# Experimental Study of the Effects of Side-Edge Burning in the Downward Flame Spread of Thin Solid Fuels

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...This is consistent with the conclusion of Comas and Pujol [21]....

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...Note that Figure 6 is a log-log plot where data do not exactly follow a 1 slope, as suggested from the analytical expression of de Ris (1969)....

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...Later, Markstein and de Ris (1975) studied flame spreading from a point source of ignition on the edge of textile and plastic samples. They found that under all conditions examined, all with environmental air atmosphere, the downward velocity along the edge Vd was faster than the velocity normal to the flame front VN and assumed that both velocities could be related as VN1⁄4Vd sinh, where h is the angle between the vertical side edge and the inclined flame front. Creeden and Sibulkin (1976) studied the downward flame propagation on PMMA sheets with an uninhibited side edge, and they found that after a transient phase, h remained constant (h 30 in air). They compared the downward flame spread rate Vd with flame front velocities V of PMMA sheets with two edges inhibited found in the literature and obtained that, in all conditions studied, VN1⁄4Vd sinh coincided with V within a 20% interval. After that, Vedha-Nayagam et al. (1986) found a relationship between the angle h and the downward spread rate Vd based on the exothermic surface reaction model of Sirignano (1974). However, their measurements for various atmospheric concentrations and total pressure were only carried out for free-side paper samples, and only the angle h was reported. Mell and Kashiwagi (2000) and Mell et al. (2000) worked experimentally and with three dimensional (3-D) numerical simulations to find out what happened when a horizontal sample with two free edges was ignited in the middle with forced flow, mainly in microgravity conditions but also in normal gravity....

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...Thus, we can calculate the influence of the flame temperature on the front spread rate by using de Ris’s (1969) formula, V kg=(qscsss)(Tf Tv)=(Tv Ta), where Tf is the flame temperature, Tv is the temperature of vaporization, and Ta is the ambient temperature....

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...There have been many theoretical and experimental studies that have investigated downward flame spread, where the flame spreads vertically down against gravity (e.g., Altenkirch et al., 1980; de Ris, 1969; Delichatsios, 1986; Fernandez-Pello and Williams, 1977; Greenberg and Ronney, 1993)....

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...Later, Markstein and de Ris (1975) studied flame spreading from a point source of ignition on the edge of textile and plastic samples. They found that under all conditions examined, all with environmental air atmosphere, the downward velocity along the edge Vd was faster than the velocity normal to the flame front VN and assumed that both velocities could be related as VN1⁄4Vd sinh, where h is the angle between the vertical side edge and the inclined flame front. Creeden and Sibulkin (1976) studied the downward flame propagation on PMMA sheets with an uninhibited side edge, and they found that after a transient phase, h remained constant (h 30 in air). They compared the downward flame spread rate Vd with flame front velocities V of PMMA sheets with two edges inhibited found in the literature and obtained that, in all conditions studied, VN1⁄4Vd sinh coincided with V within a 20% interval. After that, Vedha-Nayagam et al. (1986) found a relationship between the angle h and the downward spread rate Vd based on the exothermic surface reaction model of Sirignano (1974). However, their measurements for various atmospheric concentrations and total pressure were only carried out for free-side paper samples, and only the angle h was reported....

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### "Experimental Study of the Effects o..." refers background in this paper

...In most of these experimental studies, samples were rectangular, held by the two long vertical sides and burned from the top horizontal side to the bottom one (e.g., Fernández-Pello et al., 1981; Frey and T’Ien, 1976; Lastrina et al., 1971; Zhang et al., 1992)....

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131 citations

### "Experimental Study of the Effects o..." refers background in this paper

...There have been many theoretical and experimental studies that have investigated downward flame spread, where the flame spreads vertically down against gravity (e.g., Altenkirch et al., 1980; de Ris, 1969; Delichatsios, 1986; Fernandez-Pello and Williams, 1977; Greenberg and Ronney, 1993)....

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104 citations

### "Experimental Study of the Effects o..." refers background in this paper

...There have been many theoretical and experimental studies that have investigated downward flame spread, where the flame spreads vertically down against gravity (e.g., Altenkirch et al., 1980; de Ris, 1969; Delichatsios, 1986; Fernandez-Pello and Williams, 1977; Greenberg and Ronney, 1993)....

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