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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/13675567.2020.1727424

Factors affecting orderly parking of dockless shared bicycles: an exploratory study

04 Mar 2021-International Journal of Logistics-research and Applications (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 24, Iss: 2, pp 103-125
Abstract: As dockless shared bicycles (DSB) have become more commonplace, disorderly parking behaviour has attracted public concern and infringes upon public spaces in urban areas. The current research explo...

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TRA.2020.08.006
Duan Su1, Yacan Wang1, Nan Yang2, Xianghong Wang3Institutions (3)
Abstract: Dockless shared bicycles have become a popular mode of transportation for city dwellers in China. Despite its convenience, the dockless feature also creates new challenges, as users often park shared bicycles in a disorderly fashion, which places a burden on both city management and business operations. In a randomized field experiment, subjects receive general information via one of three interventions to improve orderly parking: being informed about the social norm, receiving a warning message, or being offered a monetary incentive. The results suggest that the warning message and monetary incentive shift users’ behavior compared with the social norm intervention. Users who received warning messages were 18.0% more likely to park in an orderly fashion, and users who received a monetary incentive were 25.2% more likely. This study demonstrates that behavioral incentives may be an effective tool to address a common issue with this form of transportation.

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Topics: Incentive (54%)

4 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TRA.2021.03.022
Yacan Wang1, Ying Yang2, Jiaping Wang3, Matthew A. Douglas4  +1 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: With the rapid global expansion of dockless shared bicycles, disorderly parking has not only generated convenience to users but also negative consequences to enterprises and urban management. We proposed an integrated model and recruited 1722 participants from diverse professions and geographic locations in China, examining the influence of individual and social environmental factors on orderly parking behavior. It was shown that descriptive social norms played an important role in shaping user’s attitudes toward orderly parking directly and indirectly via personal norms, and thus influence the behavioral intention of orderly parking. Cultural tightness-looseness further moderated the effect of descriptive social norms. At the individual level, antecedents of personal norms (moral awareness, awareness of consequences, and ascription of responsibility) were investigated based on Norm Activation Model. This study indicates that descriptive social norms can act as a complimentary policy and regulations of dockless bike-sharing, which provides valuable insights on urban operation and policy making concerning shared bicycles.

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Topics: Norm (social) (59%), Bicycle parking (58%)

3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2021.127394
Muhammad Ashfaq1, Qingyu Zhang1, Fayaz Ali2, Abdul Waheed3  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Growing green plants can enrich the natural environment and benefit society in many ways. With this in mind, a new Ant Forest mobile gaming application was launched in China by Alipay, which is embedded in the Alipay application. Since Ant Forest is entirely a new green behavior phenomenon—of a type rarely studied in the literature—we explore users’ attitudes toward Ant Forest and their continued use intentions toward it with the moderating role of environmental knowledge based on behavioral reasoning theory (BRT). A quantitative approach using structural equation modeling and SmartPLS 3 was employed. Analysis of data collected from 293 actual Ant Forest users divulges that the user values significantly influence “reasons for” (RF), “reasons against” (RA), and attitude toward Ant Forest. Similarly, both RF (environmental benefits, social influence, hedonic motivation, and convenience) and RA (privacy concerns, usage barrier, and green skepticism) affect attitude and intention to continue using Ant Forest. The results also show that environmental knowledge moderates the effects of attitude on continuance intention. Theoretically, this study contributes to the literature on Ant Forest and BRT in the context of green behavior. Practically, our findings bring essential insights for the enterprises and governments who want to promote green and low-carbon societies.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TRD.2021.102814
Kun Gao1, Ying Yang2, Aoyong Li3, Xiaobo Qu1Institutions (3)
Abstract: Distance decay is a vital aspect for modeling spatial interactions of human movements and an indispensable input for land use planning and travel demand prediction models. Although many studies have investigated the usage demand of bike-sharing systems in an area, research investigating the distance decay patterns of using dockless bike-sharing systems (DLBS) from a spatially heterogeneous perspective based on large-scale datasets is lacking. This study firstly utilizes massive transaction record data from DLBS in Shanghai of China and online map navigator Application Programming Interface to empirically estimate the distance decay patterns of using DLBS and reveal the spatial heterogeneity in distance decay of using DLBS across different urban contexts. Afterward, this study examines the mechanism of spatial heterogeneity in distance decay, leveraging multiple data resources including Point of Interest (POI) data, demographic data, and road network data. The associations among the distance decay of using DLBS with built environment factors are investigated by multiple linear regression. Results indicate that factors such as population density, land use entropy, branch road density, and metro station density are significantly related to larger distance decay of using DLBS, while factors such as commercial land use ratio, industrial land use ratio, and motorway density are significantly linked to smaller distance decay in Shanghai. Lastly, we further employ an adaptative geographically weighted regression to investigate the spatial divergences of the influences of built environment factors on distance decay. Results reveal notably distinct and even inverse influences of a built environment factor on the distance decay of using DLBS in different urban contexts. The findings provide insights into the distance decay patterns of using DLBS in different urban contexts and their interactions with the built environment, which can support accurate planning and management of sustainable DLBS as per specific urban characteristics.

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Topics: Distance decay (63%)

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2021.126581
Abstract: Bicycle sharing is quickly becoming popular because it is environmentally friendly and offers convenience to customers. Determining how to improve the service level and customer satisfaction are the keys to a successful bicycle sharing business in today’s fiercely competitive market and are also the keys to achieving a sustainable operation. In this paper, following a hierarchical structure, five main factors related to the bicycle sharing operations are identified: (1) convenience and flexibility, (2) operation service, (3) economic cost, (4) design and layout and (5) management specification. Eighteen sub factors are then derived. To determine the significant factors affecting bicycle sharing operations, the Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) approach based on Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets (IT2FSs), Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory Model (DEMATEL) and the Analytic Network Process (ANP) are proposed. First, IT2FSs and fuzzy DEMATEL are integrated to analyze the complex relationships among the various factors. DEMATEL is then integrated with ANP to rank the importance of these factors. Results are compared with those of other state-of-the-art MCDM methods. It is concluded that convenience and flexibility, rationality of the layout, and economic cost are the three most important factors impacting the bicycle sharing business model. Based on the findings, theoretical guidance for the development of bicycle sharing operations is provided.

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Topics: Multiple-criteria decision analysis (57%), Analytic network process (54%), Service level (50%) ... read more

References
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79 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T
Icek Ajzen1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Research dealing with various aspects of* the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985, 1987) is reviewed, and some unresolved issues are discussed. In broad terms, the theory is found to be well supported by empirical evidence. Intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in actual behavior. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control are shown to be related to appropriate sets of salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about the behavior, but the exact nature of these relations is still uncertain. Expectancy— value formulations are found to be only partly successful in dealing with these relations. Optimal rescaling of expectancy and value measures is offered as a means of dealing with measurement limitations. Finally, inclusion of past behavior in the prediction equation is shown to provide a means of testing the theory*s sufficiency, another issue that remains unresolved. The limited available evidence concerning this question shows that the theory is predicting behavior quite well in comparison to the ceiling imposed by behavioral reliability. © 1991 Academic Press. Inc.

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Topics: Theory of planned behavior (64%), Reasoned action approach (62%), Expectancy theory (60%) ... read more

55,422 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1086/406755
Abstract: A model is presented to account for the natural selection of what is termed reciprocally altruistic behavior. The model shows how selection can operate against the cheater (non-reciprocator) in the system. Three instances of altruistic behavior are discussed, the evolution of which the model can explain: (1) behavior involved in cleaning symbioses; (2) warning cries in birds; and (3) human reciprocal altruism. Regarding human reciprocal altruism, it is shown that the details of the psychological system that regulates this altruism can be explained by the model. Specifically, friendship, dislike, moralistic aggression, gratitude, sympathy, trust, suspicion, trustworthiness, aspects of guilt, and some forms of dishonesty and hypocrisy can be explained as important adaptations to regulate the altruistic system. Each individual human is seen as possessing altruistic and cheating tendencies, the expression of which is sensitive to developmental variables that were selected to set the tendencies at a balance ap...

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Topics: Competitive altruism (68%), Green-beard effect (65%), Reciprocal altruism (63%) ... read more

8,862 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1348/014466601164939
Christopher J. Armitage1, Mark Conner2Institutions (2)
Abstract: The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) has received considerable attention in the literature. The present study is a quantitative integration and review of that research. From a database of 185 independent studies published up to the end of 1997, the TPB accounted for 27% and 39% of the variance in behaviour and intention, respectively. The perceived behavioural control (PBC) construct accounted for significant amounts of variance in intention and behaviour, independent of theory of reasoned action variables. When behaviour measures were self-reports, the TPB accounted for 11% more of the variance in behaviour than when behaviour measures were objective or observed (R2s = .31 and .21, respectively). Attitude, subjective norm and PBC account for significantly more of the variance in individuals' desires than intentions or self-predictions, but intentions and self-predictions were better predictors of behaviour. The subjective norm construct is generally found to be a weak predictor of intentions. This is partly attributable to a combination of poor measurement and the need for expansion of the normative component. The discussion focuses on ways in which current TPB research can be taken forward in the light of the present review.

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8,044 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1559-1816.2002.TB00236.X
Icek Ajzen1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Conceptual and methodological ambiguities surrounding the concept of perceived behavioral control are clarified. It is shown that perceived control over performance of a behavior, though comprised of separable components that reflect beliefs about self-efficacy and about controllability, can nevertheless be considered a unitary latent variable in a hierarchical factor model. It is further argued that there is no necessary correspondence between self-efficacy and internal control factors, or between controllability and external control factors. Self-efficacy and controllability can reflect internal as well as external factors and the extent to which they reflect one or the other is an empirical question. Finally, a case is made that measures of perceived behavioral control need to incorporate self-efficacy as well as controllability items that are carefully selected to ensure high internal consistency. Summary and Conclusions Perceived control over performance of a behavior can account for consider- able variance in intentions and actions. However, ambiguities surrounding the concept of perceived behavioral control have tended to create uncertainties and to impede progress. The present article attempted to clarify conceptual ambiguities and resolve issues related to the operationalization of perceived behavioral control. Recent research has demonstrated that the overarching concept of perceived behavioral control, as commonly assessed, is comprised of two components: self-efficacy (dealing largely with the ease or difficulty of performing a behavior) and controllability (the extent to which performance is up to the actor). Contrary to a widely accepted view, it was argued that self-efficacy expectations do not necessarily correspond to beliefs about internal control factors, and that controllability expectations have no necessary basis in the perceived operation of external factors. Instead, it was suggested that self-efficacy and controllability may both reflect beliefs about the presence of internal as well as external factors. Rather than making a priori assumptions about the internal or external locus of self-efficacy and controllability, this issue is best treated as an empirical question. Also of theoretical significance, the present article tried to dispel the notion that self-efficacy and controllability are incompatible with, or independent of, each other. Although factor analyses of perceived behavioral control items provide clear and consistent evidence for the distinction, there is sufficient commonality between self-efficacy and controllability to suggest a two-level hierarchical model. In this model, perceived behavioral control is the overarching, superordinate construct that is comprised of two lower-level components: self-efficacy and controllability. This view of the control component in the theory of planned behavior implies that measures of perceived behavioral control should contain items that assess self-efficacy as well as controllability. Depending on the purpose of the investigation, a decision can be made to aggregate over all items, treating perceived behavioral control as a unitary factor, or to distinguish between self-efficacy and controllability by entering separate indices into the prediction equation.

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5,650 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.2139/SSRN.203115
Armin Falk1, Urs Fischbacher2Institutions (2)
Abstract: This paper presents a formal theory of reciprocity. Reciprocity means that people reward kind actions and punish unkind ones. The theory takes into account that people evaluate the kindness of an action not only by its consequences but also by the intention underlying this action. The theory explains the relevant stylized facts of a wide range of experimental games. Among them are the ultimatum game, the gift-exchange game, a reduced best-shot game, the dictator game, the prisoner's dilemma, and public goods games. Furthermore, the theory explains why the same consequences trigger different reciprocal responses in different environments Finally the theory explains why in bilaterial interactions outcomes tend to be "fair" whereas in competitive markets even extremely unfair distributions may arise.

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Topics: Strong reciprocity (69%), Repeated game (64%), Game theory (64%) ... read more

2,084 Citations


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No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
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20215
20201