Abstract: We experimentally demonstrate temporal pumping of elastic waves in an electromechanical waveguide. Temporal pumping exploits a virtual dimension mapped to time, enabling the generation and control of edge states, typical of two-dimensional systems, in a one-dimensional waveguide. We show experimentally that the temporal modulation of the stiffness drives the transfer of edge states from one boundary of the waveguide to the other. The considered implementation, that consists of an elastic waveguide coupled with tunable electrical impedances, allows the pumping to occur in a controllable manner. The framework presented herein opens new avenues for the manipulation and transport of information through elastic waves, with potential technological applications for digital delay lines and digitally controlled waveguides. This Letter also explores higher-dimensional topological physics using virtual dimensions mapped to time in electromechanical systems.

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Topics: Waveguide (56%)

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26 results found

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01 Sep 2015-

Abstract: We report a new type of phononic crystals with topologically nontrivial band gaps for both longitudinal and transverse polarizations, resulting in protected one-way elastic edge waves. In our design, gyroscopic inertial effects are used to break the time-reversal symmetry and realize the phononic analogue of the electronic quantum (anomalous) Hall effect. We investigate the response of both hexagonal and square gyroscopic lattices and observe bulk Chern numbers of 1 and 2, indicating that these structures support single and multimode edge elastic waves immune to backscattering. These robust one-way phononic waveguides could potentially lead to the design of a novel class of surface wave devices that are widely used in electronics, telecommunication, and acoustic imaging.

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Topics: Surface wave (51%)

363 Citations

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Abstract: We show that the fundamental time-reversal invariant (TRI) insulator exists in $4+1$ dimensions, where the effective-field theory is described by the $(4+1)$-dimensional Chern-Simons theory and the topological properties of the electronic structure are classified by the second Chern number. These topological properties are the natural generalizations of the time reversal-breaking quantum Hall insulator in $2+1$ dimensions. The TRI quantum spin Hall insulator in $2+1$ dimensions and the topological insulator in $3+1$ dimensions can be obtained as descendants from the fundamental TRI insulator in $4+1$ dimensions through a dimensional reduction procedure. The effective topological field theory and the ${Z}_{2}$ topological classification for the TRI insulators in $2+1$ and $3+1$ dimensions are naturally obtained from this procedure. All physically measurable topological response functions of the TRI insulators are completely described by the effective topological field theory. Our effective topological field theory predicts a number of measurable phenomena, the most striking of which is the topological magnetoelectric effect, where an electric field generates a topological contribution to the magnetization in the same direction, with a universal constant of proportionality quantized in odd multiples of the fine-structure constant $\ensuremath{\alpha}={e}^{2}∕\ensuremath{\hbar}c$. Finally, we present a general classification of all topological insulators in various dimensions and describe them in terms of a unified topological Chern-Simons field theory in phase space.

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Topics: Topological order (70%), Topological quantum number (70%), Symmetry protected topological order (68%) ... read more

116 Citations

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Abstract: We propose a framework to realize helical edge states in phononic systems using two identical lattices with interlayer couplings between them. A methodology is presented to systematically transform a quantum mechanical lattice which exhibits edge states to a phononic lattice, thereby developing a family of lattices with edge states. Parameter spaces with topological phase boundaries in the vicinity of the transformed system are illustrated to demonstrate the robustness to mechanical imperfections. A potential realization in terms of fundamental mechanical building blocks is presented for the hexagonal and Lieb lattices. The lattices are composed of passive components and the building blocks are a set of disks and linear springs. Furthermore, by varying the spring stiffness, topological phase transitions are observed, illustrating the potential for tunability of our lattices.

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73 Citations

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Abstract: The unrelated discoveries of quasicrystals and topological insulators have in turn challenged prevailing paradigms in condensed-matter physics. We find a surprising connection between quasicrystals and topological phases of matter: (i) quasicrystals exhibit nontrivial topological properties and (ii) these properties are attributed to dimensions higher than that of the quasicrystal. Specifically, we show, both theoretically and experimentally, that one-dimensional quasicrystals are assigned two-dimensional Chern numbers and, respectively, exhibit topologically protected boundary states equivalent to the edge states of a two-dimensional quantum Hall system. We harness the topological nature of these states to adiabatically pump light across the quasicrystal. We generalize our results to higher-dimensional systems and other topological indices. Hence, quasicrystals offer a new platform for the study of topological phases while their topology may better explain their surface properties.

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Topics: Topological insulator (60%), Quantum Hall effect (50%)

41 Citations

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Abstract: A topological insulator is characterized by a dichotomy between the interior and the edge of a finite system: While the bulk has a non-zero energy gap, the edges are forced to sustain excitations traversing these gaps. Originally proposed for electrons governed by quantum mechanics, it has remained an important open question if the same physics can be observed for systems obeying Newton's equations of motion. Here, we report on measurements that characterize the collective behavior of mechanical oscillators exhibiting the phenomenology of the quantum spin hall effect. The phononic edge modes are shown to be helical and we demonstrate their topological protection via the stability against imperfections. Our results open the door to the design of topological acoustic meta-materials that can capitalize on the stability of the surfaces phonons as reliable wave guides.

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Topics: Topological insulator (65%), Quantum spin Hall effect (58%), Phonon (51%) ... read more

24 Citations

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66 results found

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Abstract: Topological insulators are electronic materials that have a bulk band gap like an ordinary insulator but have protected conducting states on their edge or surface. These states are possible due to the combination of spin-orbit interactions and time-reversal symmetry. The two-dimensional (2D) topological insulator is a quantum spin Hall insulator, which is a close cousin of the integer quantum Hall state. A three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator supports novel spin-polarized 2D Dirac fermions on its surface. In this Colloquium the theoretical foundation for topological insulators and superconductors is reviewed and recent experiments are described in which the signatures of topological insulators have been observed. Transport experiments on $\mathrm{Hg}\mathrm{Te}∕\mathrm{Cd}\mathrm{Te}$ quantum wells are described that demonstrate the existence of the edge states predicted for the quantum spin Hall insulator. Experiments on ${\mathrm{Bi}}_{1\ensuremath{-}x}{\mathrm{Sb}}_{x}$, ${\mathrm{Bi}}_{2}{\mathrm{Se}}_{3}$, ${\mathrm{Bi}}_{2}{\mathrm{Te}}_{3}$, and ${\mathrm{Sb}}_{2}{\mathrm{Te}}_{3}$ are then discussed that establish these materials as 3D topological insulators and directly probe the topology of their surface states. Exotic states are described that can occur at the surface of a 3D topological insulator due to an induced energy gap. A magnetic gap leads to a novel quantum Hall state that gives rise to a topological magnetoelectric effect. A superconducting energy gap leads to a state that supports Majorana fermions and may provide a new venue for realizing proposals for topological quantum computation. Prospects for observing these exotic states are also discussed, as well as other potential device applications of topological insulators.

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Topics: Topological insulator (60%), Topological order (58%), Symmetry protected topological order (55%) ... read more

12,967 Citations

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Abstract: Measurements of the Hall voltage of a two-dimensional electron gas, realized with a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor, show that the Hall resistance at particular, experimentally well-defined surface carrier concentrations has fixed values which depend only on the fine-structure constant and speed of light, and is insensitive to the geometry of the device. Preliminary data are reported.

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Topics: Quantum Hall effect (66%), Quantum spin Hall effect (62%), Quantum anomalous Hall effect (61%) ... read more

4,931 Citations

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Abstract: The Hall conductance of a two-dimensional electron gas has been studied in a uniform magnetic field and a periodic substrate potential $U$. The Kubo formula is written in a form that makes apparent the quantization when the Fermi energy lies in a gap. Explicit expressions have been obtained for the Hall conductance for both large and small $\frac{U}{\ensuremath{\hbar}{\ensuremath{\omega}}_{c}}$.

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Topics: Quantum anomalous Hall effect (53%), Kubo formula (52%), Fermi gas (51%)

3,954 Citations

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Abstract: We show that the fundamental time-reversal invariant (TRI) insulator exists in $4+1$ dimensions, where the effective-field theory is described by the $(4+1)$-dimensional Chern-Simons theory and the topological properties of the electronic structure are classified by the second Chern number. These topological properties are the natural generalizations of the time reversal-breaking quantum Hall insulator in $2+1$ dimensions. The TRI quantum spin Hall insulator in $2+1$ dimensions and the topological insulator in $3+1$ dimensions can be obtained as descendants from the fundamental TRI insulator in $4+1$ dimensions through a dimensional reduction procedure. The effective topological field theory and the ${Z}_{2}$ topological classification for the TRI insulators in $2+1$ and $3+1$ dimensions are naturally obtained from this procedure. All physically measurable topological response functions of the TRI insulators are completely described by the effective topological field theory. Our effective topological field theory predicts a number of measurable phenomena, the most striking of which is the topological magnetoelectric effect, where an electric field generates a topological contribution to the magnetization in the same direction, with a universal constant of proportionality quantized in odd multiples of the fine-structure constant $\ensuremath{\alpha}={e}^{2}∕\ensuremath{\hbar}c$. Finally, we present a general classification of all topological insulators in various dimensions and describe them in terms of a unified topological Chern-Simons field theory in phase space.

... read more

Topics: Topological order (70%), Topological quantum number (70%), Symmetry protected topological order (68%) ... read more

2,280 Citations

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Abstract: Topological photonics is a rapidly emerging field of research in which geometrical and topological ideas are exploited to design and control the behavior of light. Drawing inspiration from the discovery of the quantum Hall effects and topological insulators in condensed matter, recent advances have shown how to engineer analogous effects also for photons, leading to remarkable phenomena such as the robust unidirectional propagation of light, which hold great promise for applications. Thanks to the flexibility and diversity of photonics systems, this field is also opening up new opportunities to realize exotic topological models and to probe and exploit topological effects in new ways. This article reviews experimental and theoretical developments in topological photonics across a wide range of experimental platforms, including photonic crystals, waveguides, metamaterials, cavities, optomechanics, silicon photonics, and circuit QED. A discussion of how changing the dimensionality and symmetries of photonics systems has allowed for the realization of different topological phases is offered, and progress in understanding the interplay of topology with non-Hermitian effects, such as dissipation, is reviewed. As an exciting perspective, topological photonics can be combined with optical nonlinearities, leading toward new collective phenomena and novel strongly correlated states of light, such as an analog of the fractional quantum Hall effect.

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Topics: Topological insulator (57%), Photonics (54%), Fractional quantum Hall effect (50%)

2,132 Citations