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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12116-021-09318-9

Exploring the Parameters of China's Economic Influence.

05 Mar 2021-Studies in Comparative International Development (Springer Science and Business Media LLC)-Vol. 56, Iss: 1, pp 1-27
Abstract: To what extent do China's linkages to the global economy translate into political influence in other countries? This topic is the focus of copious amounts of policy and scholarly attention in the USA and around the world. Yet without thoughtful conceptualization of key assumptions and creation of research designs that allow identification of mechanisms of potential influence, we cannot gain an accurate understanding of Chinese influence. How can we assess Beijing's intentions? Through what mechanisms-both intended and unintended-might influence arise, and under what conditions is influence most likely to occur? To what degree are Chinese companies agents of the state and therefore tools of economic statecraft? What factors condition how host countries react to economic ties with China? In this article, we explore existing scholarship on these questions, and assess promising directions for future research.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/JOGSS/OGAB018
Cagla Demirduzen1, Cameron G. Thies2Institutions (2)
Abstract: This paper develops a framework for examining the grand strategies of great powers through the use of the role contestation literature. We first identify national role conceptions advocated by leaders and political factions, and then compare them to detect contestation between their favored foreign policy roles. We argue that long-term consensus on certain roles may coalesce into the enduring ingredients of grand strategies, while the existence of a high amount of role contestation between leaders and political factions over roles may suggest foreign policy is guided by more temporary foreign policy beliefs. We explore this argument through an illustrative case of contemporary China. Our findings identify substantial variation between the national role conceptions of China's leaders and their factions over time. Of particular note, we find that (1) President Xi Jinping seems to be experiencing a much higher amount of role contestation within the party on more nationalistic and aggressive roles than his predecessors, and (2) certain roles, such as developer, Tianxia, regional leadership, and internal developer, are very consistent among both leaders and their factions over time such that these roles can be considered as part of China's grand strategy. This study shows how role theory might inform the analysis of grand strategy by offering a means of observing enduring features of grand strategy that could be applied more broadly to other countries.

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Topics: Grand strategy (57%), Role theory (50%)

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12116-021-09319-8
Lizhi Liu1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Data has become one of the most valuable assets for governments and firms. Yet, we still have a limited understanding of how data reshapes international economic relations. This paper explores various aspects of data politics through the lens of China's digital rise and the country's global engagement. I start with the theoretical premise that data differs from traditional strategic assets (e.g., land, oil, and labor), in that it is nonrival and partially excludable. These characteristics have generated externality, commitment, and valuation problems, triggering three fundamental changes in China's external economic relations. First, data's externality problem makes it necessary for states to regulate data or even to pursue data sovereignty. However, clashes over data sovereignty can ignite conflicts between China and other countries. Second, the commitment problem in data use raises global concerns about foreign government surveillance. As data is easier to transfer across borders than physical commodities, Chinese tech companies' investments abroad are vulnerable to national security investigations by foreign regulators. Chinese tech companies, therefore, confront a "deep versus broad" dilemma: deep ties with the Chinese government help promote their domestic business but jeopardize their international expansion. Lastly, data's valuation problem makes traditional measures (e.g., GDP) ill-suited to measure the relative strengths of the world's economies, which may distort perceptions of China and other states.

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Topics: China (54%), Excludability (53%), Sovereignty (53%) ... show more

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12116-021-09320-1
Xiaojun Li1Institutions (1)
Abstract: How is China viewed by citizens of other countries? Popular polling data based on the feeling thermometer scale can reveal overall patterns of public sentiment toward China, but they do not necessarily capture the multidimensional preferences of the public. This article takes a deeper dive into a series of surveys conducted in Canada that covered a wide range of topics, from trade and investment to international leadership. Two broad conclusions follow. First, public perceptions of China are much more nuanced and conflicted than can be quickly gleaned from the simple dichotomy of “favorable versus unfavorable,” especially as one moves from overall impressions to more specific policy issues. Second, misperceptions of China are widespread and may be difficult to overcome, especially among those who already view China negatively. At a time when countries around the world are grappling with the rise of China and its expanding global footprint, failure to account for these features in public opinion about China may lead to misguided policies.

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Topics: China (52%), Public opinion (51%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12116-021-09321-0
Kerry Ratigan1Institutions (1)
Abstract: China’s economic involvement in Latin America has increased dramatically in the twenty-first century, often due to China’s demand for natural resources. Chinese President Xi Jinping and his government have actively courted Latin America to pave the way for economic interactions. Chinese leaders have been working to foster China’s “soft power” abroad. Nonetheless, we know relatively little about how Latin Americans perceive China and how Latin Americans’ experiences with Chinese firms over the past two decades have shaped their views. Have Chinese efforts at cultivating “soft power” worked? Or have the actions of Chinese mining firms damaged China’s reputation? Using the Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP) coupled with data on Chinese investments in Peru, I examine Peruvians’ views of China and whether Peruvians think China should be a model for their country. I find that while Peruvians generally trust the Chinese government, only a small proportion prefers China as a model for Peru. The relationship between Chinese investment and public opinion is mixed. However, Peruvians who strongly value democracy are less likely to prefer China as a model for their country. The data also suggest that China still has an opportunity to shape public opinion in Peru, despite conflicts with Peruvian communities over mining projects.

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Topics: China (61%), Latin Americans (54%), Soft power (53%) ... show more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.WORLDDEV.2021.105738
01 Feb 2022-World Development
Abstract: Chinese Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) to Africa is quickly becoming a centerpiece of China’s approach to promoting development overseas. To this point, however, little is known about the extent to which those investment projects inspire popular support for a China model of development in Africa, or whether Chinese FDI invites skepticism and concern among community members in the region. In this study, we investigate the effects of proximity to Chinese FDI on local perceptions of China’s approach to development in Africa. We geolocate 200 Chinese investment projects, and we spatially connect those data to responses from over 35,000 georeferenced survey respondents across 21 countries. By comparing responses from those living near operational Chinese FDI projects to responses from those living near eventual locations of Chinese investment but where no project yet exists at the time of the survey, we determine the proximity effects of Chinese FDI on views of the China model of development while accounting for the potential nonrandom location of those investment projects. The findings indicate that, on average, living near Chinese FDI projects reduces support for a China model of development. Furthermore, specific types of FDI projects evoke distinct evaluations of China’s presence. Specifically, respondents living near manufacturing projects view infrastructure development as a positive contribution from China, whereas those living near resource-related projects express concerns about Chinese land grabs and job threats. Those living near service projects hold more mixed views. The results suggest that people living in close proximity to Chinese FDI projects in Africa are swayed less by global development narratives than by how those projects shape their everyday lives and experiences.

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References
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98 results found


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01 Dec 1970-Journal of Finance
Abstract: 1. Introduction and Doctrinal Background Enter "exit" and "voice" Latitude for deterioration, and slack in economic thought Exit and voice as impersonations of economics and politics 2. Exit How the exit option works Competition as collusive behavior 3. Voice Voice as a residual of exit Voice as an alternative to exit 4. A Special Difficulty in Combining Exit and Voice 5. How Monopoly Can be Comforted by Competition 6. On Spatial Duopoly and the Dynamics of Two-Party Systems 7. A Theory of Loyalty The activation of voice as a function of loyalty Loyalist behavior as modified by severe initiation and high penalties for exit Loyalty and the difficult exit from public goods (and evils) 8. Exit and Voice in American Ideology and Practice 9. The Elusive Optimal Mix of Exit and Voice Appendixes A. A simple diagrammatic representation of voice and exit B. The choice between voice and exit C. The reversal phenomenon D. Consumer reactions to price rise and quality decline in the case of several connoisseur goods F. The effects of severity of initiation on activism: design for an experiment (in collaboration with Philip G. Zimbardo and Mark Snyder) Index

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6,791 Citations


Open accessBook
18 Jun 1974-
Abstract: The One-Dimensional View - The Two-Dimensional View - The Three-Dimensional View - The Underlying Concept of Power - Power and Interest - The Three Views Compared - Conclusion - Bibliography

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5,333 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2307/2067130
01 Dec 1981-Social Forces
Abstract: Explains to outsiders the conflicts between the financial interests of the coal and land companies, and the moral rights of the vulnerable mountaineers.

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Topics: Moral rights (54%)

998 Citations