••19 Jul 2018
TL;DR: An end-to-end framework named Event Adversarial Neural Network (EANN), which can derive event-invariant features and thus benefit the detection of fake news on newly arrived events, is proposed.
Abstract: As news reading on social media becomes more and more popular, fake news becomes a major issue concerning the public and government. The fake news can take advantage of multimedia content to mislead readers and get dissemination, which can cause negative effects or even manipulate the public events. One of the unique challenges for fake news detection on social media is how to identify fake news on newly emerged events. Unfortunately, most of the existing approaches can hardly handle this challenge, since they tend to learn event-specific features that can not be transferred to unseen events. In order to address this issue, we propose an end-to-end framework named Event Adversarial Neural Network (EANN), which can derive event-invariant features and thus benefit the detection of fake news on newly arrived events. It consists of three main components: the multi-modal feature extractor, the fake news detector, and the event discriminator. The multi-modal feature extractor is responsible for extracting the textual and visual features from posts. It cooperates with the fake news detector to learn the discriminable representation for the detection of fake news. The role of event discriminator is to remove the event-specific features and keep shared features among events. Extensive experiments are conducted on multimedia datasets collected from Weibo and Twitter. The experimental results show our proposed EANN model can outperform the state-of-the-art methods, and learn transferable feature representations.
TL;DR: A fake news data repository FakeNewsNet is presented, which contains two comprehensive data sets with diverse features in news content, social context, and spatiotemporal information, and is discussed for potential applications on fake news study on social media.
Abstract: Social media has become a popular means for people to consume and share the news. At the same time, however, it has also enabled the wide dissemination of fake news, that is, news with intentionally false information, causing significant negative effects on society. To mitigate this problem, the research of fake news detection has recently received a lot of attention. Despite several existing computational solutions on the detection of fake news, the lack of comprehensive and community-driven fake news data sets has become one of major roadblocks. Not only existing data sets are scarce, they do not contain a myriad of features often required in the study such as news content, social context, and spatiotemporal information. Therefore, in this article, to facilitate fake news-related research, we present a fake news data repository FakeNewsNet, which contains two comprehensive data sets with diverse features in news content, social context, and spatiotemporal information. We present a comprehensive description of the FakeNewsNet, demonstrate an exploratory analysis of two data sets from different perspectives, and discuss the benefits of the FakeNewsNet for potential applications on fake news study on social media.
TL;DR: To address the spread of misinformation, the frontline healthcare providers should be equipped with the most recent research findings and accurate information, and advanced technologies like natural language processing or data mining approaches should be applied in the detection and removal of online content with no scientific basis from all social media platforms.
Abstract: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has not only caused significant challenges for health systems all over the globe but also fueled the surge of numerous rumors, hoaxes, and misinformation, regarding the etiology, outcomes, prevention, and cure of the disease. Such spread of misinformation is masking healthy behaviors and promoting erroneous practices that increase the spread of the virus and ultimately result in poor physical and mental health outcomes among individuals. Myriad incidents of mishaps caused by these rumors have been reported globally. To address this issue, the frontline healthcare providers should be equipped with the most recent research findings and accurate information. The mass media, healthcare organization, community-based organizations, and other important stakeholders should build strategic partnerships and launch common platforms for disseminating authentic public health messages. Also, advanced technologies like natural language processing or data mining approaches should be applied in the detection and removal of online content with no scientific basis from all social media platforms. Furthermore, these practices should be controlled with regulatory and law enforcement measures alongside ensuring telemedicine-based services providing accurate information on COVID-19.
••30 Jan 2019
Abstract: Social media is becoming popular for news consumption due to its fast dissemination, easy access, and low cost. However, it also enables the wide propagation of fake news, i.e., news with intentionally false information. Detecting fake news is an important task, which not only ensures users receive authentic information but also helps maintain a trustworthy news ecosystem. The majority of existing detection algorithms focus on finding clues from news contents, which are generally not effective because fake news is often intentionally written to mislead users by mimicking true news. Therefore, we need to explore auxiliary information to improve detection. The social context during news dissemination process on social media forms the inherent tri-relationship, the relationship among publishers, news pieces, and users, which has the potential to improve fake news detection. For example, partisan-biased publishers are more likely to publish fake news, and low-credible users are more likely to share fake news. In this paper, we study the novel problem of exploiting social context for fake news detection. We propose a tri-relationship embedding framework TriFN, which models publisher-news relations and user-news interactions simultaneously for fake news classification. We conduct experiments on two real-world datasets, which demonstrate that the proposed approach significantly outperforms other baseline methods for fake news detection.
••25 Jul 2019
TL;DR: A sentence-comment co-attention sub-network is developed to exploit both news contents and user comments to jointly capture explainable top-k check-worthy sentences and userComments for fake news detection.
Abstract: In recent years, to mitigate the problem of fake news, computational detection of fake news has been studied, producing some promising early results. While important, however, we argue that a critical missing piece of the study be the explainability of such detection, i.e., why a particular piece of news is detected as fake. In this paper, therefore, we study the explainable detection of fake news. We develop a sentence-comment co-attention sub-network to exploit both news contents and user comments to jointly capture explainable top-k check-worthy sentences and user comments for fake news detection. We conduct extensive experiments on real-world datasets and demonstrate that the proposed method not only significantly outperforms 7 state-of-the-art fake news detection methods by at least 5.33% in F1-score, but also (concurrently) identifies top-k user comments that explain why a news piece is fake, better than baselines by 28.2% in NDCG and 30.7% in Precision.
Abstract: This paper presents a critique of expected utility theory as a descriptive model of decision making under risk, and develops an alternative model, called prospect theory. Choices among risky prospects exhibit several pervasive effects that are inconsistent with the basic tenets of utility theory. In particular, people underweight outcomes that are merely probable in comparison with outcomes that are obtained with certainty. This tendency, called the certainty effect, contributes to risk aversion in choices involving sure gains and to risk seeking in choices involving sure losses. In addition, people generally discard components that are shared by all prospects under consideration. This tendency, called the isolation effect, leads to inconsistent preferences when the same choice is presented in different forms. An alternative theory of choice is developed, in which value is assigned to gains and losses rather than to final assets and in which probabilities are replaced by decision weights. The value function is normally concave for gains, commonly convex for losses, and is generally steeper for losses than for gains. Decision weights are generally lower than the corresponding probabilities, except in the range of low prob- abilities. Overweighting of low probabilities may contribute to the attractiveness of both insurance and gambling. EXPECTED UTILITY THEORY has dominated the analysis of decision making under risk. It has been generally accepted as a normative model of rational choice (24), and widely applied as a descriptive model of economic behavior, e.g. (15, 4). Thus, it is assumed that all reasonable people would wish to obey the axioms of the theory (47, 36), and that most people actually do, most of the time. The present paper describes several classes of choice problems in which preferences systematically violate the axioms of expected utility theory. In the light of these observations we argue that utility theory, as it is commonly interpreted and applied, is not an adequate descriptive model and we propose an alternative account of choice under risk. 2. CRITIQUE
TL;DR: Deep learning is making major advances in solving problems that have resisted the best attempts of the artificial intelligence community for many years, and will have many more successes in the near future because it requires very little engineering by hand and can easily take advantage of increases in the amount of available computation and data.
Abstract: Deep learning allows computational models that are composed of multiple processing layers to learn representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction. These methods have dramatically improved the state-of-the-art in speech recognition, visual object recognition, object detection and many other domains such as drug discovery and genomics. Deep learning discovers intricate structure in large data sets by using the backpropagation algorithm to indicate how a machine should change its internal parameters that are used to compute the representation in each layer from the representation in the previous layer. Deep convolutional nets have brought about breakthroughs in processing images, video, speech and audio, whereas recurrent nets have shone light on sequential data such as text and speech.
••09 Jan 2004
Abstract: This chapter presents an outline of a theory of intergroup conflict and some preliminary data relating to the theory. Much of the work on the social psychology of intergroup relations has focused on patterns of individual prejudices and discrimination and on the motivational sequences of interpersonal interaction. The intensity of explicit intergroup conflicts of interests is closely related in human cultures to the degree of opprobrium attached to the notion of "renegade" or "traitor." The basic and highly reliable finding is that the trivial, ad hoc intergroup categorization leads to in-group favoritism and discrimination against the out-group. Many orthodox definitions of "social groups" are unduly restrictive when applied to the context of intergroup relations. The equation of social competition and intergroup conflict rests on the assumptions concerning an "ideal type" of social stratification in which the salient dimensions of intergroup differentiation are those involving scarce resources.
Abstract: We develop a new version of prospect theory that employs cumulative rather than separable decision weights and extends the theory in several respects. This version, called cumulative prospect theory, applies to uncertain as well as to risky prospects with any number of outcomes, and it allows different weighting functions for gains and for losses. Two principles, diminishing sensitivity and loss aversion, are invoked to explain the characteristic curvature of the value function and the weighting functions. A review of the experimental evidence and the results of a new experiment confirm a distinctive fourfold pattern of risk attitudes: risk aversion for gains and risk seeking for losses of high probability; risk seeking for gains and risk aversion for losses of low probability. Expected utility theory reigned for several decades as the dominant normative and descriptive model of decision making under uncertainty, but it has come under serious question in recent years. There is now general agreement that the theory does not provide an adequate description of individual choice: a substantial body of evidence shows that decision makers systematically violate its basic tenets. Many alternative models have been proposed in response to this empirical challenge (for reviews, see Camerer, 1989; Fishburn, 1988; Machina, 1987). Some time ago we presented a model of choice, called prospect theory, which explained the major violations of expected utility theory in choices between risky prospects with a small number of outcomes (Kahneman and Tversky, 1979; Tversky and Kahneman, 1986). The key elements of this theory are 1) a value function that is concave for gains, convex for losses, and steeper for losses than for gains,
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