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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TECHNOVATION.2021.102255

Extreme weather events risk to crop-production and the adaptation of innovative management strategies to mitigate the risk: A retrospective survey of rural Punjab, Pakistan

04 Mar 2021-Technovation (Elsevier)-pp 102255
Abstract: Evaluation of climate-induced crop damages is imperative to formulate innovative technologies and management strategies to reduce the vulnerability of farms and agriculture. Based on a survey of 1232 wheat growers from Pakistan, conducted in April and May of 2019, the study estimates the production risk of wheat farms to weather shocks and the effectiveness of physical, non-physical, and innovative management strategies for reducing crop damages. Parametric and non-parametric econometric techniques were applied to approach study objectives. The survey revealed that the adverse effects of extreme weather events on the damages to wheat crop were more significant with the rise of severe weather the closer to harvest time such damages occurred. The results of the propensity score matching (PSM) method found wheat loss when the crop experienced a severe intensity of thunderstorms, windstorms, and hailstorms. The parametric analysis confirmed that with a one-unit increase in the severity of thunderstorms, windstorms, and hailstorms the wheat yield decreased. Surprisingly, even if thunderstorms and hailstorms were rated moderate or low in severity, a significant reduction in wheat yield was found. The Mann-Whitney (MW) test showed that adaptive measures significantly reduced the amount of wheat damage. Particularly, the PSM method confirmed that the adoption of strategies such as watercourse availability, maintenance of watercourse, availability of canal/drain, sowing of stiff-stem wheat variety, plantation of a shelterbelt, and adjustment in irrigation schedule, significantly reduced wheat loss. Furthermore, education, farming experience, family size, cropping area, and access to weather forecast information significantly affected the adaptation of innovative management strategies.

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Topics: Extreme weather (54%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU13137076
23 Jun 2021-Sustainability
Abstract: We use a threshold model to analyze the relationship between per capita income and the per capita water footprint of food consumption in the urban Guangdong Province of China, and further simulate the effect of changes in income distribution on the per capita water footprint of food consumption. The income growth of urban residents has a significant positive effect on the per capita water footprint of food consumption, where the effect varies by income stratum. The income elasticity of the per capita water footprint of food consumption for the total sample is 0.45, where the income elasticity of the low-income group (0.75) is greater than that of the high-income group (0.23), indicating that a change of income in the low-income group has a greater effect on water resources. The simulation results show that increasing the income of residents, especially that of the low-income group, significantly increases the water footprint due to food consumption for the whole society. At present, China is in a period of rapid economic growth and urbanization, comprising a period of profound change and sensitive response to the income level of urban and rural residents. Therefore, in order to reduce the effect of food consumption on the environment, sustainable food consumption management strategies should consider group differences. We should correctly guide all kinds of groups to carry out sustainable consumption, advocate healthy and reasonable diet models, reduce animal food consumption, avoid the excessive consumption of food, and strengthen the management of food waste.

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Topics: Per capita income (66%), Consumption (economics) (60%), Income elasticity of demand (60%) ... show more

3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10668-021-01469-Y
Abstract: This study aims to determine the impact of financial development on green ecology to promote cleaner production. Particularly, it estimates the evolution of characteristics of the green-ecology of 37 cities from the Yangtze River Delta and determines the impact of financial development on green-ecology using the projection pursuit model, Moran’s Index, and regression model. Results found that the green-ecology index showed an upward trend and the index in the East was higher than the West. The green ecology and its composition indexes were found with significant spatial positive agglomeration characteristics. The Eastern region was mainly distributed as high to high agglomeration while the Western region was distributed as low to low agglomeration. Regarding composition indexes of green ecology, financial development has promoted a positive effect on the green-growth and resource-environment indexes. The study results stress that the enterprises should strengthen the technological innovation for the improvement of resource use efficiency and reduction of pollution.

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3 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/LAND10060613
08 Jun 2021-Land
Abstract: Risk identification and management are essential in innovation projects in the rural context, where cultural differences and relations between actors are decisive for assuring a project success. Risk management is especially important when considering innovation processes in rural areas that experience conflict or are lagging in development. Although there are studies focusing on the interaction of actors, there are only a few that approach the risks associated with stakeholders. This research aims to identify the risks and the associated stakeholders and draws on a risk map in order to develop effective risk management and action plans to mitigate risk. A rural project optimizing irrigation in Spain was taken as a case study and conduct semi-structural interviews with key actors were conducted. Social Network Analysis (SNA) was applied to recognize and investigate the network of stakeholder-associated risk factors. The main risks identified in the project were associated with technical, economic, and time problems and with irrigation communities and project developers. These findings offer a new visual perspective of risk management in rural innovation projects, improving the ability to assess and efficiently mitigate the risks.

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Topics: Risk management (64%), Rural area (52%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU13115997
26 May 2021-Sustainability
Abstract: In order to explore the influence of green credit on the optimization and rationalization of the industrial structure in China, based on the relevant data of the green credit balance, interest expenditure in six high-energy-consuming industries, and industrial structure in China from 2007–2019, the paper first measured the green credit index and the index of industrial structure optimization and rationalization by the methods of entropy weight and Theil index. Then, the coupling model was adopted to study the coupling degree and the coupling coordination degree between them, and the regression model was employed to further study the influence coefficient of green credit on the optimization and rationalization of industrial structure. Research showed that the degree of coupling between green credit and industrial structure rationalization presents three stages—extremely low coupling, low coupling, and moderate coupling—and the degree of coupling coordination presents two stages—extremely low coordination and low coordination. Similarly, the degree of coupling between them presents two stages—extremely low coupling and low coupling—and the degree of coupling coordination presents two stages—extremely low coordination and low coordination. Regression analysis showed that the influence coefficients of the green credit index on rationalization and optimization of industrial structure were 0.56 and 0.03, respectively, which supported the conclusion that the coupling degree between the former two is higher than that between the latter two on the one hand, and made it clear that green credit positively and effectively guides the rational allocation of resources and promotes secondary and tertiary industries on the other hand.

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1 Citations


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66 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.0701976104
Abstract: This article reviews the potential impacts of climate change on food security. It is found that of the four main elements of food security, i.e., availability, stability, utilization, and access, only the first is routinely addressed in simulation studies. To this end, published results indicate that the impacts of climate change are significant, however, with a wide projected range (between 5 million and 170 million additional people at risk of hunger by 2080) strongly depending on assumed socio-economic development. The likely impacts of climate change on the other important dimensions of food security are discussed qualitatively, indicating the potential for further negative impacts beyond those currently assessed with models. Finally, strengths and weaknesses of current assessment studies are discussed, suggesting improvements and proposing avenues for new analyses.

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Topics: Food security (62%), Climate change (53%)

1,552 Citations


BookDOI: 10.1596/1813-9450-4308
David Maddison1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to determine the ability of farmers in Africa to detect climate change, and to ascertain how they have adapted to whatever climate change they believe has occurred. The paper also asks farmers whether they perceive any barriers to adaptation and attempts to determine the characteristics of those farmers who, despite claiming to have witnessed climate change, have not yet responded to it. The study is based on a large-scale survey of agriculturalists in 11 African countries. The survey reveals that significant numbers of farmers believe that temperatures have already increased and that precipitation has declined. Those with the greatest experience of farming are more likely to notice climate change. Further, neighboring farmers tell a consistent story. There are important differences in the propensity of farmers living in different locations to adapt and there may be institutional impediments to adaptation in some countries. Although large numbers of farmers perceive no barriers to adaptation, those that do perceive them tend to cite their poverty and inability to borrow. Few if any farmers mentioned lack of appropriate seed, security of tenure, or market accessibility as problems. Those farmers who perceive climate change but fail to respond may require particular incentives or assistance to do what is ultimately in their own best interests. Although experienced farmers are more likely to perceive climate change, it is educated farmers who are more likely to respond by making at least one adaptation.

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Topics: Cash crop (51%), Sharecropping (50%), Agricultural productivity (50%)

936 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PNSC.2009.08.001
Yinhong Kang1, Shahbaz Khan, Xiaoyi Ma1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This paper provides a comprehensive review of literature related to the assessment of climate change impacts on crop productivity using climate, water and crop yield models. The existing studies present that climate change models with higher spatial resolution can be a way forward for future climate projections. Meanwhile, stochastic projections of more than one climate model are necessary for providing insights into model uncertainties as well as to develop risk management strategies. It is projected that water availability will increase in some parts of the world, which will have its own effect on water use efficiency and water allocation. Crop production can increase if irrigated areas are expanded or irrigation is intensified, but these may increase the rate of environmental degradation. Since climate change impacts on soil water balance will lead to changes of soil evaporation and plant transpiration, consequently, the crop growth period may shorten in the future impacting on water productivity. Crop yields affected by climate change are projected to be different in various areas, in some areas crop yields will increase, and for other areas it will decrease depending on the latitude of the area and irrigation application. Existing modelling results show that an increase in precipitation will increase crop yield, and what is more, crop yield is more sensitive to the precipitation than temperature. If water availability is reduced in the future, soils of high water holding capacity will be better to reduce the impact of drought while maintaining crop yield. With the temperature increasing and precipitation fluctuations, water availability and crop production are likely to decrease in the future. If the irrigated areas are expanded, the total crop production will increase; however, food and environmental quality may degrade. 2009 National Natural Science Foundation of China and Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Limited and Science in China Press. All rights reserved.

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Topics: Water conservation (61%), Water-use efficiency (59%), Nutrient management (58%) ... show more

607 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41558-018-0299-2
Wolfgang Cramer1, Joel Guiot1, Marianela Fader, Joaquim Garrabou2  +14 moreInstitutions (12)
Abstract: Recent accelerated climate change has exacerbated existing environmental problems in the Mediterranean Basin that are caused by the combination of changes in land use, increasing pollution and declining biodiversity. For five broad and interconnected impact domains (water, ecosystems, food, health and security), current change and future scenarios consistently point to significant and increasing risks during the coming decades. Policies for the sustainable development of Mediterranean countries need to mitigate these risks and consider adaptation options, but currently lack adequate information — particularly for the most vulnerable southern Mediterranean societies, where fewer systematic observations schemes and impact models are based. A dedicated effort to synthesize existing scientific knowledge across disciplines is underway and aims to provide a better understanding of the combined risks posed.

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373 Citations


Book ChapterDOI: 10.1016/S1573-4412(07)06071-0
Abstract: This chapter uses the marginal treatment effect (MTE) to unify and organize the econometric literature on the evaluation of social programs. The marginal treatment effect is a choice-theoretic parameter that can be interpreted as a willingness to pay parameter for persons at a margin of indifference between participating in an activity or not. All of the conventional treatment parameters as well as the more economically motivated treatment effects can be generated from a baseline marginal treatment effect. All of the estimation methods used in the applied evaluation literature, such as matching, instrumental variables, regression discontinuity methods, selection and control function methods, make assumptions about the marginal treatment effect which we exposit. Models for multiple outcomes are developed. Empirical examples of the leading methods are presented. Methods are presented for bounding treatment effects in partially identified models, when the marginal treatment effect is known only over a limited support. We show how to use the marginal treatment in econometric cost benefit analysis, in defining limits of policy experiments, in constructing the average marginal treatment effect, and in forecasting the effects of programs in new environments.

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Topics: Marginal model (60%), Matching (statistics) (54%), Control function (52%) ... show more

362 Citations