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Journal ArticleDOI

Fabrication of Food Grade Vitamin E Nanoemulsion by Low Energy Approach, Characterization and Its Application

03 Mar 2016-International Journal of Food Properties (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 19, Iss: 3, pp 700-708
TL;DR: In this article, a food-grade vitamin E acetate nanoemulsion was fabricated using the edible mustard oil and surfactant Tween-80, which was characterized for droplet morphology and size distribution using atomic force microscope and zetasizer.
Abstract: The present study was carried out to fabricate the food grade vitamin E acetate nanoemulsion using edible mustard oil and to evaluate its improved bioactivities. A food-grade vitamin E acetate nanoemulsion was fabricated using the edible mustard oil and surfactant Tween-80. Flocculation was not observed for 15 days. The nanoemulsion was characterized for droplet morphology and size distribution using atomic force microscope and zetasizer, respectively. We observe a stable nanoemulsion of spherical morphology and a size distribution of 86.45 ± 3.61 nm. Further, the high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to determine the vitamin E acetate concentration and encapsulation efficiency for the stable nanoemulsion. These nanoemulsions showed improved bioactivity, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity and could be potentially used to increase the shelf life of fruit juice.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review highlights recent works on techniques and advances made in nanoencapsulation of lipophilic and hydrophilic vitamins, safety issues and health risks regarding the consumption of these products, which opens new horizons in food technology and nutrition with possibilities of commercialization in the near future.
Abstract: Background Vitamins are bioactive molecules necessary for human health, which are sensible to degradation. During consumption, the bioavailability of these compounds might be limited due to structure break-down and low absorption. Today, nanoencapsulation can be a promising approach for targeted delivery of vitamins and protecting these bioactive components against destructive environment during processing and delivery. Regarding the benefits of utilizing nanotechnology in the food sector, safety aspects of these tiny carriers should also be clarified as this technology develops. Due to the possible negative effects of nanomaterials, several agencies have legislated regulatory policies to prevent potential harms to the consumers, which are underlined in this article. Scope and approach Nanoencapsulation-based technologies are a unique and novel field of investigation in the food and pharmaceutical industry with benefits, such as higher bioavailability, high shelf-stability and controlled release of active compounds. This review highlights recent works on these techniques and advances made in nanoencapsulation of lipophilic and hydrophilic vitamins, safety issues and health risks regarding the consumption of these products, which opens new horizons in food technology and nutrition with possibilities of commercialization in the near future. Key findings and conclusions Recently, considerable progresses are being carried out in the field of food nanoencapsulation involving novel nanovehicles to encapsulate vitamins. Nanofibers and nanohydrogels are some examples of efficient and modern nanocarriers. Overall, the vitamins encapsulated within nanovehicles are considered safe since they are mostly produced from food components, meanwhile more studies should be performed regarding the safety issues of nanodelivery of vitamins. In near future, it is assumed that nanoencapsulated vitamins will be broadly applied the in the food and beverage products.

391 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review highlights the recent advances in micro and nano-encapsulation of bioactive compounds, and comprehensively discussed the importance of encapsulation, the application of biopolymer-based carrier agents and lipid-based transporters with their functionalities, suitability of encapsulations techniques in micro
Abstract: Background Bioactive compounds possess plenty of health benefits, but they are chemically unstable and susceptible to oxidative degradation. The application of pure bioactive compounds is also very limited in food and drug formulations due to their fast release, low solubility, and poor bioavailability. Encapsulation can preserve the bioactive compounds from environmental stresses, improve physicochemical functionalities, and enhance their health-promoting and anti-disease activities. Scope and approach Micro and nano-encapsulation based techniques and systems have great importance in food and pharmaceutical industries. This review highlights the recent advances in micro and nano-encapsulation of bioactive compounds. We comprehensively discussed the importance of encapsulation, the application of biopolymer-based carrier agents and lipid-based transporters with their functionalities, suitability of encapsulation techniques in micro and nano-encapsulation, as well as different forms of improved and novel micro and nano-encapsulate systems. Key findings and conclusions Both micro and nano-encapsulation have an extensive application, but nano-encapsulation can be a promising approach for encapsulation purposes. Maltodextrin in combination with gums or other polysaccharides or proteins can offer an advantageous formulation for the encapsulation of bioactive compounds by using encapsulation techniques. Electro-spinning and electro-spraying are promising technologies in micro and nano-encapsulation, while solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructure lipid carriers are exposing themselves as the promising and new generation of lipid nano-carriers for bioactive compounds. Moreover, phytosome, nano-hydrogel, and nano-fiber are also efficient and novel nano-vehicles for bioactive compounds. Further studies are required for the improvement of existing encapsulate systems and exploring their application in food and gastrointestinal systems for industrial application.

354 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The main goal is to have an overview of nanoencapsulation techniques applicable to food ingredients in a systematic classification, i.e., lipid-based nanocarriers, nature-inspired nanoccarriers, special-equipment-based Nanocarrier, biopolymer nanocorriers, and other miscellaneous nanOCarriers.
Abstract: Today, there is an ever-growing interest on natural food ingredients both by consumers and producers in the food industry. In fact, people are looking for those products in the market which are free from artificial and synthetic additives and can promote their health. These food bioactive ingredients should be formulated in such a way that protects them against harsh process and environmental conditions and safely could be delivered to the target organs and cells. Nanoencapsulation is a perfect strategy for this situation and there have been many studies in recent years for nanoencapsulation of food components and nutraceuticals by different technologies. In this review paper, our main goal is firstly to have an overview of nanoencapsulation techniques applicable to food ingredients in a systematic classification, i.e., lipid-based nanocarriers, nature-inspired nanocarriers, special-equipment-based nanocarriers, biopolymer nanocarriers, and other miscellaneous nanocarriers. Then, application of these cutting-edge nanocarriers for different nutraceuticals including phenolic compounds and antioxidants, natural food colorants, antimicrobial agents and essential oils, vitamins, minerals, flavors, fish oils and essential fatty acids will be discussed along with presenting some examples in each field.

340 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A better understanding of the current scenario of the nanotoxicology, disease progression due to nanomaterials, and their use in the food industry and medical therapeutics is provided.
Abstract: Nanotechnology has seen exponential growth in last decade due to its unique physicochemical properties; however, the risk associated with this emerging technology has withdrawn ample attention in the past decade. Nanotoxicity is majorly contributed to the small size and large surface area of nanomaterials, which allow easy dispersion and invasion of anatomical barriers in human body. Unique physio-chemical properties of nanoparticles make the investigation of their toxic consequences intricate and challenging. This makes it important to have an in-depth knowledge of different mechanisms involved in nanomaterials's action and toxicity. Nano-toxicity has various effects on human health and diseases as they can easily enter into the humans via different routes, mainly respiratory, dermal, and gastrointestinal routes. This also limits the use of nanomaterials as therapeutic and diagnostic tools. This review focuses on the nanomaterial-cell interactions leading to toxicological responses. Different mechanisms involved in nanoparticle-mediated toxicity with the main focus on oxidative stress, genotoxic, and carcinogenic potential has also been discussed. Different methods and techniques used for the characterization of nanomaterials in food and other biological matrices have also been discussed in detail. Nano-toxicity on different organs-with the major focus on the cardiac and respiratory system-have been discussed. Conclusively, the risk management of nanotoxicity is also summarized. This review provides a better understanding of the current scenario of the nanotoxicology, disease progression due to nanomaterials, and their use in the food industry and medical therapeutics. Briefly, the required rules, regulations, and the need of policy makers has been discussed critically.

254 citations


Cites background or methods from "Fabrication of Food Grade Vitamin E..."

  • ...The NMs in dairy products are mostly composed of colloids, emulsions, and biopolymeric NPs even before the processing steps have been applied (Nandita et al., 2015)....

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  • ...…too costly and time-consuming in comparison to other techniques like high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and DLS. Recently researchers have standardized the HPLC characterization for nano-encapsulated food products and the same have wide opportunities (Nandita et al., 2015)....

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  • ...NPs present in the aerosols and air pollution have been studied decades back and it has been established that it leads to the onset of several cardiac and respiratory diseases (Ferin et al., 1992; Dockery et al., 1993; Schwartz, 1994; Kingsley et al., 2013; Nandita et al., 2015)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the application of nanotechnology in agriculture can be found in this paper, where the major points discussed are: (1) Nanomaterials for agriculture and water quality management, which include nanoscale carriers, fabricated xylem vessels, nanolignodynamic metallic particles, photocatalysis, desalination, removal of heavy metals and wireless nanosensors.
Abstract: Due to their small size and unique physico-chemical characteristics, nanomaterials have gained importance in the agri-food sector, notably in preservation and packaging. Future applications will focus on shelf life, food quality, safety, fortification and biosensors for contaminated or spoiled food, irrigating water and drinking water. Different types and shapes of nanomaterials are being used depending upon the needs and nature of the work in agriculture and water quality management. Here we review the application of nanotechnology in agriculture. The major points discussed are: (1) Nanomaterials for agriculture and water quality management. (2) Research interests such as nanoscale carriers, fabricated xylem vessels, nanolignocellulosic materials, clay nanotubes, photocatalysis, bioremediation of resistant pesticides, disinfectants, agricultural wastewater treatment, nanobarcode technology, quantum dots for staining bacteria and nanobiosensors. (3) Nanotechnological applications for agriculture, which includes nanolignodynamic metallic particles, photocatalysis, desalination, removal of heavy metals and wireless nanosensors.

144 citations


Cites background from "Fabrication of Food Grade Vitamin E..."

  • ...2) for bactericidal/antimicrobial activity of nanomaterials has been described (Janardan et al. 2016; Nandita et al. 2016; Ranjan and Ramalingam 2016; Ranjan et al. 2016a; Walia et al. 2017)....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Current knowledge on the function of vitamin E is summarized, with emphasis on its antioxidant vs. other properties, the preference of the organism for RRR‐α‐tocopherol, and its metabolism to CEHCs.
Abstract: Although vitamin E has been known as an essential nutrient for reproduction since 1922, we are far from understanding the mechanisms of its physiological functions. Vitamin E is the term for a group of tocopherols and tocotrienols, of which alpha-tocopherol has the highest biological activity. Due to the potent antioxidant properties of tocopherols, the impact of alpha-tocopherol in the prevention of chronic diseases believed to be associated with oxidative stress has often been studied, and beneficial effects have been demonstrated. Recent observations that the alpha-tocopherol transfer protein in the liver specifically sorts out RRR-alpha-tocopherol from all incoming tocopherols for incorporation into plasma lipoproteins, and that alpha-tocopherol has signaling functions in vascular smooth muscle cells that cannot be exerted by other forms of tocopherol with similar antioxidative properties, have raised interest in the roles of vitamin E beyond its antioxidative function. Also, gamma-tocopherol might have functions apart from being an antioxidant. It is a nucleophile able to trap electrophilic mutagens in lipophilic compartments and generates a metabolite that facilitates natriuresis. The metabolism of vitamin E is equally unclear. Excess alpha-tocopherol is converted into alpha-CEHC and excreted in the urine. Other tocopherols, like gamma- and delta-tocopherol, are almost quantitatively degraded and excreted in the urine as the corresponding CEHCs. All rac alpha-tocopherol compared to RRR-alpha-tocopherol is preferentially degraded to alpha-CEHC. Thus, there must be a specific, molecular role of RRR-alpha-tocopherol that is regulated by a system that sorts, distributes, and degrades the different forms of vitamin E, but has not yet been identified. In this article we try to summarize current knowledge on the function of vitamin E, with emphasis on its antioxidant vs. other properties, the preference of the organism for RRR-alpha-tocopherol, and its metabolism to CEHCs.

1,516 citations


"Fabrication of Food Grade Vitamin E..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The antioxidant property of vitamin E can be exploited to prevent chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, arthrosclerosis, and cancer.([6]) It scavenges the free radicals and molecular oxygen, thus protecting the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and lipoproteins from peroxidation....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of the current status of nanoemulsion formulation, fabrication, properties, applications, biological fate, and potential toxicity with emphasis on systems suitable for utilization within the food and beverage industry is provided.
Abstract: Nanoemulsions fabricated from food-grade ingredients are being increasingly utilized in the food industry to encapsulate, protect, and deliver lipophilic functional components, such as biologically-active lipids (e.g., ω-3 fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid) and oil-soluble flavors, vitamins, preservatives, and nutraceuticals. The small size of the particles in nanoemulsions (r<100 nm) means that they have a number of potential advantages over conventional emulsions-higher stability to droplet aggregation and gravitational separation, high optical clarity, ability to modulate product texture, and, increased bioavailability of lipophilic components. On the other hand, there may also be some risks associated with the oral ingestion of nanoemulsions, such as their ability to change the biological fate of bioactive components within the gastrointestinal tract and the potential toxicity of some of the components used in their fabrication. This review article provides an overview of the current status of nanoemulsion formulation, fabrication, properties, applications, biological fate, and potential toxicity with emphasis on systems suitable for utilization within the food and beverage industry.

1,226 citations


"Fabrication of Food Grade Vitamin E..." refers background in this paper

  • ..., nutraceuticals, drugs, antioxidants, flavors, and anti-microbial agents, thus increases their bioavailability.([3,4]) The food and beverage industries are interested in preparing such colloidal delivery systems where functional components can be delivered through an easy and efficient method....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the in vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of tannic acid by using different in vitro analytical methodologies such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH ) scavenging, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) activity, total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, total reducing ability determination using by Fe3+−Fe2+ transformation

715 citations


"Fabrication of Food Grade Vitamin E..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...After this, absorbance was checked at 517 nm.([18,19]) Free radical scavenging activity or antioxidant activity was calculated using formula 1:...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The application of nanotechnology to food, medical and pharmaceutical industries has received great attention from the scientific community as discussed by the authors, which is particularly suited for the fabrication of encapsulating systems for functional compounds as it prevents their degradation and improves their bioavailability.
Abstract: The application of nanotechnology to food, medical and pharmaceutical industries has received great attention from the scientific community. Driven by the increasing consumers’ demand for healthier and safer food products and the need for edible systems able to encapsulate, protect, and release functional compounds, researchers are currently focusing their efforts in nanotechnology to address issues relevant to food and nutrition. Nanoemulsion technology is particularly suited for the fabrication of encapsulating systems for functional compounds as it prevents their degradation and improves their bioavailability. This review focuses on nanoemulsions and provides an overview of the production methods, materials used (solvents, emulsifiers, and functional ingredients) and of the current analytical techniques that can be used for the identification and characterization of nanoemulsions. Finally, nanotechnological applications in foods currently marketed are reported.

506 citations


"Fabrication of Food Grade Vitamin E..." refers background in this paper

  • ...These NEs contain droplets size varied from 20–200 nm.([1,2]) Additionally, NEs can act as a carrier system for delivering various functional lipophilic compounds, i....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: By optimizing system composition and homogenization conditions, the spontaneous emulsification method was able to form VE-loaded nanoemulsions with small mean droplet diameters and low polydispersity indexes (PDI<0.13).

359 citations


"Fabrication of Food Grade Vitamin E..." refers background in this paper

  • ...However, low-energy approaches are not fully exploited at industrial use, even though it is regarded as better than the high-energy approaches at laboratory scale.([11]) NE based systems are valuable delivery vehicles as long as they are stable and have acceptable release property at target site....

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  • ...It has a high affinity for the internal oil phase due to its high partition coefficient.([11]) Therefore, to formulate o/w NEs, vitamin E is first completely dissolved in oil, surfactant Tween-80 aids in this process....

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