04 Mar 2021-Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (Oxford Academic)-Vol. 502, Iss: 4, pp 5134-5146

Abstract: We describe three different methods for exploring the hydrogen reionization epoch using fast radio bursts (FRBs) and provide arguments for the existence of FRBs at high redshift (z). The simplest way, observationally, is to determine the maximum dispersion measure (DM$_{\rm max}$) of FRBs for an ensemble that includes bursts during the reionization. The DM$_{\rm max}$ provides information regarding reionization much like the optical depth of the CMB to Thomson scattering does, and it has the potential to be more accurate than constraints from Planck, if DM$_{\rm max}$ can be measured to a precision better than 500 $\mbox{pc cm}^{-3}$. Another method is to measure redshifts of about 40 FRBs between z of 6-10 with$\sim10\%$ accuracy to obtain the average electron density in 4 different z-bins with $\sim4\%$ accuracy. These two methods don't require knowledge of the FRB luminosity function and its possible redshift evolution. Finally, we show that the reionization history is reflected in the number of FRBs per unit DM, given a fluence limited survey of FRBs that includes bursts during the reionization epoch; we show using FIRE simulations that the contributions to DM from the FRB host galaxy $\&$ CGM during the reionization era is a small fraction of the observed DM. This third method requires no redshift information but does require knowledge of the FRB luminosity function.

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Topics: Reionization (60%), Optical depth (astrophysics) (52%), Redshift (50%)

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7 results found

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Abstract: Resumen en: A model for calculating the cosmic star formation rate density history in a hierarchical A Cold Dark Matter (ACDM) universe is presented and compared wit...

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Topics: Hot dark matter (73%), Scalar field dark matter (72%), Cold dark matter (72%) ... show more

76 Citations

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Mukul Bhattacharya^{1}, Mukul Bhattacharya^{2}, Pawan Kumar^{3}, Eric V. Linder^{4} +1 more•Institutions (5)

Abstract: Fast radio burst (FRB) discoveries are occurring rapidly, with thousands expected from upcoming surveys. The dispersion measures (DM) observed for FRB include important information on cosmological distances and the ionization state of the universe from the redshift of emission until today. Rather than considering the DM--redshift relation, we investigate the statistical ensemble of the distribution of dispersion measures. We explore the use of this abundance information, with and without redshift information, to probe helium reionization through simulated data to redshift $z=6$. Carrying out Monte Carlo simulations of FRB survey samples, we examine the effect of different source redshift distributions, host galaxy models, sudden vs gradual reionization, and covariance with cosmological parameters on determination of helium reionization properties. We find that a fluence limited survey with ${10}^{4}$ FRBs can discriminate different helium reionization histories at $\ensuremath{\sim}6\ensuremath{\sigma}$ using the DM-distribution of bursts, without redshift information (and $\ensuremath{\sim}10\ensuremath{\sigma}$ with redshifts).

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Topics: Reionization (64%), Redshift (56%), Fast radio burst (52%)

8 Citations

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Abstract: Since the discovery of the first fast radio burst (FRB) in 2007, and their confirmation as an abundant extragalactic population in 2013, the study of these sources has expanded at an incredible rate. In our 2019 review on the subject we presented a growing, but still mysterious, population of FRBs -- 60 unique sources, 2 repeating FRBs, and only 1 identified host galaxy. However, in only a few short years new observations and discoveries have given us a wealth of information about these sources. The total FRB population now stands at over 600 published sources, 24 repeaters, and 14 host galaxies. Higher time resolution data, sustained monitoring, and better localisation tools have given us insight into repeaters, host galaxies, burst morphology, source activity, progenitor models, and the use of FRBs as cosmological probes. The recent detection of a bright FRB-like burst from Galactic magnetar SGR 1935+2154 provides an important link between FRBs and magnetars. There also continue to be surprising discoveries, like periodic activity from repeaters and the localisation of one FRB source to a relatively nearby globular cluster associated with the M81 galaxy. In this review, we summarise the exciting observational results from the past few years and their impact on our understanding of the FRB population and proposed progenitor models. We build on the introduction to FRBs in our earlier review, update our readers on recent results, and discuss interesting avenues for exploration as the field enters a new regime where hundreds to thousands of new FRBs will be discovered and reported each year.

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Topics: Population (54%)

6 Citations

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Abstract: The period in which hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) is ionized, known as the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) is still poorly understood. The timing and duration of the EoR is expected to be governed by the underlying astrophysics. Furthermore, most models of reionization predict a correlation between the density and ionization field. Here we consider using the mean dispersion measure (DM) of high redshift Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) as a probe of the underlying astrophysics and morphology of the EoR. To do this, we forecast observational scenarios by building mock data sets of non-repeating FRBs between redshifts $8\leq z \leq 10$. It is assumed that all FRBs have accompanying spectroscopic redshift measurements. We find that samples of 100 high redshift FRBs, in the above mentioned narrow redshift range, can rule out uncorrelated reionization at $68\%$ credibility, while larger samples, $\geq 10^4$ FRBs, can rule out uncorrelated reionization at $95\%$ credibility. We also find 100 high redshift FRBs can rule out scenarios where the Universe is entirely neutral at $z = 10$ with $68\%$ credibility. Further with $\geq 10^5$ FRBs, we can constrain the duration $\Delta z$ of reionization (duration between mean ionized fraction 0.25 to 0.75) to $\Delta z = 2.0^{+0.5}_{-0.4}$, and the midpoint of reionization to $z = 7.8^{+0.4}_{-0.2}$ at $95\%$ credibility.

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Topics: Reionization (61%), Redshift (52%)

2 Citations

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Abstract: Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are extra-galactic radio transients which, owing to the observed dispersion of the signal, can be used as cosmological probes. In this Letter we use high redshift FRBs to constrain the history of hydrogen reionization and measure the reionization optical depth τ. For the first time, we do so in a model-independent way by using a free-form parameterization of the reionization history. In a Bayesian analysis we find that 100 localized FRBs, produced during the first billion years of cosmic history (redshifts z>5), are required to surpass the measurement by the Planck satellite, constraining τ to an accuracy of 11% (at 68% confidence) and the midpoint of reionization to 6%, while 1000 FRBs would further tighten these constraints to 9% and 3% accuracy respectively.

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Topics: Reionization (64%)

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103 results found

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Peter A. R. Ade^{1}, Nabila Aghanim^{2}, Monique Arnaud^{3}, M. Ashdown^{4} +334 more•Institutions (82)

Abstract: This paper presents cosmological results based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Our results are in very good agreement with the 2013 analysis of the Planck nominal-mission temperature data, but with increased precision. The temperature and polarization power spectra are consistent with the standard spatially-flat 6-parameter ΛCDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations (denoted “base ΛCDM” in this paper). From the Planck temperature data combined with Planck lensing, for this cosmology we find a Hubble constant, H0 = (67.8 ± 0.9) km s-1Mpc-1, a matter density parameter Ωm = 0.308 ± 0.012, and a tilted scalar spectral index with ns = 0.968 ± 0.006, consistent with the 2013 analysis. Note that in this abstract we quote 68% confidence limits on measured parameters and 95% upper limits on other parameters. We present the first results of polarization measurements with the Low Frequency Instrument at large angular scales. Combined with the Planck temperature and lensing data, these measurements give a reionization optical depth of τ = 0.066 ± 0.016, corresponding to a reionization redshift of . These results are consistent with those from WMAP polarization measurements cleaned for dust emission using 353-GHz polarization maps from the High Frequency Instrument. We find no evidence for any departure from base ΛCDM in the neutrino sector of the theory; for example, combining Planck observations with other astrophysical data we find Neff = 3.15 ± 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, consistent with the value Neff = 3.046 of the Standard Model of particle physics. The sum of neutrino masses is constrained to ∑ mν < 0.23 eV. The spatial curvature of our Universe is found to be very close to zero, with | ΩK | < 0.005. Adding a tensor component as a single-parameter extension to base ΛCDM we find an upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r0.002< 0.11, consistent with the Planck 2013 results and consistent with the B-mode polarization constraints from a joint analysis of BICEP2, Keck Array, and Planck (BKP) data. Adding the BKP B-mode data to our analysis leads to a tighter constraint of r0.002 < 0.09 and disfavours inflationarymodels with a V(φ) ∝ φ2 potential. The addition of Planck polarization data leads to strong constraints on deviations from a purely adiabatic spectrum of fluctuations. We find no evidence for any contribution from isocurvature perturbations or from cosmic defects. Combining Planck data with other astrophysical data, including Type Ia supernovae, the equation of state of dark energy is constrained to w = −1.006 ± 0.045, consistent with the expected value for a cosmological constant. The standard big bang nucleosynthesis predictions for the helium and deuterium abundances for the best-fit Planck base ΛCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. We also constraints on annihilating dark matter and on possible deviations from the standard recombination history. In neither case do we find no evidence for new physics. The Planck results for base ΛCDM are in good agreement with baryon acoustic oscillation data and with the JLA sample of Type Ia supernovae. However, as in the 2013 analysis, the amplitude of the fluctuation spectrum is found to be higher than inferred from some analyses of rich cluster counts and weak gravitational lensing. We show that these tensions cannot easily be resolved with simple modifications of the base ΛCDM cosmology. Apart from these tensions, the base ΛCDM cosmology provides an excellent description of the Planck CMB observations and many other astrophysical data sets.

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Topics: Planck energy (70%), Planck particle (68%), Planck temperature (68%) ... show more

10,334 Citations

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Abstract: We present results based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the CMB. These data are consistent with the six-parameter inflationary LCDM cosmology. From the Planck temperature and lensing data, for this cosmology we find a Hubble constant, H0= (67.8 +/- 0.9) km/s/Mpc, a matter density parameter Omega_m = 0.308 +/- 0.012 and a scalar spectral index with n_s = 0.968 +/- 0.006. (We quote 68% errors on measured parameters and 95% limits on other parameters.) Combined with Planck temperature and lensing data, Planck LFI polarization measurements lead to a reionization optical depth of tau = 0.066 +/- 0.016. Combining Planck with other astrophysical data we find N_ eff = 3.15 +/- 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom and the sum of neutrino masses is constrained to < 0.23 eV. Spatial curvature is found to be |Omega_K| < 0.005. For LCDM we find a limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r <0.11 consistent with the B-mode constraints from an analysis of BICEP2, Keck Array, and Planck (BKP) data. Adding the BKP data leads to a tighter constraint of r < 0.09. We find no evidence for isocurvature perturbations or cosmic defects. The equation of state of dark energy is constrained to w = -1.006 +/- 0.045. Standard big bang nucleosynthesis predictions for the Planck LCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. We investigate annihilating dark matter and deviations from standard recombination, finding no evidence for new physics. The Planck results for base LCDM are in agreement with BAO data and with the JLA SNe sample. However the amplitude of the fluctuations is found to be higher than inferred from rich cluster counts and weak gravitational lensing. Apart from these tensions, the base LCDM cosmology provides an excellent description of the Planck CMB observations and many other astrophysical data sets.

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Topics: Planck temperature (67%), Planck (60%), Cosmic microwave background (60%) ... show more

9,349 Citations

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Abstract: We review recent determinations of the present-day mass function (PDMF) and initial mass function (IMF) in various components of the Galaxy—disk, spheroid, young, and globular clusters—and in conditions characteristic of early star formation. As a general feature, the IMF is found to depend weakly on the environment and to be well described by a power-law form forM , and a lognormal form below, except possibly for m!1 early star formation conditions. The disk IMF for single objects has a characteristic mass around M , m!0.08 c and a variance in logarithmic mass , whereas the IMF for multiple systems hasM , and . j!0.7 m!0.2 j!0.6 c The extension of the single MF into the brown dwarf regime is in good agreement with present estimates of L- and T-dwarf densities and yields a disk brown dwarf number density comparable to the stellar one, n!n! BD " pc !3 .T he IMF of young clusters is found to be consistent with the disk fi eld IMF, providing the same correction 0.1 for unresolved binaries, confirming the fact that young star clusters and disk field stars represent the same stellar population. Dynamical effects, yielding depletion of the lowest mass objects, are found to become consequential for ages!130 Myr. The spheroid IMF relies on much less robust grounds. The large metallicity spread in the local subdwarf photometric sample, in particular, remains puzzling. Recent observations suggest that there is a continuous kinematic shear between the thick-disk population, present in local samples, and the genuine spheroid one. This enables us to derive only an upper limit for the spheroid mass density and IMF. Within all the uncertainties, the latter is found to be similar to the one derived for globular clusters and is well represented also by a lognormal form with a characteristic mass slightly larger than for the disk, M , ,e xcluding as ignif icant population of m!0.2-0.3 c brown dwarfs in globular clusters and in the spheroid. The IMF characteristic of early star formation at large redshift remains undetermined, but different observational constraints suggest that it does not extend below!1M , .T hese results suggest a characteristic mass for star formation that decreases with time, from conditions prevailing at large redshift to conditions characteristic of the spheroid (or thick disk) to present-day conditions.Theseconclusions,however, remain speculative, given the large uncertainties in the spheroid and early star IMF determinations. These IMFs allow a reasonably robust determination of the Galactic present-day and initial stellar and brown dwarf contents. They also have important galactic implications beyond the Milky Way in yielding more accurate mass-to-light ratio determinations. The mass-to-light ratios obtained with the disk and the spheroid IMF yield values 1.8-1.4 times smaller than for a Salpeter IMF, respectively, in agreement with various recent dynamical determinations. This general IMF determination is examined in the context of star formation theory. None of the theories based on a Jeans-type mechanism, where fragmentation is due only to gravity, can fulfill all the observational constraints on star formation and predict a large number of substellar objects. On the other hand, recent numerical simulations of compressible turbulence, in particular in super-Alfvenic conditions, seem to reproduce both qualitatively and quantitatively the stellar and substellar IMF and thus provide an appealing theoretical foundation. In this picture, star formation is induced by the dissipation of large-scale turbulence to smaller scales through radiative MHD shocks, producing filamentary structures. These shocks produce local nonequilibrium structures with large density contrasts, which collapse eventually in gravitationally bound objects under the combined influence of turbulence and gravity. The concept of a single Jeans mass is replaced by a distribution of local Jeans masses, representative of the lognormal probability density function of the turbulent gas. Objects below the mean thermal Jeans mass still have a possibility to collapse, although with a decreasing probability.

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Topics: Initial mass function (69%), Stellar mass (59%), Star formation (59%) ... show more

7,466 Citations

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Abstract: A universal initial mass function (IMF) is not intuitive, but so far no convincing evidence for a variable IMF exists. The detection of systematic variations of the IMF with star-forming conditions would be the Rosetta Stone for star formation.
In this contribution an average or Galactic-field IMF is defined, stressing that there is evidence for a change in the power-law index at only two masses: near 0.5 M⊙ and near 0.08 M⊙. Using this supposed universal IMF, the uncertainty inherent in any observational estimate of the IMF is investigated by studying the scatter introduced by Poisson noise and the dynamical evolution of star clusters. It is found that this apparent scatter reproduces quite well the observed scatter in power-law index determinations, thus defining the fundamental limit within which any true variation becomes undetectable. The absence of evidence for a variable IMF means that any true variation of the IMF in well-studied populations must be smaller than this scatter.
Determinations of the power-law indices α are subject to systematic errors arising mostly from unresolved binaries. The systematic bias is quantified here, with the result that the single-star IMFs for young star clusters are systematically steeper by Δα≈0.5 between 0.1 and 1 M⊙ than the Galactic-field IMF, which is populated by, on average, about 5-Gyr-old stars. The MFs in globular clusters appear to be, on average, systematically flatter than the Galactic-field IMF (Piotto & Zoccali; Paresce & De Marchi), and the recent detection of ancient white-dwarf candidates in the Galactic halo and the absence of associated low-mass stars (Ibata et al.; Mendez & Minniti) suggest a radically different IMF for this ancient population. Star formation in higher metallicity environments thus appears to produce relatively more low-mass stars. While still tentative, this is an interesting trend, being consistent with a systematic variation of the IMF as expected from theoretical arguments.

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Topics: Initial mass function (67%), Star cluster (51%), Population (51%) ... show more

6,084 Citations

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Abstract: Over the past two decades, an avalanche of data from multiwavelength imaging and spectroscopic surveys has revolutionized our view of galaxy formation and evolution. Here we review the range of complementary techniques and theoretical tools that allow astronomers to map the cosmic history of star formation, heavy element production, and reionization of the Universe from the cosmic "dark ages" to the present epoch. A consistent picture is emerging, whereby the star-formation rate density peaked approximately 3.5 Gyr after the Big Bang, at z~1.9, and declined exponentially at later times, with an e-folding timescale of 3.9 Gyr. Half of the stellar mass observed today was formed before a redshift z = 1.3. About 25% formed before the peak of the cosmic star-formation rate density, and another 25% formed after z = 0.7. Less than ~1% of today's stars formed during the epoch of reionization. Under the assumption of a universal initial mass function, the global stellar mass density inferred at any epoch matches reasonably well the time integral of all the preceding star-formation activity. The comoving rates of star formation and central black hole accretion follow a similar rise and fall, offering evidence for co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. The rise of the mean metallicity of the Universe to about 0.001 solar by z = 6, one Gyr after the Big Bang, appears to have been accompanied by the production of fewer than ten hydrogen Lyman-continuum photons per baryon, a rather tight budget for cosmological reionization.

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Topics: Reionization (65%), Metallicity (58%), Star formation (58%) ... show more

2,526 Citations