Open accessJournal Article

# Exploring organic semiconductors in solution: the effects of solvation, alkylization, and doping.

04 Mar 2021-Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics (The Royal Society of Chemistry)-Vol. 23, Iss: 8, pp 4841-4855
Abstract: The first-principles simulation of the electronic structure of organic semiconductors in solution poses a number of challenges that are not trivial to address simultaneously. In this work, we investigate the effects and the mutual interplay of solvation, alkylization, and doping on the structural, electronic, and optical properties of sexithiophene, a representative organic semiconductor molecule. To this end, we employ (time-dependent) density functional theory in conjunction with the polarizable-continuum model. We find that the torsion between adjacent monomer units plays a key role, as it strongly influences the electronic structure of the molecule, including energy gap, ionization potential, and band widths. Alkylization promotes delocalization of the molecular orbitals up to the first methyl unit, regardless of the chain length, leading to an overall shift of the energy levels. The alterations in the electronic structure are reflected in the optical absorption, which is additionally affected by dynamical solute–solvent interactions. Taking all these effects into account, solvents decrease the optical gap by an amount that depends on its polarity, and concomitantly increase the oscillator strength of the first excitation. The interaction with a dopant molecule promotes planarization. In such scenario, solvation and alkylization enhance charge transfer both in the ground state and in the excited state.

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Journal Article
Abstract: A new and efficient green grinding-based catalyst free Knoevenagel condensation of aldehydes/ketones and malononitrile for the rapid preparation of twelve malononitrile derivatives (C1-C12) is proposed. Characterization of the derivatives was done by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, elemental and mass spectral analyses. Quantum chemical calculations were performed by DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method. The experimental and theoretical spectra were found to be in good agreement with each other. Natural bond order (NBO) calculations were also performed to calculate the natural atomic charges at atomic sites. The present study also involved study of the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) interactions and the non-linear optical (NLO) properties. Critical drug character assessment parameters like metabolic transformation, druglikeness, ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) and toxicological analyses of the synthesized malononitrile derivatives were also performed. Molecular docking studies were performed against two target proteins viz. tyrosine-protein kinase (HCK) and ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase (RR). The synthesized malononitrile derivatives were also evaluated for their anticancer activity against the triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line (MDA-MB-231) while their antibacterial potential was tested against S. aureus and E. coli.

Topics: Malononitrile (62%), , Druglikeness (51%)

2 Citations

Open accessJournal Article
26 May 2021-Chemical Science
Abstract: We report on computational studies of the potential of three borane Lewis acids (LAs) (B(C6F5)3 (BCF), BF3, and BBr3) to form stable adducts and/or to generate positive polarons with three different semiconducting π-conjugated polymers (PFPT, PCPDTPT and PCPDTBT). Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations based on range-separated hybrid (RSH) functionals provide insight into changes in the electronic structure and optical properties upon adduct formation between LAs and the two polymers containing pyridine moieties, PFPT and PCPDTPT, unravelling the complex interplay between partial hybridization, charge transfer and changes in the polymer backbone conformation. We then assess the potential of BCF to induce p-doping in PCPDTBT, which does not contain pyridine groups, by computing the energetics of various reaction mechanisms proposed in the literature. We find that reaction of BCF(OH2) to form protonated PCPDTBT and [BCF(OH)]−, followed by electron transfer from a pristine to a protonated PCPDTBT chain is highly endergonic, and thus unlikely at low doping concentration. The theoretical and experimental data can, however, be reconciled if one considers the formation of [BCF(OH)BCF]− or [BCF(OH)(OH2)BCF]− counterions rather than [BCF(OH)]− and invokes subsequent reactions resulting in the elimination of H2.

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2 Citations

Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: Understanding the formation of lead halide (LH) perovskite solution precursors is crucial to gain insight into the evolution of these materials to thin films for solar cells. Using density-functional theory in conjunction with the polarizable continuum model, we investigate 18 complexes with chemical formula PbX$_2$M$_4$, where X = Cl, Br, I and M are common solvent molecules. Through the analysis of structural properties, binding energies, and charge distributions, we clarify the role of halogen species and solvent molecules in the formation of LH perovskite precursors. We find that interatomic distances are critically affected by the halogen species, while the energetic stability is driven by the solvent coordination to the backbones. Regardless of the solvent, lead iodide complexes are more strongly bound than the others. Based on the charge distribution analysis, we find that all solvent molecules bind covalently with the LH backbones and that Pb-I and Pb-Br bonds lose ionicity in solution. Our results contribute to clarify the physical properties of LH perovskite solution precursors and offer a valuable starting point for further investigations on their crystalline intermediates.

Topics: , , Molecule (51%)

2 Citations

Journal Article
Abstract: Electronic and optical properties of doped organic semiconductors are dominated by local interactions between donor and acceptor molecules. However, when such systems are in crystalline form, long-range order competes against short-range couplings. In a first-principles study on three experimentally resolved bulk structures of quaterthiophene doped by (fluorinated) tetracyanoquinodimethane, we demonstrate the crucial role of long-range interactions in donor/acceptor co-crystals. The band structures of the investigated materials exhibit direct band-gaps decreasing in size with increasing amount of F atoms in the acceptors. The valence-band maximum and conductionband minimum are found at the Brillouin zone boundary and the corresponding wavefunctions are segregated on donor and acceptor molecules, respectively. With the aid of a tight-binding model, we rationalize that the mechanisms responsible for these behaviors, which are ubiquitous in donor/acceptor co-crystals, are driven by long-range interactions. The optical response of the analyzed co-crystals is highly anisotropic. The absorption onset is dominated by an intense resonance corresponding to a chargetransfer excitation. Long-range interactions are again responsible for this behavior, which enhances the efficiency of the co-crystals for photo-induced charge separation and transport. In addition to these results, our study clarifies that cluster models, accounting only for local interactions, cannot capture the relevant impact of long-range order in donor/acceptor co-crystals.

1 Citations

Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: Electronic and optical properties of doped organic semiconductors are dominated by local interactions between donor and acceptor molecules. However, when such systems are in crystalline form, long-range order competes against short-range couplings. In a first-principles study on three experimentally resolved bulk structures of quaterthiophene doped by (fluorinated) tetracyanoquinodimethane, we demonstrate the crucial role of long-range interactions in donor/acceptor co-crystals. The band structures of the investigated materials exhibit direct band-gaps decreasing in size with increasing amount of F atoms in the acceptors. The valence-band maximum and conduction-band minimum are found at the Brillouin zone boundary and the corresponding wave-functions are segregated on donor and acceptor molecules, respectively. With the aid of a tight-binding model, we rationalize that the mechanisms responsible for these behaviors, which are ubiquitous in donor/acceptor co-crystals, are driven by long-range interactions. The optical response of the analyzed co-crystals is highly anisotropic. The absorption onset is dominated by an intense resonance corresponding to a charge-transfer excitation. Long-range interactions are again responsible for this behavior, which enhances the efficiency of the co-crystals for photo-induced charge separation and transport. In addition to this result, which has important implications in the rational design of organic materials for opto-electronics, our study clarifies that cluster models, accounting only for local interactions, cannot capture the relevant impact of long-range order in donor/acceptor co-crystals.

Topics: Acceptor (61%), ,

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121 results found

Journal Article
Abstract: Generalized gradient approximations (GGA’s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. [S0031-9007(96)01479-2] PACS numbers: 71.15.Mb, 71.45.Gm Kohn-Sham density functional theory [1,2] is widely used for self-consistent-field electronic structure calculations of the ground-state properties of atoms, molecules, and solids. In this theory, only the exchange-correlation energy EXC › EX 1 EC as a functional of the electron spin densities n"srd and n#srd must be approximated. The most popular functionals have a form appropriate for slowly varying densities: the local spin density (LSD) approximation Z d 3 rn e unif

117,932 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/1.464913
Abstract: Despite the remarkable thermochemical accuracy of Kohn–Sham density‐functional theories with gradient corrections for exchange‐correlation [see, for example, A. D. Becke, J. Chem. Phys. 96, 2155 (1992)], we believe that further improvements are unlikely unless exact‐exchange information is considered. Arguments to support this view are presented, and a semiempirical exchange‐correlation functional containing local‐spin‐density, gradient, and exact‐exchange terms is tested on 56 atomization energies, 42 ionization potentials, 8 proton affinities, and 10 total atomic energies of first‐ and second‐row systems. This functional performs significantly better than previous functionals with gradient corrections only, and fits experimental atomization energies with an impressively small average absolute deviation of 2.4 kcal/mol.

80,847 Citations

Open accessJournal Article
Walter Kohn1, L. J. Sham1Institutions (1)
15 Nov 1965-Physical Review
Abstract: From a theory of Hohenberg and Kohn, approximation methods for treating an inhomogeneous system of interacting electrons are developed. These methods are exact for systems of slowly varying or high density. For the ground state, they lead to self-consistent equations analogous to the Hartree and Hartree-Fock equations, respectively. In these equations the exchange and correlation portions of the chemical potential of a uniform electron gas appear as additional effective potentials. (The exchange portion of our effective potential differs from that due to Slater by a factor of $\frac{2}{3}$.) Electronic systems at finite temperatures and in magnetic fields are also treated by similar methods. An appendix deals with a further correction for systems with short-wavelength density oscillations.

Topics: Jellium (56%), Hartree–Fock method (55%), Thomas–Fermi model (55%) ... show more

42,177 Citations

Open accessJournal Article
P. C. Hohenberg1, Walter Kohn2Institutions (2)
09 Nov 1964-Physical Review
Abstract: This paper deals with the ground state of an interacting electron gas in an external potential $v(\mathrm{r})$. It is proved that there exists a universal functional of the density, $F[n(\mathrm{r})]$, independent of $v(\mathrm{r})$, such that the expression $E\ensuremath{\equiv}\ensuremath{\int}v(\mathrm{r})n(\mathrm{r})d\mathrm{r}+F[n(\mathrm{r})]$ has as its minimum value the correct ground-state energy associated with $v(\mathrm{r})$. The functional $F[n(\mathrm{r})]$ is then discussed for two situations: (1) $n(\mathrm{r})={n}_{0}+\stackrel{\ifmmode \tilde{}\else \~{}\fi{}}{n}(\mathrm{r})$, $\frac{\stackrel{\ifmmode \tilde{}\else \~{}\fi{}}{n}}{{n}_{0}}\ensuremath{\ll}1$, and (2) $n(\mathrm{r})=\ensuremath{\phi}(\frac{\mathrm{r}}{{r}_{0}})$ with $\ensuremath{\phi}$ arbitrary and ${r}_{0}\ensuremath{\rightarrow}\ensuremath{\infty}$. In both cases $F$ can be expressed entirely in terms of the correlation energy and linear and higher order electronic polarizabilities of a uniform electron gas. This approach also sheds some light on generalized Thomas-Fermi methods and their limitations. Some new extensions of these methods are presented.

33,880 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/1.456153
Abstract: In the past, basis sets for use in correlated molecular calculations have largely been taken from single configuration calculations. Recently, Almlof, Taylor, and co‐workers have found that basis sets of natural orbitals derived from correlated atomic calculations (ANOs) provide an excellent description of molecular correlation effects. We report here a careful study of correlation effects in the oxygen atom, establishing that compact sets of primitive Gaussian functions effectively and efficiently describe correlation effects i f the exponents of the functions are optimized in atomic correlated calculations, although the primitive (s p) functions for describing correlation effects can be taken from atomic Hartree–Fock calculations i f the appropriate primitive set is used. Test calculations on oxygen‐containing molecules indicate that these primitive basis sets describe molecular correlation effects as well as the ANO sets of Almlof and Taylor. Guided by the calculations on oxygen, basis sets for use in correlated atomic and molecular calculations were developed for all of the first row atoms from boron through neon and for hydrogen. As in the oxygen atom calculations, it was found that the incremental energy lowerings due to the addition of correlating functions fall into distinct groups. This leads to the concept of c o r r e l a t i o n c o n s i s t e n t b a s i s s e t s, i.e., sets which include all functions in a given group as well as all functions in any higher groups. Correlation consistent sets are given for all of the atoms considered. The most accurate sets determined in this way, [5s4p3d2f1g], consistently yield 99% of the correlation energy obtained with the corresponding ANO sets, even though the latter contains 50% more primitive functions and twice as many primitive polarization functions. It is estimated that this set yields 94%–97% of the total (HF+1+2) correlation energy for the atoms neon through boron.